Supervision is one of the most important management
functions in an organization. In every organization there is
provision for supervision. In a scalar system each level in
the hierarchical organization is subject to the supervision of
the immediately above level and each employee is subject to
the control of immediate superior person.
It is the process by which workers are
helped by a designated staff member to learn
according to their needs, to make the best use of
their knowledge and skills and to improve their
abilities so that they do their jobs more effectively
and with increasing satisfaction to themselves and
the agency (Williamson)
• Help the staff to do their job skillfully and
• Help the staff develop the individual capacity
• Guide and/or assist in meeting predetermined
work objectives or targets in nursing preventive,
promotive, curative and rehabilitative care to
• Help to promote effectiveness of the
• Help to motivate subordinates to maintain
• Help the members of the team to recognize
problems, identify solutions and to take
• Help to develop team spirit and promote team
• Help to improve the attitudes of the members
Other Functions of Supervision…
• Develop and maintain team spirit
• Improve the knowledge and skill of the workers
• Maintain interpersonal relationship
• Allocation of specific work plan
• Assess training needs of the staff and do needful
• Have knowledge of rules and regulations of
• Identify problems and help subordinates to find
• Maintain of his own image
PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION:-
• Should not overburdened
• unreasonable pressure results in low
performance and low confidence in the
• Do not over estimate his understanding and
• Atmosphere of cordiality and mutual trust.
• Planned and adopted to the changing conditions.
• Sound professional knowledge.
• Exercised without giving the subordinate a sense
that they are being supervised.
• A good learning situation. It should be a
teaching learning process.
• Foster the ability of each staff-member to
think and act for herself/himself.
• Encourage workers’ participation in decision-
• Good communication.
• Co-operation and co-ordination.
• Create suitable climate for productive work.
• Respect the personality of the staff.
• Stimulate the workers/staff ambitions to grow
• Focus on continued staff growth and
• Responsible for checking and guidance.
• Good leadership.
Direct supervision Examples…
• institutional settings.
• Efficacy of nursing care services rendered to
the patients .
In community settings:
• Home visits
• Enumeration of eligibles
• Conducting clinic activities
• Conduct of mother’s meetings
Indirect Supervision - Examples
• Patient’s records and reports
• Patient’s history sheets, treatment records, results of
investigations and diagnostic procedures
• General order books
• Round books
• Dangerous drug records and registers
• Nursing care plans
• Nurse’s notes
• Call books
• Admission and discharge registers; death register
• Work diary of the individual workers
• Performance reports of the individual workers
• Eligible couple and child registers
• Copies of monthly reports sent to the
• Other records available in specific settings
Example in Maternity Units:
• Give me your ward census
• How many normal deliveries have taken place up to
• How many among them are primis and how many
• How many of them have had episiotomies?
• Has there has been any forceps delivery today?
• Has there been any caesarean section today?
• Have the new babies been put to breast? How soon
after delivery did you put the newborns to breast?
• How many mothers are under observations? Show
them to me. Show me your observation charts on FHS.
Day and night reports written by charge
nurses daily during morning, evening and
night also save as tools of supervision
particularly in the indirect method of
supervision. Here we can get the charge
nurse’s knowledge and awareness about their
patients- their condition, what has been done
for them and who require priority attention.