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The onset of the Industrial Revolution brought about significant changes in the economic, social, and political life of societies. Most significant of these changes was the rise of the modern nation-state

The onset of the Industrial Revolution brought about significant changes in the economic, social, and political life of societies. Most significant of these changes was the rise of the modern nation-state


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political institution.pptx

  2. 2. MEMBERS Ashley Fajardo Janele Umali Janice Castillo Atasha Umali Glenn Abrigo Cris Jerome Sumajestad Cyrell Maningding Aleczhis Encarnacion
  3. 3. Motivational Game
  8. 8. LEE DARE SHRIMP Guess The Gibberish…
  9. 9. LEADERSHIP Guess The Gibberish…
  10. 10. LEGIT TEAM MISSY Guess The Gibberish…
  11. 11. LEGITIMACY Guess The Gibberish…
  12. 12. PRINCESS DIANA Who is She?
  13. 13. MARTIN LUTHER KING,JR. Who is He?
  14. 14. Objectives Explain the concepts of politics, power, and authority Define legitimacy and differentiate the types of authority distinguish the types of political structures or organizations and institutions that have existed over time 01 03 02 04 cite concrete examples related to the political concepts tackled.
  15. 15. Politics, Power, and Authority 01
  16. 16. Politics, Power, and Authority • As societies progressed through the centuries, people organized themselves in more complex ways, and relationships began to be increasingly defined by power and authority. • Among the most significant social developments were the formulation of laws. • Leaders emerged. • These social changes consequently brought about changes in political life.
  17. 17. Politics • activities through which people make, preserve, and amend the general rules under which they live. • involves the dynamics of conflict resolution and cooperation, as well as the exercise of power Power • ability to do something in order to achieve a desired outcome. • a person with power has the capability to control people or make them do something that they would not do otherwise. • Social scientists emphasize the notion that power involves a relationship-there is one who exercises power and another who is subject to it.
  18. 18. Authority • Authority is legitimate power. • a person who has authority has the right to exercise power. • the exercise of authority means that the person who exercises power is obeyed by the people because he or she is recognized as the rightful or legitimate ruler or leader.
  19. 19.  Bands during the prehistoric period were only comprised of family members and their leadership structure was less complicated and simple.  He or she was recognized as the leader mainly because of the skills that he or she possessed  Other bases of legitimacy of leadership came about  Consequently, as societies further progressed from bands to nations, political structures and institutions evolved in different forms.
  20. 20. Following are several trends that have been observed pertaining to the development of political structures and institutions throughout the centuries: 1. increased population density; 2. large surplus of resources and wealth; 3. greater social inequality; 4. less reliance on kinship relations as basis of political structures; 5. increased internal and external conflict; 6. increased power and responsibility of leaders; and 7. increased burden on the population to support political leaders.
  21. 21. Legitimacy and Types of Authority 02
  22. 22. Legitimacy • originated from the Latin word legitimare, meaning "to declare lawful," and is broadly defined as "rightfulness.“ • Legitimacy confers on an order or an authoritative or binding character, thus transforming power into authority. • Political philosophers treat legitimacy as a moral or rational principle that is the ground on which governments may demand obedience from citizens. • The claim to legitimacy is thus more important than the fact of obedience. • Political scientists, however, usually see legitimacy in sociological terms; that is, as a willingness to comply with a system of rule regardless of how this is achieved.
  23. 23. Max Weber • Weber studied the transformation of societies and observed that the bases of legitimacy of rule vary in different types of societies. • He came up with three types of authority: 1. Traditional 2. Charismatic 3. Legal-rational • For Weber, there must be an explanation or justification why certain men rise to positions of authority or superiority and why people obey them. • Thus, the important question to be asked is what makes a rule or a law accepted and obeyed by people.
  24. 24. Traditional Authority Queen Elizabeth II and Salman of Saudi Arabia • In many societies, authority is based on a system that is believed to have "always existed." • Some people have this type of authority because they inherited it or they occupy a position that has been passed on to them. • The legitimacy of this type of authority is based on long- established customs and traditions that do not need to be justified. • A good example of a traditional authority system would be a monarchy.
  25. 25. Charismatic Authority • based on the presumed special and extraordinary characteristics or qualities possessed by a certain individual. • People with charisma are often very popular, highly persuasive, and inspire loyalty and obedience from other people. • They are also often seen as "born leaders" and "heroes". • However, charismatic authority is the most unstable type of authority • Charisma is generally considered a gift or an innate quality unique to a person, but there are also instances when it can be manufactured through the use of propaganda.
  26. 26. Legal-Rational • most typical type of authority in modern societies. • Power and authority in a legal-rational context are legitimized by a clearly defined set of written rules and laws. • Leaders can rightfully wield authority if they obtain their positions according to established procedures. • presidents and prime ministers possess legal-rational authority. • Economically-developed societies are most likely to have undergone the processes of rationalization and bureaucratization and adhere most closely to the legal-rational concept of authority. • Among the three types of authority, a legal-rational system has the highest degree of stability.
  27. 27. The three types of authority identified by Weber are what he referred to as the "ideal or pure types." In practice, the type of authority that is recognized in a certain society or state may be a mix of these different types.
  28. 28. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures 03
  29. 29. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures Anthropologists define political organizations as "the groups within a culture that are responsible for public decision-making and leadership, maintaining social cohesion and order, protecting group rights, and ensuring safety from external threats.“
  30. 30. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures ● Political and leadership structures have evolved as societies progressed over time. ● From the emergence of simple bands, tribes, and chiefdoms, to the establishment of modern nation- states. The earlier types of societies such as bands and tribes were basically dominated by personal and familial ties as these were comprised of families and clans.
  31. 31. Bands Tribes Chiefdom States
  32. 32. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures ● In short, the leaders were not simply political leaders or those who made decisions for the society. ● The leaders exercised their authority to settle disputes among the people. ● They also decided on economic matters ● In a nutshell, the leader was seen as the head of the community who ensured peace and security within society. ● He was seen as a patriarch or a patron and people depended on him for many things.
  33. 33. Political Dynasties • believed to have always existed even in advanced democratic states. • A "dynasty" refers to a succession from rulers from the same line of descent. • Thus, relatives who stay in power-specifically, members of one family who continuously hold elective political positions-are considered members of a political dynasty. POLITICAL CLIENTELISM • is defined by Susan Stokes as "giving material goods in return for electoral support. • " The relationship involves two parties: the patron (politician) and the client (voter). (clientelistic politics)
  34. 34. The onset of the Industrial Revolution brought about significant changes in the economic, social, and political life of societies. Most significant of these changes was the rise of the modern nation-state.
  35. 35. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures ● The nation has two aspects--a cultural community and a political community. ● Not all nations are recognized as states. ● Likewise, a state is not equivalent to a single nation and may in fact be composed of several nations.
  36. 36. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures • Thus, a state is a political unit that encompasses several communities, has a bureaucracy, and has leaders that possess legitimate power. • In contrast to the leaders of bands, tribes, and chiefdoms, leaders of states have more responsibilities such as the maintenance of law and order, securing state in international and preserving social control. WHAT IS BUREAURACY?
  37. 37. • Weber observed that the processes of rationalization and bureaucratization that happened in Western European societies were a consequence of industrialization. • The expansion of economic activities led to the rationalization of economic functions of individuals which in turn paved the way for the growth of bureaucracy. • The term bureaucracy means "rule by officials." • For Weber, the bureaucracy is characterized by rationality, rule-governed behavior, and impersonal behavior. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures
  38. 38. POLITICAL LIBERALIZATION • Another significant process that happened in Western Europe • This refers to the emergence of liberal-democratic regimes that are characterized by a representative form of democracy where political office is gained through formal, competitive elections in many Western societies. • Thus, institutions such as political parties emerged. • Principles such as political equality and electoral choice also developed. • This led to the emergence of an impersonal and legally-based type of leadership. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures
  39. 39. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures • However, not all societies around the world went through the same processes experienced in the West. • Scholars agree that this is largely due to a variety of factors, including the type of political culture that exists in societies. • Political culture refers to the pattern of orientation to political objects such as parties, government, and constitution, expressed in beliefs, symbols, and values. • People generally acquire values and attitudes about politics and political institutions through the process of political socialization.
  40. 40. Types of Political Organizations and Leadership Structures • Since societies have varied characteristics, the effects of certain processes and how institutions work may also differ. For example, the features of an ideal type of bureaucracy conceptualized by Weber were not necessarily observed in all societies. • Even in politics, the persistence of clientelism, have not ceased to exist in some societies. • Clientelistic behavior has also been observed even in the conduct of democratic elections.
  41. 41. A. Answer the following questions. 1. What are the three types of authority identified by Max Weber? 2. What are the different types of political organizations that have existed over time? 3. Among the three types of authority, which has the highest degree of stability?

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