Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  2. 2. BIOGRAPHY Norman Hartnell is a Caucasian designer who was born in 1901 in London, England.While studying at Cambridge University, he designed costumes for drama performances.These costumes were reviewed by a local journalist, which convinced Hartnell he should choose a career with fashion design. (“Norman Hartnell.”) He decided to leave Cambridge University without receiving his degree, and established his label on Bruton Street in Mayfair in 1923. (“Hartnell.”) In 1942, he was a founding member of The Incorporated Society of London Fashion Designers. (“Dress.”) Hartnell passed away in at the age of 78 in June 1978. (“Norman Hartnell.”) “Royal Designer Norman Hartnell Part One.”
  3. 3. BESTYEARS,AWARDS, BREAKTHROUGHS & INNOVATIONS According to Fashion Model Dictionary,“the turning point in his career came when he designed the brides and bridesmaids dresses for the Duke of Gloucester, 3rd son of King GeorgeV.” (“Norman Hartnell.”) From there, he was appointed the dressmaker to the British Royal Family in 1938. Hartnell created both the wedding gown and coronation gown of the current Queen Elizabeth, as well as multiple casual and formal garments for her. For his services to the Royal Family, the Queen knighted Hartnell, and became known as ‘The First Fashion Knight.’ He is one of only four British designers to have ever been knighted. (“Hartnell.”) Queen Elizabeth’s Wedding Gown Sketch (“Hartnell.”)
  4. 4. INFLUENCES,THEMES AND MUSES Norman Hartnell was known for his elegant designs, lavish embroidery, and intricate details. In addition to designing for the British Royal Family, Hartwell’s clients included Hollywood celebrities and socialites. (“Hartnell.”) His designs are influenced greatly by his start in designing for theatrical performances while he was enrolled at Cambridge University.According to the Encyclopedia of Fashion,“he drew inspiration from the saucy French paintings of Watteau and Boucher, purity of line from Italian masters like Botticelli and painters such as Renoir andTissot for what he described as a touch of ‘chi chi’.” Portraits in the halls of Buckingham Palace gave Hartnell inspiration for the crinoline dresses that became a symbolic royal look. (Almond.) The dress to the side is a silk satin couture evening dress by Norman Hartnell, circa 1948.The silhouette is influenced by Christian Dior’s ‘New Look’ that was introduced in 1947. (“Dress.”) Couture Evening Gown. (“Dress.”)
  5. 5. SILHOUETTES, FABRICS AND COLORS Hartnell used expensive fabrics in his designs, such as silk and satin.Also used were tulle, fur and tweed. He also used much embroidery with his garments, including pearls and crystals. (Almond.) His menswear collection was just as extravagant as his designs for women. Suits had crisp and clean lines, and were constructed of the latest fabrics and colors. Hartnell was attributed with the return of the double-breasted suit jacket in the 1960’s. (“Hartnell.”) (“Evening Gown.”)
  6. 6. TARGET MARKET & MARKETING STRATEGIES Norman Hartnell targeted women and men of an important status. Using extravagant designs and embroidery, he targeted mostly people of royalty or celebrities.While this target was his focus, Hartnell did produce ready-to-wear collections that were sold in department stores starting in 1942.Also, he created the uniforms duringWorldWar II of the British Red Cross and Women’s Royal Army Corps. (Almond.) “Evening Dress, 1934.”
  7. 7. GARMENTS (“Cocktail Dress.”) (“Dress and Jacket.”) (“The Flowers of the Fields of France.”)
  8. 8. LEGACY OF OWNERSHIP/CREATIVE CONTROL OR OBSTACLES AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS After Norman Hartnell’s passing in 1979, his legacy lived on through French designer Marc Bohan. Bohan’s designs and collections lived up to Hartnell’s reputation,however the company had to officially close in 1992 because of the recession. (Almond.) Gown by Marc Bohan for Norman Hartnell Design House. (“Evening Dress, Ca. 1990.)
  9. 9. DESIGN AESTHETICS: PASTV. PRESENT OR POTENIAL FOR SUCCESS OF REVIVAL Because of Norman Hartnell’s elaborate designs, his label could still be profitable if it still marketed towards the Royal family and celebrities.Those types of gowns are always needed at red carpet events, and could be used for the Royal family. Many people are obsessed with the family, and Princess Kate has become a fashion icon for their country.
  10. 10. EVALUATION OF SUCCESS OR MODERN MARKETING PROPOSAL Marketing a ModernVersion: • Produce couture garments for celebrities for runway events and award shows. • Produce ready-to-wear garments for Princess Kate of the British Royal Family. • Produce new bridal collection.
  11. 11. WORK CITED Almond, Kevin.“Norman Hartnell-Fashion Designer Encyclopedia.” Encyclopedia of Fashion. Web. 8 Nov 2015. “Cocktail Dress.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 8 Nov 2015. norman/ “Dress.” Museum of London. Web. 8 Nov 2015. “Dress and Jacket.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 8 Nov 2015. norman/ “Evening Dress.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 8 Nov 2015. hartnell/ “Evening Dress, 1934.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 8 Nov 2015. hartnell/ “Evening Dress, Circa 1990.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Web. 8 Nov 2015. online/search/80922 “The Flowers of the Fields of France.” Victoria and Albert Museum. Web. 8 Nov 2015. flowers-of-the-fields-evening-dress-hartnell-norman/ “Hartnell.” Norman Hartnell. Web. 8 Nov 2015. “Norman Hartnell.” Fashion Model Dictionary. Web. 8 Nov 2015. “Royal Designer Norman Hartnell Part One.” The Royal Post. 16 May 2012.Web. 8 Nov 2015. designer-norman-hartnell-part-one/
  12. 12. Ralph Lauren Ashley Short FRM 331: Current Designers
  13. 13. Biography Ralph Lauren was born on October 14, 1939 in NewYork City. (Price, Pg. 226.) His birth name was Ralph Lifshitz, which he changed to Lauren at the age of 16 because of being consistently teased in school. He was born the third of four children to parents, Frieda and Frank. According to, his parents were “Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants who had fled Belarus.” Ralph Lauren was known for his distinct fashion sense, and was inspired by Hollywood stars such as Cary Grant and Fred Astaire, as well as a preppy wear and vintage looks. He studied business for two years at Baruch College in Manhattan. Then, after a short while enlisted in the Army, he took a sales job at Brooks Brothers. (“Ralph Lauren Biography.”) Lauren married Ricky Anne Low-Beer in 1964 in New York City.The couple has three children: sons Andrew and David, and daughter Dylan. (“Ralph Lauren Biography.”) (Price, Pg. 226.)
  14. 14. BestYears,Awards, Breakthroughs & Innovations According to the textbook Who’s Who in Fashion, 5th Edition, Ralph Lauren’s awards are:  Coty American Fashion Critics’ Award, Men’s Wear, 1970  Return Award, Men’s Wear, 1973  “Winnie”, 1974  Return Award, 1976  Hall of Fame, Men’s Wear, 1976  Hall of Fame, Women’s Wear, 1977  Men’s Apparel, 1981  Special Award, Women’s Wear, 1984  Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) Special Award, 1981  Retailer of theYear, 1986  Fashion Walk of Fame, 2000  (Price, Pg. 226.)(“Ralph Lauren-Fashion Walk of Fame.”)
  15. 15. BestYears,Awards, Breakthroughs & Innovations According to, “Lauren is known for capitalizing on an aspirational style and key insignia which evokes the British gentry while also referencing the aesthetics of the American upper class.” (“Ralph Lauren Biography.”) In 1972, Lauren released a line of short sleeved cotton shirts that came in 24 colors.This design had the famous logo, one of a polo player, which became the signature look for the brand. (“Ralph Lauren Biography.”) Lauren has also designed uniforms for the USA OlympicsTeam in Bejing. (“Ralph Lauren Biography.”) Polo Logo (Daily Mail Reporter.)
  16. 16. Influences,Themes and Muses Much of Ralph Lauren’s inspiration came from his Hollywood icons. In an interview with Michael Gross, he stated that he would fall into fantasies at the movie theaters when he was younger living in the Bronx. Actors, such as Fred Astaire and Cary Grant, were major inspirations.Also inspiring the designer were the classic set designs by Cedric Gibbons for MGM Studios. (Whitelocks.) It is also noted that Ralph Lauren stated in an interview in 1993 that he was “inspired by a world that had a sense of dream.” (Whitelocks.) Outfit from Spring 2000 Ready- to-Wear (“Look 20/69.”)
  17. 17. Silhouettes, Fabrics andColors Ralph Lauren has been criticized in the past as not having the most innovative designs, but many consumers do embrace his classic looks. His brand has evolved to include a luxury clothing line and a rustic apparel line called RRL. (“Ralph Lauren Biography.” Much of the silhouettes in Ralph Lauren’s collections are tailored and structured. Colors used are mainly neutrals-gray, white, black and brown. Menswear Collection 2005 (“Look 12/68.”)
  18. 18. Target Market & MarketingStrategies Because much of Ralph Lauren’s collections are more sophisticated and chic designs, their target market is a more sophisticated age and status. The target for womenswear and menswear is 35 to 55 years old.These individuals are professionals with at least a Bachelor’s degree and an income of at least $50,000. Ralph Lauren released a Rugby line that is targeted towards ages 16-25. (Price, Pg. 228.) However, this line closed in 2014. (“Ralph Lauren Corporation.”) Marketing strategies include increasing e- commerce sites and expanding their international presence. (TrefisTeam.)
  19. 19. Garments Menswear Collection Spring 2008 (“Look 10/50.”) Spring Ready-to-Wear 2010 (“Look 1/51.”) Spring Ready-to-Wear 2016 (“Look 42/49.”)
  20. 20. Legacy ofOwnership/CreativeControl Ralph Lauren is a public company based in New York City. Brands included under the company are Polo by Ralph Lauren, RRL, Chaps, RLX Ralph Lauren and Club Monaco.The company designs in markets such as apparel, accessories, fragrances and home furnishings.There are approximately 13,000 stores located worldwide. (“Ralph Lauren Corporation.”) Ralph Lauren recently stepped down as CEO of his company, and appointed Stefan Larsson to start as the new CEO beginning in November 2015. (Wagner.)
  21. 21. DesignAesthetics: Past v. Present Collections for Ralph Lauren have stayed consistent in the fact that they all have classic pieces.As time has evolved, collections have included more pops of color. Also, Ralph Lauren has introduced a Resort collection in addition to Women’s Ready-to-Wear and Menswear.
  22. 22. WorkCited Daily Mail Reporter. “Causing a Chukka: Ralph LaurenWins Case Against U.S. Polo Association Over Right to Use Horseman Logo.” Daily Mail. 18 May 2011.Web. 15 Nov 2015. 1388350/Ralph-Lauren-wins-case-U-S-Polo-Association-right-use-horseman-logo.html “Look 1/51.” Web. 15 Nov 2015. wear/ralph-lauren/slideshow/collection#1 “Look 10/50.” Web. 15 Nov 2015. lauren/slideshow/collection#10 “Look 12/68.” Web. 15 Nov 2015. lauren/slideshow/collection#12 “Look 20/69.” Web. 15 Nov 2015. wear/ralph-lauren/slideshow/collection#20 “Look 42/49.” 15 Nov 2015. wear/ralph-lauren/slideshow/collection#42 Price, Holly Alford andAnne Stegemeyer. Who’sWho in Fashion, 5th Edition. Fairchild Books USA, 2009. Web. 15 Nov 2015.
  23. 23. WorkCited “Ralph Lauren Biography.” Web. 15 Nov 2015. 9374814 “Ralph Lauren Corporation.” Web. 15 Nov 2015. consumer-products/ralph-lauren-corporation/company-overview.aspx “Ralph Lauren-FashionWalk of Fame.” Flickr. 15 Mar 2009.Web. 15 Nov 2015. TrefisTeam. “International Markets and Merchandise Innovation Key for Ralph Lauren.” Forbes. 2Apr 2014.Web. 15 Nov 2015. innovation-key-for-ralph-lauren/ Wagner, Laura. “Ralph Lauren Steps Down as CEO.” NPR. 29 Sept 2015.Web. 15 Nov 2015. Whitelocks, Sadie. “Ralph Lauren’s Rags to Riches: How DesignerWent From Being a Kid From the Bronx to a Fashion MogulWorth $6.5 Billion.” Daily Mail. 29 Oct 2012.Web. 15 Nov 2015. fashion-mogul-worth-6-5billion.html
  24. 24. Image of Designer Perry Ellis (Price, 132.)
  25. 25. Perry Ellis on Fashion Walk of Fame (“New York’s Fashion Walk of Fame.”)
  26. 26. Perry Ellis Womenswear Spring 2005 (“Olympus Fashion Week Spring 2005-Perry Ellis Womenswear-Runway.”)
  27. 27. Perry Ellis Fall 2011 Menswear (“Look 1/41.”)
  28. 28. Perry Ellis Menswear Fall 2015 (“Perry Ellis- Runway-Fall 2015 Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week.”) Marc Jacobs for Perry Ellis (“Perry Ellis Grunge Collection.”) Spring 2012 Menswear (“Look 2/43.”)
  29. 29. Douglas Hannant Ashley Short FRM 331: Current Designers
  30. 30. Biography Douglas Hannant graduated from Missouri State University, and then relocated to New York to study at FIT in 1986. Upon graduation, Hannant worked as a Display Director for many years at Barney’s and Bloomingdales. While working there, he noticed an opportunity in the luxury market. In 1996, Hannant developed his first collection. The collection was picked up instantly by retailers including Neiman Marcus, Saks Fifth Avenue, Bloomingdales, and Nordstrom’s. (“Douglas Hannant.”) Picture of Douglas Hannant (“Douglas Hannant.”)
  31. 31. Best Years, Awards, Breakthroughs & Innovations While working at Barney’s and Bloomingdales, Hannant noticed a gap in the luxury market of the fashion industry. He is quoted as saying “There was a need for good taste, modern design, and something special in luxury clothing to go against the uniform style of the ‘90’s.” (“Douglas Hannant Fashion Designer.”) Fall 2011 Collection on Runway (Left) and Red Carpet (Right) (“Nicole Richie in Douglas Hannant-Elle’s 18th Annual Women in Hollywood Tribute.”)
  32. 32. Influences, Themes and Muses Douglas Hannant’s designs are a mix between Modernism and Romanticism. His designs are simple, however are made with rich fabrics and textiles. The designer’s theme is luxury clothing with a balance of sexy and chic. (“Douglas Hannant.”) Spring 2013 Ready-to-Wear (“Look 37/38.”)
  33. 33. Silhouettes, Fabrics and Colors Douglass Hannant likes to use embellishments in many of his designs. Embellishments that are used include beading, fringe, feathers, and ruffles. According to NY Magazine, “His evening gowns are sexy and dramatic, often in bold colors and soft, flowing fabrics that manage to discreetly highlight the best aspects of the female form.”(“Label Overview.”) In addition to Ready-to-Wear collections, Hannant has also designed bridal gowns. (“All Seasons.”) Fall 2014 Ready-to-Wear (“Douglas Hannant Collection.”)
  34. 34. Designs Resort 2015 Collection (“Look 5/15.”) Fall 2007 Ready-to-Wear (“Look 13/41.”) Bridal Fall 2013 (“Douglas Hannant- Fall 2013.”)
  35. 35. Target Market & Marketing Strategies Douglas Hannant designs clothing for women, and his collections are sportswear and couture, day and evening with a youthful look. The girl he designs for has a lifestyle that may take her from New York, Aspen, the Hamptons and Palm Beach. Celebrities that have worn Hannant’s designs include Beyonce, Ivanka Trump, Sarah Jessica Parker, Olivia Palmero, and Sandra Bullock. (“Douglas Hannant.”) Olivia Palmero wearing Douglas Hannant (“LBDs (and Some Jumpsuits.)”)
  36. 36. Legacy of Ownership/Creative Control I could not find much information about the ownership and creative control of Douglas Hannant’s brand. There is no e-commerce site for the designer, and I only found that the brand was established by him in 1996 in New York City. He is listed as the head designer. (“About Douglas Hannant.”)
  37. 37. Work Cited “About Douglas Hannant.” FashionBi. Web. 29 Nov 2015. hannant/info “All Seasons.” Web. 29 Nov 2015. 2015/douglas-hannant#all-seasons “Douglas Hannant.” Web. 28 Nov 2015. “Douglas Hannant Collection.” NY Magazine. Web. 28 Nov 2015. “Douglas Hannant-Fall 2013.” Web. 29 Nov 2015. style/bridal-runway-shows/2012/10/new-douglas-hannant-wedding-dresses-2013-fall#slide=10 “Douglas Hannant Fashion Designer.” Infomat. Web. 28 Nov 2015. “Label Overview.” NY Magazine. Web. 28 Nov 2015. “LBDs (and Some Jumpsuits.)” Breakfast with Kate Moss. 31 Jan 2013. Web. 29 Nov 2015. “Look 5/15.” Web. 29 Nov 2015. 2015/douglas-hannant/slideshow/collection#5 “Look 13.41.” Web. 29 Nov 2015. wear/douglas-hannant/slideshow/collection#13 “Look 37/38.” Web. 29 Nov 2015. to-wear/douglas-hannant/slideshow/collection#37 “Nicole Richie in Douglas Hannant-Elle’s 18th Annual Women in Hollywood Tribute.” RCFA. 18 Oct 2011. Web. 29 Nov 2015. hannant/
  38. 38. Antonio Berardi Ashley Short FRM 331: Current Designers
  39. 39. Biography Antonio Berardi was born in the United Kingdom in 1968, and studied at Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design located in London. While attending school, Berardi was also assistant to designer John Galliano. He started his own collection in 1994 and debuted his first collection in 1995. (“Antonio Berardi.” Fashion Model Directory.) Image of Antonio Berardi (“Antonio Berardi.” Fashion Model Directory.)
  40. 40. Best Years, Awards, Breakthroughs & Innovations Many celebrities have worn Antonio Berardi’s designs to award shows and other events. These celebrities include Nicole Kidman, Madonna, Anne Hathaway, Beyoncé, and Kate Hudson. (“Antonio Berardi.” British Fashion Council.) Beyoncé in Antonio Berardi (“Beyoncé Knowles in Antonio Berardi-Radio Row.”)
  41. 41. Influences, Themes and Muses Berardi has many influences in his life that he incorporates in his designs and collections. Much of his original inspiration came from the combination of cultures in his personal heritage as a British Sicilian. According to his biography on British Fashion Council, “He blends traditional Savile Row tailoring with the more colorful, offbeat and freewheeling clothing of Sicily.” Also, an inspiration for Berardi is his mother and her ladylike style. Finally, designer John Galliano was a large inspiration and mentor in Berardi’s life. Galliano instilled in him to be true to one’s personal vision. (“Antonio Berardi.” British Fashion Council.) Resort 2014 (“Look 24/25.”)
  42. 42. Silhouettes, Fabrics and Colors Antonio Berardi’s designs enhance a woman’s natural curves and figure. His clothing may look simple on the hanger, but then comes alive as it is worn on the consumer. “Berardi also has a natural feel for materials and instinctively grasps how new fabrics can be used to maximum effect, creating original shapes that extend the vocabulary of body language.” (“Antonio Berardi.” British Fashion Council.) Spring 2016 Ready-to-Wear (“Look 27/37.”)
  43. 43. Target Market & Marketing Strategies Antonio Berardi designs for the sophisticated woman, with ages ranging from approximately 25 to 45 years old. Designs are chic, fashionable and feminine. Fall 2015 Ready-to-Wear (“Look 13/45.”)
  44. 44. Designs Fall 2007 Ready-to-Wear (“Look 1/45.”) Spring 2011 Ready-to- Wear (“Look 8/39.”) Spring 2007 Ready-to- Wear (“Look 24/36.”)
  45. 45. Legacy of Ownership/Creative Control Antonio Berardi started out his career as an assistant for designer John Galliano. In 1994, Berardi started his own label and showed his first collection in 1995. In 1998 and 1999, Berardi designed for Italian house of Ruffo Research. In 2000, he was appointed as head designer for Exte. In February 2002, Berardi signed a 5 year contract with Italian backer, Gibo, which is a prestigious Italian manufacturer. The company provided him with financial security. In mid 2001, Berardi took over designing for Exte, and his first collection with them was presented in Spring/Summer 2002. Currently, Berardi designs for his own brand. (“Antonio Berardi.” Fashion Model Directory.)
  46. 46. Work Cited “Antonio Berardi.” British Fashion Council. Web. 6 Dec 2015. “Antonio Berardi.” Fashion Model Directory. Web. 6 Dec 2015. “Beyoncé Knowles in Antonio Berardi-Radio Row.” Red Carpet Fashion Awards. 2 Jan 2013. Web. 6 Dec 2015. knowles-in-antonio-berardi-radio-row/ “Look 1/45.” Web. 6 Dec 2015. 2007-ready-to-wear/antonio-berardi/slideshow/collection#1 “Look 8/39.” Web. 6 Dec 2015. 2011-ready-to-wear/antonio-berardi/slideshow/collection#8 “Look 13/45.” Web. 6 Dec 2015. 2015-ready-to-wear/antonio-berardi/slideshow/collection#13 “Look 24/36.” Web. 6 Dec 2015. shows/spring-2007-ready-to-wear/antonio-berardi/slideshow/collection#24 “Look 24/25.” Web. 6 Dec 2015. shows/resort-2014/antonio-berardi/slideshow/collection#24 “Look 27/37.” Web. 6 Dec 2015. shows/spring-2016-ready-to-wear/antonio-berardi/slideshow/collection#27
  47. 47. PRABAL GURUNG Ashley Short FRM 331: Current Designers
  48. 48. BIOGRAPHY Prabal Gurung was born in Singapore and raised in Nepal. He began his fashion career in New Dehli, and then he moved to New York City to attend Parsons The New School for Design. Once he graduated, he worked with Cynthia Rowley for two years as a part of the design and production team. Afterwards, he was appointed as the design director for Bill Blass, where he worked for five years. Then, Gurung launched his first collection in 2009. (“Prabal Gurung.”) Prabal Gurung Photograph (“Prabal Gurung.”)
  49. 49. INFLUENCES, THEMES AND MUSES Prabal Gurung has designed clothing for prominent women, such as First Lady Michelle Obama and The Duchess of Cambridge Kate Middleton. His philosophy encompasses “luxury, indelible style and an astute sense of glamour.” (“Prabal Gurung.”) He has noted the late Yves Saint Laurent as an inspiration for him. Also, he was first inspired to start a career as a designer after seeing a white dress at a London Chanel store. (Wigham.) Kate Middleton in Prabal Gurung (Abraham.)
  50. 50. SILHOUETTES, FABRICS AND COLORS Prabal Gurung designs with silhouettes that compliment the woman’s figure. Such designs include a straight pant, A line skirt, pencil skirt, shift dresses and flowy tops. His designs have an ease about them. Colors that are used include neutrals, brown, black and white, pops of colors, such as blue and red. Spring 2013 Ready-to-Wear (“Look 29/39.”)
  51. 51. DESIGNS Fall 2009 Ready-to- Wear (“Look 15/19.”) Spring 2014 Ready-to- Wear (“Look 10/39.”) Fall 2015 Ready-to- Wear (“Look 20/36.”)
  52. 52. TARGET MARKET & MARKETING STRATEGIES Prabal Gurung designs clothing for women to make them feel beautiful. The women that he dresses are ages 25-45 years old. These women have a high level of sophistication and chic style. Picture Caption (Makkas.)
  53. 53. WORK CITED Abraham, Tamara. “The Duchess of Cambridge Wows in Edgy Prabal Gurung Dress, Putting US Label on the Global Fashion Map.” Daily Mail. 11 Sept 2012. Web. 8 Dec 2015. Gurung-dress-putting-U-S-label-global-fashion-map.html “Look 10/39.” Web. 8 Dec 2015. ready-to-wear/prabal-gurung/slideshow/collection#10 “Look 15/19.” Web. 8 Dec 2015. to-wear/prabal-gurung/slideshow/collection#15 “Look 20/36.” Web. 8 Dec 2015. to-wear/prabal-gurung/slideshow/collection#20 “Look 29/39.” Web. 8 Dec 2015. ready-to-wear/prabal-gurung/slideshow/collection#29 “Prabal Gurung.” CFDA. Web. 8 Dec 2015.!prabal-gurung Wigham, Helen. “Prabal Gurung.” 1 June 2011. Web. 8 Dec 2015.