“infant” is derived from the Latinword, “infans”, meaning “unable to speak”
Physical and biologicalWeightGrowth is very rapid during the 1st year25 to 30 g per day for the 1st 3 month, Thereafter 400 g every month. Birth weight doubles by 5 to 6 monthsTriples by 1 year of age, to an average of 9.75 kgLess weight gain by bottle fed babies
LengthIncrease 2.5 per month during the 1st 6 months and by half that amount per month during the 2nd 6 monthsBy 1 year length has increased by almost 50% (65cm)
Head Circumference Birth 35 cm 3 months 40 cm 12 months 45 cm
Chest circumference 2-3 cm less than HC at birth Almost equal by 1 year
Heart rate at 1 year 110 b/mt. BloodRR at 1 year pressure 30 b/mt 75/50 by 1 year Vital signs
gross motor development• 3 months: Hold head• 4 months: lift the head & front portion of chest• 5 months: rolling over (abdomen to back & back to abdomen)• 6 months: sitting with support• 8 months: sitting without support
Contd….• 10 months: walking withSupport• 11 months: crawling (creeping)• 12 months: standing without support
Fine motor• 4 months: grasp a rattle or rings when placed in hand• 5 months: reaches out to an object and holds it with both hands• 7 months: holding objects with crude grasp from palm (palmar grasp)• 9 months: holding small object between index finger & thumb (pincer grasp)
Emotional development -Birth to Six Months begin to self soothe after crying be able to express various emotions eg. anger, sadness, happiness be developing a sense of love and trust with caregiver(s)
Emotional development - Six Months to 1 year be very curious about their environment start to have mood swings and temper tantrums loving but tend to be self centered in their view of the world show separation anxiety when caregiver leaves
language ..• 1 month: turns head to sound• 3 months: cooing• 6 months: monosyllables (‘ma’, ba’)• 9 months: bisyllables (mama. Baba)• 12 months: 2 words with meaning
Personal social…….•2 months: social smile•3 months: recognizing mother•6 months: smiles at mirror image•9 months: waves bye-bye•12 months: plays a simple ball game.
Postural Reflexes ~ SwimmingStimulus / S: Infant held horizontallyResponse R: Arms and legs move in coordinated swimming type actionDuration 2 weeks after birth – 5 monthsOther Recognition of reflex led to popularity of infant swim programs
Postural Reflexes ~ ParachutingStimulus / S: Off balance in upright positionResponse R: Protective movement in direction of fallDuration 4 months – 1 yearConcerns Assessed in preterm babies as markers of neurological development Related to upright postureOther Also called propping reflex Occurs downward, sideways, & backward
Postural Reflexes ~ Head and Body RightingStimulus / S: Supine, turn body in either directionResponse R: Head “rights” itself with the body S: Supine, turn head in either direction R: Body “rights” itself with the headDuration Head:1-6 months; Body: 5 months-1 yearConcerns Related to voluntary rolling movements.
Postural Reflexes ~ LabyrinthineStimulus / S: Baby held upright, tilted in one directionResponse R: Baby tilts head in opposite directionDuration 2-3 months – 1 yearConcerns Related to upright postureOther Also considered primitive reflex
Landau• To test for the reflex, hold the infant face down horizontally.• The babys head will raise up, while her trunk will be straight and her legs extended.• When pushes the babys head downward, her legs should drop as well. When releases the babys head, both her head and legs should return to their original positions.
Otolith rightingWhen body of erect infant is tilted, head isreturned to upright erect position. age of appearance : 7-12 months