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ppt on Brain

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ppt on Brain

  1. 1. By- Mr. ASHOK BISHNOI Assist. Professor , JINR
  2. 2.  The brain is the largest mass of nervous tissue in the body.  It lie in the cranial cavity  Weight of brain:-  In male is -1380 gm (48.6 oz)  In female is – 1250gm (44 oz) Introduction:-
  3. 3.  By carotid artery  Rt & lt anterior cerebral artery  Rt & lt posterior cerebral artery  Vertebral artery  Brain receive about 15% of the cardiac output  Approximately 750 ml blood/mt Blood supply to the brain;-
  4. 4.  Cerebrum (Forebrain)  Mid brain  Pons  Medulla oblongata Brain steam  Cerebrum (Hindbrain) Part of the brain:-
  5. 5. Structure:-
  6. 6.  This is largest part of the brain  It is egg shaped organ.  It occupies the anterior & middle cranial faossa Cerebrum (forebrain):-
  7. 7. Layers of the Cerebrum  Gray matter  Outer layer  Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies  White matter  Fiber tracts inside the gray matter  Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres
  8. 8. Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)  Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain  Include more than half of the brain mass  Each hemisphere of cerebrum divided in to lobs
  9. 9. Lobes of the Cerebrum:- Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe
  10. 10. Frontal lobe:-Center of reasoning, Planning, Emotion, Speech, Problem solving. Parietal lobe:-Receive sensory input from Skin (touch, pain, perception etc.) Occipital lobe:- Receive input from eye. Temporal lobe:- Hearing, Memory, Speech . The boundaries of lobes are marked by deep sulci These are Central, Lateral, Parietal , Occipital sulci
  11. 11. Functional Areas of the Cerebrum:-  Motor area ( Lie in frontal lobe)– sends impulses to skeletal muscles.  Broca’s area (motor speech) – Situated in frontal lobe (Control muscle movement necessary for speech)  Sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors
  12. 12. Sensory and Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Slide 7.31 Figure 7.14
  13. 13. Sensory area:- Slide  Cerebral areas involved in special senses Gustatory area (taste) Visual area Auditory area Olfactory area
  14. 14.  Gustatory area (taste):- Situated above the lateral sulcus impulses from sensory receptor in taste buds are receive & perceive taste.  Visual area:- Situated in occipital lobe (optic nerve pass from the eye to this area.  Auditory area (Hearinf0:- Situated below the lateral sulcus in temporal bone. ( receive & interrupt impulse transmit from inner ear to auditory part)  Olfactory area (smell):-Situated in temporal lobe were impulse from nose transited through olfactory nerve are receive & interrupt.
  15. 15. Other areas:- Thalamus:- Sensory input from skin or special sense. Hypothalamus:- It is compose of number of nerve cell It is situated front & below the thalamus. Function:- 1. Appetite & satiety 2. Thirst & water balance 3. Regulate body temperature 4. Emotional reaction
  16. 16. Brain Stem  Attaches to the spinal cord  Parts of the brain stem 1. Midbrain 2. Pons 3. Medulla oblongata 4. Cerebrum (Hindbrain)
  17. 17. 1. Mid brain:- • It is the area of brain situated around the cerebral aqueducts between cerebrum & pons. • It connect the cerebrum with lower part of brain & spinal cord
  18. 18. 2. Pons:- • I t is situated in front of the cerebellum. • It consist of nerve fiber(white matter). • Passing fiber from higher level of brain to spinal cord .
  19. 19. 3. Medulla oblongata:- • It extent from pons above & • it continuous with spinal cord below. • About 2.5 cm long. • Function:- ( the vital center) • Cardiovascular center (HR control & BP regulation) • Respiratory center • Reflex center of Vomiting, Coughing, Sneezing, & Swallowing
  20. 20. 4. Cerebellum.:- • It is situated behind the pons • It occupying posterior cranial fossa Function:- • It help co-ordination of voluntary muscular movement, Posture & balance.

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