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Complete content regarding Hypothyroidism

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  1. 1. Hyperthyroidism By Mr ASHOK DHAKA BISHNOI Director, JINC
  2. 2. Thyroid Gland (2) Endocrine-Glands.ppt 2
  3. 3.  Position:- Situated in the neck in front of the larynx & trachea at the level of 5th ,6th & 7th cervical & 1st thoracic vertebrae.  Weight it is about:- 25 gm  Shape:- Butterfly in shape Introduction:- 3
  4. 4.  It consisting of two lobes one on either side of thyroid cartilage  The lobe are cone shaped  About 5cm long  3 cm wide 4
  5. 5. Secretion of hormone:- 1. T3 (Tri-iodothyronine)--- thyrotoxicosis 2. T4 (Thyroid) Function:- ◦ Increases BMR & produce energy ◦ It help in metabolism of protein ,fat & CHO 3. Calcitonin Function:- ◦ Reduce blood calcium level ◦ It reduce reabsorbtion of calcium level from bone 5
  6. 6. “”It is due to hyper secretion of T3 & T4 hormone characterized by increase BMR”” Hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid:-
  7. 7.  Graves' disease. is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is an immune system disorder. The body produces antibodies that cause the thyroid to make and release too much thyroid hormone.  Thyroid tumor. A noncancerous thyroid tumor may make and secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormones.  Toxic multinodular goiter. The thyroid gland is enlarged with many noncancerous thyroid tumors. They secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone.  Note:- very rare situations, excess thyroid hormone can come from a source outside the thyroid. For example, abnormal tissue growth in the ovary can secrete thyroid hormone Etiology:-
  8. 8.  Nervousness  Insomnia  Dramatic emotional swings  Sweating  Tremors  Increased heart rate  Frequent bowel movements  Unexplained weight loss, often despite an increased appetite  Feeling warm or hot all the time  Muscle weakness  Shortness of breath and heart palpitations  Hair loss  Heat intolerance  Reduction in menstrual flow  Exophthalmos C/F:-
  9. 9.  History, PE  T3 & T4 Level  Blood tests to check levels of certain antibodies  An ultrasound of the thyroid  A thyroid scan D/E:-
  10. 10.  Have patient seated on a stool / chair  Inspect neck before & after swallowing  Examine with neck in relaxed position  Palpate from behind the patient  Remember the rule of finger tips  Use the tips of fingers for palpation  Palpate firmly down to trachea
  11. 11. M/M:- Anti Thyroid Drugs Eg.Methimazole, Carbimazole S/M:  Thyroidectomy – Subtotal or Total Diet:-High calories diet Management:-