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Subject: MBA/3305/H -
Management of Training &
development.(MTD)
Unit - IV
Unit – IV
Subject: MTD
Training Methods:
• Techniques & Pedagogy,
• Training aids & Tools,
• Facilities for Training
7 - 3
Training Methods:
Techniques & Pedagogy
Training Methods:
Techniques & Pedagogy
Pedagogy of Training
• Knowledge is a necessary but not sufficient
condition for employees to perform their jobs.
• Knowledge must be translated into behavior.
• Training has always been more of an art than
science.
7 - 4
• The availability of numerous training aids and lots of
scientific studies on learning are conducted but, it is
the choice of trainer using the best method to
facilitate learning.
• Training has to cater to the diverse needs of the
heterogeneous groups.
• Training has diverse objectives and the trainees have
varying skill levels.
• One type of training method cannot serve the
needs at all times.
Types of Training
• Training can be classified into many types,
depending upon several bases.
• On the basis of purpose, several types of
training programmes, which are not mutually
exclusive, are offered to the employees.
• Training programmes invariably overlap and
employ many common techniques.
Some of the important types of training
programmes are as follows:
1. Orientation or Induction training.
2. Job training.
3. Apprenticeship training
4. Internship training
5. Refresher training
6. Training for promotion.
1. Orientation or Induction Training
• Introducing or orienting a new employee to
the organization.
• Introduction is related to procedures, rules
and regulations , working conditions, etc.
• Employees are familiarized with the work
environment and with his fellow employees.
• This is friendly welcome.
• The purpose is to give a ‘bird’s eye view’ of
the organization where he has to work.
• It is a very short and informative type of
training given immediately after recruitment.
• It creates a feeling of involvement in the
minds of newly appointed employees.
2. Job Training
• This training relates to the specific job, which
the worker has to perform.
• It gives information about machines, process
of production, instructions to be followed,
methods to be used and so on.
• It develops skills and confidence among the
workers and enables them to perform the job
efficiently.
• It helps in creating interest of the employees
in their jobs.
3. Apprenticeship Training
• The governments of various countries, including
India, have passed laws which make it obligatory for
certain classes of employers to provide
apprenticeship training to the young people.
• The usual apprenticeship programmes combine on
the job training and experience with classroom
instructions in particular subjects.
• The trainees receive wages while learning and they
acquire valuable skills, which command a high wage
in the labour market.
• In India, there are several ‘earn while you
learn’ schemes both in the private as well as
public sector undertakings.
• Some employers look upon apprentices as a
source of cheap labor.
• Apprenticeship training is desirable in
industries, which require a constant flow of
new employees expected to become all round
craftsmen.
• It is very much common in printing trades,
building and construction, and crafts like
mechanics electricians, welders, etc.
4. Internship Training
• Under this type of training programme the academic
institute and Industrial enterprise enters into an
arrangement (contract) for providing practical
knowledge to its students.
• Through Internship training the advanced theoretical
knowledge has to be backed up by practical
experience on the job.
• Ex: Engineering students are sent to big industrial
enterprises for getting practical work experience and
medical students are sent to big hospitals to get
practical knowledge.
• The period of such training varies from six months to
two years.
• The trainees do not belong to the business
enterprises, but they come from the vocational or
professional institutions.
• It is quite usual that the enterprises giving them
training absorb them by offering suitable jobs after
completion of their trainings.
5. Refresher Training
• It is for the old employees of the enterprise. It
is also called retraining.
• To acquaint the existing workforce with the
latest methods of performing their jobs and to
improve their efficiency further.
• Dale Yoder has rightly remarked, “Retraining
programmes are designed to avoid personnel
obsolescence”.
Refresher training is essential because of the
following factors:
(a) To bring workers up-to-date with the knowledge
and skills and to relearn what they have forgotten.
(b) Rapid technological changes make even the
qualified workers obsolete. The workers need to
learn new work methods to use new techniques in
doing their jobs.
(c) Refresher training becomes necessary because
many new jobs that are created due to changes in
the demand for goods and services are to be handled
by the existing employees.
6. Training for Promotion
• The talented employees may be given adequate
training to make them eligible for promotion to
higher jobs in the organization.
• Promotion of an employee means a significant
change in his responsibilities and duties.
• It is essential that employees be provided sufficient
training to learn new skills to perform his new duties
efficiently.
• The purpose of training for promotion is to develop
the existing employees to make them fit for
undertaking higher job responsibilities.
Thanks
Lecture - 2
Methods of Training
Methods of Training
• There is a wide range of training methods and
techniques have been developed over the years by
various organizations and training experts.
• Different training methods are suitable for different
categories of people e.g. managerial and non-
managerial, technical, administrative, skilled,
unskilled, senior, junior etc.
• Each organization has to choose the methods and
techniques of training which are relevant for its
training needs.
Various methods of training may be classified
into the following categories:
I. On-the-job training.
II. Vestibule training.
III. Off-the-job training.
Methods of Training:
l. On-the-job Training (at the place of work)
(i) Coaching
(ii) Understudy
(iii) Position Rotation
II. Vestibule Training (adapted to the environment at the
place of work)
III. Off-the-job Training (away from the place of work)
(i)Special Lecture-cum-Discussion (ii) Conference
(iii) Case Study (iv) Sensitivity training
(v) Special projects (vi) Committee assignments.
1. On-The-Job Training
• Under this method, the worker is given
training at the work place by his immediate
supervisor.
• The worker learns in the actual work
environment. “learning by doing”.
• It is suitable for imparting skills that can be
learnt in a relatively short period of time.
• It has the chief advantage of strongly
motivating the trainee to learn.
• It is not located in an artificial situation. It
permits the trainee to learn on the equipment
and in the work-environment.
• On-the-job training methods are relatively
cheaper and less time consuming .
• On-the-job training is considered to be the
most effective method of training the
operative personnel.
There are three methods of on-the-job training
(i)Coaching.
Under this method, the supervisor imparts job
knowledge and skills to his subordinate. The emphasis
in coaching or instructing the subordinate is on learning
by doing. This method is very effective if the superior
has sufficient time.
(ii) Understudy.
The superior gives training to a subordinate as his
understudy or assistant. The subordinate learns
through experience and observation. It prepares the
subordinate to assume the responsibilities of the
superior’s job. The purpose of under study is to prepare
someone to fill the vacancy caused by death,
retirement, promotion, or transfer of the superior.
(iii) Position Rotation.
The purpose of Position rotation is to broaden the
background of the trainee in various positions, so
that he acquires a general background of different
jobs.
• However, rotation of an employee from one job to
another should not be done frequently, so that he
may acquire the full knowledge of the job.
• It is used to develop all-round-workers. The
employees learn new skills and gain experience in
handling different kinds of jobs. The employees learn
the interrelationship between different jobs.
Importance of On-the-job training
• On-the-job training techniques are most appropriate
for teaching knowledge and skills that can be learnt
in a relatively short time.
• If Trainer (Supervisor) understands training principles
and methods and if he takes an interest in proper
training, this can be very effective.
• Its chief advantage is that, it strongly motivating the
trainee to learn.
• It is not located in an artificial situation, either
physically or psychologically. It permits the trainee
to learn at the actual equipment and in the
environment of the job.
• On-the-job training methods are relatively cheaper
and less time consuming.
• If only a few persons are to be trained at one time,
it is cheaper for the employer as production does
not suffer.
• Line supervisors take an important part in training
their subordinates.
Why OJT is most effective?
• On-the-job training is the most effective method of
training the employees because it is in complete
accord with the three basic laws of learning:
(i) The law of readiness;
(ii) The law of exercise; and
(iii) The law of effect.
• When a person is confronted with a job which he is
potentially able to do and is interested in learning
how to do a job in order to hold it.
2. Vestibule Training Method
• Vestibule means a cabin and the term ‘vestibule
training’ is used to designate training in a cabin (or a
classroom) for semi-skilled jobs.
• It is more suitable where a large number of
employees have be trained at the same time for the
same kind of work.
• Well-qualified instructors in charge of training
programme is required.
• In this training method emphasis tends to be on
learning rather than production. Eg. clerks, machine
operators, typists, etc.
• An attempt is made to duplicate, as nearly as
possible, the actual material, equipment and
conditions found in the real work place.
• In vestibule training, the workers are trained on
specific jobs in a school run by the organization.
• Vestibule training is particularly suitable where it is
not advisable to put the burden of training on line
supervisors and where a special coaching is required.
• The staff of the vestibule school consists of expert
and specialist instructors.
• Their activities do not interfere with the
regular processes of production.
• The artificial training atmosphere may create
the adjustment problem for the trainees
when they return to the place of job.
• Vestibule training is relatively expensive
because there is duplication of materials,
equipment and conditions found in a real
work-place.
Thanks
Lecture - 3
3. Off-The-Job Training
• The biggest demerit of off-the-job training methods
is that it require the worker to be absent from his
work place.
• Off-the-job training is the specialized, needs the use
of sophisticated equipment, and specialist trainer.
• The workers are free of tension of work while they
are learning.
There are several off-the-job training methods
as described below:
(i) Special Lecture cum Discussion.
(ii) Conference / Seminar Training.
(iii) Case Study.
(iv) Role Playing
(v) Behavioural Simulation Games
(vi) In-basket Exercises
(vii) Laboratory training
(i) Special Lecture cum Discussion
• It is a ‘class-room training’ associated with imparting
knowledge than with skills.
• Executives of the organization or specialists from
vocational and professional institutes may deliver
the special lectures.
• Experts for special lectures on areas like health,
safety, productivity, quality, etc.
• All jobs that can be learnt better in the classroom
than on the job.
Ex: Orientation about organization and safety
training can be accomplished more effectively in the
classroom.
• Trainer or Expert must have considerable depth of
knowledge of the subject at hand.
• He should be able to communicate his thoughts by
developing the interest in the class.
• The trainees generally take notes as an aid to
learning.
• The lecture method can be used for providing
instructions to large groups. Thus, the cost per
trainee is low.
Lecture method has certain limitations as-
• The learners may be passive.
• It violates the principle of learning by doing.
• It constitutes, one-way communication. It can
be made more interactive by permitting
learners to ask questions.
• Lectures can easily be combined with other
techniques like lecture-cum-discussion
method, Formal reading assignment or
demonstration and video films.
(ii) Conference / Seminar Training
• The conference implies sharing some information
with an audience of a large number of people.
• It is conducted in a big hall where the participants
are allowed to exchange their views and raise
queries.
• The proceedings of the conference are conducted by
the chairman who is also responsible for summing
up the proceedings of the conference.
• Video conferencing is also gaining popularity under
which people can participate in the conference
through link via satellite.
• A conference is a group meeting conducted
according to an organized plan in which the
members seek to develop knowledge and
understanding by oral participation.
• It is an effective training device for persons in the
positions of both conference member and
conference leader.
• As a member, a person can learn from others by
comparing his opinion with those of others.
• Participants’ learns to respect the viewpoints of
others and also realizes that there is more than one
workable approach to any problem.
• Seminars are also used for bringing various people
to a platform where they discuss various issues
relating to work.
• Seminars offer brainstorming platforms where more
than one brains work on solving work-related
problems.
• Seminars may include lecturing by external experts
as well.
(iii) Case Study
• The case method is a means of simulating
experience in the classroom.
• Trainees are given a problem or case which is more
or less related to the concepts and principles already
taught.
• Trainees analyze the problem and suggest solutions
which are discussed in the class.
• The Trainer helps them reach a common solution to
the problem.
• This method gives the trainee an opportunity to
apply his knowledge to the solution of realistic
problems.
• Cases may be used in either of the two ways.
• It can be used to the expansion of formal
theory under which the trainees apply their
knowledge of theory to specific situations.
• The trainees may be assigned the cases for
written analysis and oral discussion in the class
without any prior explanation of pertinent
concepts and theory.
The case study places heavy demands trainees
should have a good deal of maturity in the subject-
matter concerned.
The comprehension of cases can also vary.
(iv) Role Playing
• In Role Playing technique, the trainees are made to
experience what others feel of a particular situation.
• They understand the viewpoint of others and come
to know of constrains within which others are
working.
• Such an interaction and understanding helps in
reducing the dysfunctional conflicts within the
organizations.
• Many times, various departments of the organizations
disagree because they do not understand each others’
viewpoint.
• Role playing is an effective training technique to bridge the
differences between them.
For example: The sales staff is often asked to play the role
of the customers.
• Role-playing is a very flexible training method.
• It may be elaborately pre-planned, with each task specified.
• At the end the discussion trainer sum up the situation after
role-playing.
• This planning helps in time management otherwise the
exercise can go uncontrolled.
(v) Behavioural Simulation Games
• This method focus primarily on the process of inter-
personal relations, on how decisions are made, and
with what consequences, rather than on the
substance of the decisions.
• Structured exercises is used to predict all types of
simulations, but there is a distinction between a
game and an exercise.
• Games have set rules and have predictable results.
• Often, design of game is hidden in order to highlight
a behavioural process and to dramatize its effects.
• The repetition of the game becomes
meaningless on the other hand, repetition of
exercises simulate a process.
• Exercise provide scope for improvisation,
adaptation, and redesigning according to the
personal and situational needs.
Expert trainers use following steps for
designing instructional simulation:
1. Defining the instructional problems
2. Describing operational educational system.
3. Relating the operational system to the
problem.
4. Specifying objectives in behavioural terms.
5. Generating criterion measures.
6. Determining appropriateness of simulation.
7. Determining the type of simulation required.
8. Developing specifications of simulation experience.
9. Developing simulation type prototype.
10. Trying out simulation type prototype.
11. Modifying simulation type prototype.
12. Conducting field trial.
13. Making further modifications to the system on the
basis of the field trial.
(vi) In-basket Exercises
• These are more elaborate simulation exercises in
which a complex organization is created in the form
of an office environment. The trainees work in an
office setting with their in-basket full of
interdepartmental memos, letters, reports, forecasts
and other data on their desks, as one receives in an
office. The normal phone calls, emails and face to
face meetings also keep on happening to give a real
office-like environment. Such a simulation of the
office in-basket familiarizes the trainees with the role
that they are expected to play.
• They also get acquainted with the nature of
communication that they have to perform in the
work-settings. Critical incidents are also included in
the in-basket to familiarize to the trainees.
• While this is one of the most real-life experiences,
the trainees might get carried away with the
enactment of the scene and might not achieve the
desired goal, i.e. learning.
(vii) Laboratory training
• Laboratory training provides the participants with an
extensive experience of how various groups and
individuals interact in group situations.
• Laboratory is a controlled environment for training
where the external factor are not allowed to
interfere with the training process.
• The biggest advantage of laboratory training if its
effectiveness
• Limitation is that controlled conditions might not
provide a real-life enactment of the situations.
Thanks
• 7.7 Choosing the Right Training Method
• The availability of a wide range of training
methods and techniques poses a problem of
choosing the one that solves the
organizations’ problems. Various training
methods are compared on three grounds, as
specified below:
• 1. Comparing on the basis of training
objectives.
• The most commonly specified training
objectives, used as a basis for evaluating a
training programme are:
– • Realistic and manageable part of the job.
– • Help with internalizing learning.
– • Protection for participants and organization
against mistakes.
– • Learning to learn
• 2. Comparing on the basis of learning process
and its stages.
• The training method is evaluated on the basis
of the following characteristics of learning
process:
– • Training programme being realistic.
– • Interaction and involvement of training
programme.
– • Experiences arising out of a training programme.
– • Training programme practices.
• • Feedback of training programme.
• • Repeat practices and feedbacks.
• • Conceptual understanding of task and
change process.
• • Creative experimentation in a training
programme.
• 3. Comparing training methods on the basis of
the available time, skills, facilities and
resources.
• Every training programme consumes several
resources and the capacity of the organization
to sacrifice the same can also be one of the
bases of choosing a training programme
method.
Thanks
Traditional Training Methods Categories
7 - 61
A. Presentation Methods
B. Hands-on Methods
C. Group Building Methods
A. Presentation Methods
 Presentation methods refer to methods in
which trainees are passive recipients of
information.
 This information may include:
Facts or information
Processes
Problem – solving methods
 Presentation methods include:
Lectures
Audio-visual techniques
7 - 62
Presentation Methods: 1. Lecture
• Lecture involves the trainer communicating
through spoken words what he/she wants
the trainees to learn.
• The communication of learned capabilities
is primarily one-way – from the trainer to
the audience.
7 - 63
Lecture (continued)
• One of the least expensive, least time-
consuming ways to present a large amount
of information efficiently in an organized
manner.
• Useful because it is easily employed with
large groups of trainees.
7 - 64
Variations of the Lecture Method
7 - 65
Standard Lecture
Team Teaching
Guest SpeakersPanels
Student Presentations
Presentation Methods: 2. Audio-Visual Techniques
 Audio-visual instruction includes:
Overheads
Slides
Video
 It has been used for improving:
Communication skills
Interviewing skills
Customer-service skills
Illustrating how procedures should be followed
7 - 66
B. Hands-on Methods
• Hands-on methods refer to training methods
that require the trainee to be actively involved
in learning.
• These methods include:
– On-the-job training
– Simulations
– Case studies
– Business games
– Role plays
– Behavior modeling 7 - 67
B. Hands-on Methods: 1. On-the-Job Training
• On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or
inexperienced employees learning through
observing peers or managers performing the
job and trying to imitate their behavior.
• OJT includes:
– Self-directed learning programs
– Apprenticeships
7 - 68
On-the-Job Training (continued)
• OJT can be useful for:
–Training newly hired employees
–Upgrading experienced employees’ skills
when new technology is introduced
–Cross-training employees within a
department or work unit
–Orienting transferred or promoted
employees to their new jobs
7 - 69
Effective OJT Programs Include:
• A policy statement that describes the purpose
of OJT and emphasizes the company’s support
for it.
• A clear specification of who is accountable for
conducting OJT.
• A thorough review of OJT practices at other
companies in similar industries.
7 - 70
Effective OJT Programs (continued)
 Availability of lesson plans, checklists,
procedure manuals, training manuals,
learning contracts, and progress report
forms for use by employees who conduct
OJT.
 Evaluation of employees’ levels of basic
skills before OJT.
7 - 71
OJT Programs: i. Self-Directed Learning
 Employees take responsibility for all aspects
of learning:
When it is conducted
Who will be involved
 Trainees master predetermined training
content at their own pace without an
instructor.
 Trainers are available to evaluate learning or
answer questions for the trainee.
7 - 72
Self-Directed Learning (continued)
Advantages
• Learn at own pace
• Feedback about
learning performance
• Fewer trainers needed
• Consistent materials
• Multiple sites easier
• Fits employee shifts and
schedules
Disadvantages
• Trainees must be
motivated to learn on
their own
• Higher development
costs
• Higher development
time
7 - 73
OJT Programs: ii. Apprenticeship
• Work-study training method with both on-
the-job and classroom training.
• To qualify as a registered apprenticeship
program under state or federal regulations:
– 144 hours of classroom instruction
– 2000 hours (or one year) of OJT experience
• Can be sponsored by companies or unions.
• Most programs involve skilled trades.
7 - 74
Apprenticeship (continued)
Advantages
• Earn pay while learning
• Effective learning about
“why and how”
• Full-time employment
at completion
Disadvantages
• Limited access for
minorities and women
• No guarantee of full-
time employment
• Training results in
narrow focus expertise
7 - 75
Hands-on Methods: 2. Simulations
• Represents a real-life situation.
• Trainees’ decisions result in outcomes that
mirror what would happen if on the job.
• Used to teach:
– Production and process skills
– Management and interpersonal skills
7 - 76
Hand-on Methods: 3. Case Studies
 Description about how employees or an
organization dealt with a difficult situation.
 Trainees are required to:
Analyze and critique actions taken
Indicate the appropriate actions
Suggest what might have been done differently
 Major assumption of this approach is that
employees are most likely to recall and use
knowledge and skills learned through a
process of discovery.
7 - 77
Hands-on Methods: 4. Role Plays
• Trainees act out characters assigned to them.
• Information regarding the situation is
provided to the trainees.
• Focus on interpersonal responses.
• Outcomes depend on the emotional (and
subjective) reactions of the other trainees.
• The more meaningful the exercise, the higher
the level of participant focus and intensity.
7 - 78
Hands-on Methods: 5. Behavior Modeling
• Involves presenting trainees with a model who
demonstrates key behaviors to replicate.
• Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key
behaviors.
• Based on the principles of social learning theory.
• More appropriate for learning skills and behaviors
than factual information.
• Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer
skills.
7 - 79
C. Group Building Methods
 Group building methods refer to training
methods designed to improve team or group
effectiveness.
 Training directed at improving trainees’ skills as
well as team effectiveness.
 Group building methods involve trainees:
Sharing ideas and experiences
Building group identity
Understanding interpersonal dynamics
Learning their strengths and weaknesses and of
their co-workers.
7 - 80
Group Building Methods (continued)
• Group techniques focus on helping teams
increase their skills for effective teamwork.
• Group building methods include:
– Adventure learning
– Team training
– Action learning
7 - 81
Group Building Methods: 1. Adventure Learning
 Focuses on the development of teamwork and
leadership skills using structured outdoor
activities.
 Also known as wilderness training and outdoor
training.
 Best suited for developing skills related to
group effectiveness such as:
Self-awareness
Problem solving
Conflict management
Risk taking
7 - 82
Adventure Learning (continued)
 To be successful:
Exercises should be related to the types of
skills that participants are expected to
develop.
After the exercises, a skilled facilitator should
lead a discussion about
 what happened in the exercise
 what was learned
 how events in the exercise relate to job situation
 how to apply what was learned on the job
7 - 83
Group Building Methods: 2. Team Training
• Involves coordinating the performance of
individuals who work together to achieve a
common goal.
• Teams that are effectively trained develop
procedures to identify and resolve errors,
coordinate information gathering, and
reinforce each other.
7 - 84
Components of Team Performance
7 - 85
Behavior Knowledge Attitude
Team Performance
Main Elements of the Structure of Team Training
7 - 86
Tools
Team Task AnalysisTeam Task Analysis
Performance MeasurementPerformance Measurement
Task Simulation and ExercisesTask Simulation and Exercises
FeedbackFeedback
PrinciplesPrinciples
Methods
Information-BasedInformation-Based
Demonstration-Based VideoDemonstration-Based Video
Guided PracticeGuided Practice
Role PlayRole Play
Strategies
Cross-TrainingCross-Training
Coordination TrainingCoordination Training
Team Leader TrainingTeam Leader Training
Team Training Objectives
Content
KnowledgeKnowledge
SkillsSkills
AttitudesAttitudes
Group Building Methods: 3. Action Learning
• Involves giving teams or work groups:
– an actual problem,
– having them work on solving it,
– committing to an action plan, and
– holding them accountable for carrying out the
plan.
7 - 87
Action Learning (continued)
• Several types of problems are used including
how to:
–Change the business
–Better utilize technology
–Remove barriers between the customer and
company
–Develop global leaders
7 - 88
Choosing a Training Method
1. Identify the type of learning outcome that
you want training to influence.
2. Consider the extent to which the learning
method facilitates learning and transfer of
training.
3. Evaluate the costs related to development
and use of the method.
4. Consider the effectiveness of the training
method.
7 - 89
Thanks
Training Materials and aids
The effectiveness of trainers is determined by the
degree and diversity of skills he possesses in
communicating with the trainees. In the process
use of training aids and equipment becomes
necessary so as to enhance the intensity and pace
of learning. It become imperative for a trainer to
impart knowledge and skills to the trainees and
make it effective by selecting appropriate aid. The
trainer should strive to be innovative in modifying
the aid to make it more suitable to a specific
training situation. Contd…
The training aids can be divided into:
1.Non Projected aids
2.Projected Aids
3.Field work
1.Non-Projected Aid
•Charts
•Posters
•Flush Cards
•Flip Charts
•Model
•Chalk Boards
Contd…
Tips for technology Training
There are some useful techniques for technology
trainers.
•Avoid Abstract Language.
•Do not take the keyboard and mouse away from the
learner.
•Pay attention to your body language during the
session.
•Most user interfaces are not perfect.
•Help should be given in the beginning and not when
things have become jeopardized.
•A computer is a means to an end.
•Nobody is born knowing his stuff.
Instrumentation of Training
Definition: It refers to devices used to “assess, evaluate,
describe, classify and summarize the varied aspects of
human behaviour.
The need for instrumentation
In most training situations, the participants need information
about themselves in order to understand their own strengths
and areas of needed improvement in a better manner. We
call this kind of information feed-back. Personalized feed
back is important as it helps the participant to understand
how others see him. The feed back also helps the
participant to understand himself in a systematic manner.
Use of instrument helps to open such a channel.
Audio-Visual Materials
These materials provide an important channel of
communication between the trainers and the trainer
group. Audio visual aids represent another key element
in the transaction between the trainers and the training
group, through a situation, objects, a graph or a
diagram. This provides a multi-sensory approach to
training and instruction that can bring a refreshing
change in the learning environment enhance interest
and raise the attention level of the participants. The
materials are pictures images, films, video, 3
dimensional presentations, audio materials like tapes
etc. Contd…
Advantages of Audio-Visual
•For enhancing the performance levels of participants.
•The participants can relate to visual images and real
sound.
•Sometimes it can become a one way communication,
then one can promote participation through interaction
during the momentum and pace of presentation.
•Materials can always be revised for clarifying a point.
•This adds variety to presentation.
•A well selected film can vary the pace of presentation
and capture attention more easily.
2. Projected Aid
•Overhead Transparency Projector
•Opaque Sheet
•Slide and Film Stripes
•Films
•Computer with LCD
3. Field Work
It is through this method that trainees perceive
things better, relate theory with practice and
give rich feedback to the training agency.
Thanks
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Ice breaker.
• Previously nominated student to introduce an ice breaker
• Introduction
• What type of training aids are there.
• Last lesson.
• Learning outcome.
• Lesson structure.
• Why should we use a variety of training aids.
• Title
• Training aids.
• Aim
• To provide the learner with the skills and knowledge use
various training aids.
• Learning Outcome
• At the end of the session the learner willl be able to use a
variety of training aids for the delivery of skills lesson plan, in
a classroom situation.
• Assessment Criteria
• Successfully deliver a variety of training aids in a classroom
situation.
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Overheads
• Computer projections
• Whiteboard
• Electronic whiteboard
• Posters and charts
• Flip charts
• Prepared video
• Models
• Real samples
• Equipment
What training aids can we use:What training aids can we use:
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Overhead transparency
– 5-7 points per overhead.
– Size and space important.
– Use creativity in you layout.
– Professional overheads enhance
presentation.
– Use graphics.
– Use colours.
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Video Production
– Scripting
• Transfer thinking to paper.
– What are you trying to do.
» Use story board for plan of action.
–Determine what will be used for each scene..
–Sketch and describe each scene.
–Prepare appropriate dialogue to complement each scene.
–Shoot each of the scenes.
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Scripting for making a overhead transparency
using the photocopier.
– Materials
• Photocopier
• Overhead
• Transparency
– Stages, Steps and Key points
• Use stages from task analysis as scenes.
• Use steps from each stage for each scene.
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Group activity
– Form into 2 groups.
– Group No 1. prepare an overhead using Microsoft
Powerpoint.
• List stages and steps to make an overhead
transparency using a photocopier.
– Group No 2. prepare a short video aid.
• How to make an overhead transparency using the
photocopier.
– Present to class.
– Handout on Video Production.
Training AidsTraining Aids
• Conclusion
– Outcomes
• What are training aids.
• Why is it important to use a variety of
training aids.
– Feedback
• Questions.
– Future Session.
• Evaluation.
Training AidsTraining Aids

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Training Methods, Techniques & Pedagogy, Training aids & Tools, Facilities for Training

  • 1. Subject: MBA/3305/H - Management of Training & development.(MTD) Unit - IV
  • 2. Unit – IV Subject: MTD Training Methods: • Techniques & Pedagogy, • Training aids & Tools, • Facilities for Training
  • 3. 7 - 3 Training Methods: Techniques & Pedagogy Training Methods: Techniques & Pedagogy
  • 4. Pedagogy of Training • Knowledge is a necessary but not sufficient condition for employees to perform their jobs. • Knowledge must be translated into behavior. • Training has always been more of an art than science. 7 - 4
  • 5. • The availability of numerous training aids and lots of scientific studies on learning are conducted but, it is the choice of trainer using the best method to facilitate learning. • Training has to cater to the diverse needs of the heterogeneous groups. • Training has diverse objectives and the trainees have varying skill levels. • One type of training method cannot serve the needs at all times.
  • 6. Types of Training • Training can be classified into many types, depending upon several bases. • On the basis of purpose, several types of training programmes, which are not mutually exclusive, are offered to the employees. • Training programmes invariably overlap and employ many common techniques.
  • 7. Some of the important types of training programmes are as follows: 1. Orientation or Induction training. 2. Job training. 3. Apprenticeship training 4. Internship training 5. Refresher training 6. Training for promotion.
  • 8. 1. Orientation or Induction Training • Introducing or orienting a new employee to the organization. • Introduction is related to procedures, rules and regulations , working conditions, etc. • Employees are familiarized with the work environment and with his fellow employees. • This is friendly welcome.
  • 9. • The purpose is to give a ‘bird’s eye view’ of the organization where he has to work. • It is a very short and informative type of training given immediately after recruitment. • It creates a feeling of involvement in the minds of newly appointed employees.
  • 10. 2. Job Training • This training relates to the specific job, which the worker has to perform. • It gives information about machines, process of production, instructions to be followed, methods to be used and so on. • It develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently. • It helps in creating interest of the employees in their jobs.
  • 11. 3. Apprenticeship Training • The governments of various countries, including India, have passed laws which make it obligatory for certain classes of employers to provide apprenticeship training to the young people. • The usual apprenticeship programmes combine on the job training and experience with classroom instructions in particular subjects. • The trainees receive wages while learning and they acquire valuable skills, which command a high wage in the labour market.
  • 12. • In India, there are several ‘earn while you learn’ schemes both in the private as well as public sector undertakings. • Some employers look upon apprentices as a source of cheap labor. • Apprenticeship training is desirable in industries, which require a constant flow of new employees expected to become all round craftsmen. • It is very much common in printing trades, building and construction, and crafts like mechanics electricians, welders, etc.
  • 13. 4. Internship Training • Under this type of training programme the academic institute and Industrial enterprise enters into an arrangement (contract) for providing practical knowledge to its students. • Through Internship training the advanced theoretical knowledge has to be backed up by practical experience on the job. • Ex: Engineering students are sent to big industrial enterprises for getting practical work experience and medical students are sent to big hospitals to get practical knowledge.
  • 14. • The period of such training varies from six months to two years. • The trainees do not belong to the business enterprises, but they come from the vocational or professional institutions. • It is quite usual that the enterprises giving them training absorb them by offering suitable jobs after completion of their trainings.
  • 15. 5. Refresher Training • It is for the old employees of the enterprise. It is also called retraining. • To acquaint the existing workforce with the latest methods of performing their jobs and to improve their efficiency further. • Dale Yoder has rightly remarked, “Retraining programmes are designed to avoid personnel obsolescence”.
  • 16. Refresher training is essential because of the following factors: (a) To bring workers up-to-date with the knowledge and skills and to relearn what they have forgotten. (b) Rapid technological changes make even the qualified workers obsolete. The workers need to learn new work methods to use new techniques in doing their jobs. (c) Refresher training becomes necessary because many new jobs that are created due to changes in the demand for goods and services are to be handled by the existing employees.
  • 17. 6. Training for Promotion • The talented employees may be given adequate training to make them eligible for promotion to higher jobs in the organization. • Promotion of an employee means a significant change in his responsibilities and duties. • It is essential that employees be provided sufficient training to learn new skills to perform his new duties efficiently. • The purpose of training for promotion is to develop the existing employees to make them fit for undertaking higher job responsibilities.
  • 19. Lecture - 2 Methods of Training
  • 20. Methods of Training • There is a wide range of training methods and techniques have been developed over the years by various organizations and training experts. • Different training methods are suitable for different categories of people e.g. managerial and non- managerial, technical, administrative, skilled, unskilled, senior, junior etc. • Each organization has to choose the methods and techniques of training which are relevant for its training needs.
  • 21. Various methods of training may be classified into the following categories: I. On-the-job training. II. Vestibule training. III. Off-the-job training.
  • 22. Methods of Training: l. On-the-job Training (at the place of work) (i) Coaching (ii) Understudy (iii) Position Rotation II. Vestibule Training (adapted to the environment at the place of work) III. Off-the-job Training (away from the place of work) (i)Special Lecture-cum-Discussion (ii) Conference (iii) Case Study (iv) Sensitivity training (v) Special projects (vi) Committee assignments.
  • 23. 1. On-The-Job Training • Under this method, the worker is given training at the work place by his immediate supervisor. • The worker learns in the actual work environment. “learning by doing”. • It is suitable for imparting skills that can be learnt in a relatively short period of time. • It has the chief advantage of strongly motivating the trainee to learn.
  • 24. • It is not located in an artificial situation. It permits the trainee to learn on the equipment and in the work-environment. • On-the-job training methods are relatively cheaper and less time consuming . • On-the-job training is considered to be the most effective method of training the operative personnel.
  • 25. There are three methods of on-the-job training (i)Coaching. Under this method, the supervisor imparts job knowledge and skills to his subordinate. The emphasis in coaching or instructing the subordinate is on learning by doing. This method is very effective if the superior has sufficient time.
  • 26. (ii) Understudy. The superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy or assistant. The subordinate learns through experience and observation. It prepares the subordinate to assume the responsibilities of the superior’s job. The purpose of under study is to prepare someone to fill the vacancy caused by death, retirement, promotion, or transfer of the superior.
  • 27. (iii) Position Rotation. The purpose of Position rotation is to broaden the background of the trainee in various positions, so that he acquires a general background of different jobs. • However, rotation of an employee from one job to another should not be done frequently, so that he may acquire the full knowledge of the job. • It is used to develop all-round-workers. The employees learn new skills and gain experience in handling different kinds of jobs. The employees learn the interrelationship between different jobs.
  • 28. Importance of On-the-job training • On-the-job training techniques are most appropriate for teaching knowledge and skills that can be learnt in a relatively short time. • If Trainer (Supervisor) understands training principles and methods and if he takes an interest in proper training, this can be very effective. • Its chief advantage is that, it strongly motivating the trainee to learn.
  • 29. • It is not located in an artificial situation, either physically or psychologically. It permits the trainee to learn at the actual equipment and in the environment of the job. • On-the-job training methods are relatively cheaper and less time consuming. • If only a few persons are to be trained at one time, it is cheaper for the employer as production does not suffer. • Line supervisors take an important part in training their subordinates.
  • 30. Why OJT is most effective? • On-the-job training is the most effective method of training the employees because it is in complete accord with the three basic laws of learning: (i) The law of readiness; (ii) The law of exercise; and (iii) The law of effect. • When a person is confronted with a job which he is potentially able to do and is interested in learning how to do a job in order to hold it.
  • 31. 2. Vestibule Training Method • Vestibule means a cabin and the term ‘vestibule training’ is used to designate training in a cabin (or a classroom) for semi-skilled jobs. • It is more suitable where a large number of employees have be trained at the same time for the same kind of work. • Well-qualified instructors in charge of training programme is required. • In this training method emphasis tends to be on learning rather than production. Eg. clerks, machine operators, typists, etc.
  • 32. • An attempt is made to duplicate, as nearly as possible, the actual material, equipment and conditions found in the real work place. • In vestibule training, the workers are trained on specific jobs in a school run by the organization. • Vestibule training is particularly suitable where it is not advisable to put the burden of training on line supervisors and where a special coaching is required. • The staff of the vestibule school consists of expert and specialist instructors.
  • 33. • Their activities do not interfere with the regular processes of production. • The artificial training atmosphere may create the adjustment problem for the trainees when they return to the place of job. • Vestibule training is relatively expensive because there is duplication of materials, equipment and conditions found in a real work-place.
  • 35. Lecture - 3 3. Off-The-Job Training • The biggest demerit of off-the-job training methods is that it require the worker to be absent from his work place. • Off-the-job training is the specialized, needs the use of sophisticated equipment, and specialist trainer. • The workers are free of tension of work while they are learning.
  • 36. There are several off-the-job training methods as described below: (i) Special Lecture cum Discussion. (ii) Conference / Seminar Training. (iii) Case Study. (iv) Role Playing (v) Behavioural Simulation Games (vi) In-basket Exercises (vii) Laboratory training
  • 37. (i) Special Lecture cum Discussion • It is a ‘class-room training’ associated with imparting knowledge than with skills. • Executives of the organization or specialists from vocational and professional institutes may deliver the special lectures. • Experts for special lectures on areas like health, safety, productivity, quality, etc. • All jobs that can be learnt better in the classroom than on the job. Ex: Orientation about organization and safety training can be accomplished more effectively in the classroom.
  • 38. • Trainer or Expert must have considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. • He should be able to communicate his thoughts by developing the interest in the class. • The trainees generally take notes as an aid to learning. • The lecture method can be used for providing instructions to large groups. Thus, the cost per trainee is low.
  • 39. Lecture method has certain limitations as- • The learners may be passive. • It violates the principle of learning by doing. • It constitutes, one-way communication. It can be made more interactive by permitting learners to ask questions. • Lectures can easily be combined with other techniques like lecture-cum-discussion method, Formal reading assignment or demonstration and video films.
  • 40. (ii) Conference / Seminar Training • The conference implies sharing some information with an audience of a large number of people. • It is conducted in a big hall where the participants are allowed to exchange their views and raise queries. • The proceedings of the conference are conducted by the chairman who is also responsible for summing up the proceedings of the conference. • Video conferencing is also gaining popularity under which people can participate in the conference through link via satellite.
  • 41. • A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organized plan in which the members seek to develop knowledge and understanding by oral participation. • It is an effective training device for persons in the positions of both conference member and conference leader. • As a member, a person can learn from others by comparing his opinion with those of others.
  • 42. • Participants’ learns to respect the viewpoints of others and also realizes that there is more than one workable approach to any problem. • Seminars are also used for bringing various people to a platform where they discuss various issues relating to work. • Seminars offer brainstorming platforms where more than one brains work on solving work-related problems. • Seminars may include lecturing by external experts as well.
  • 43. (iii) Case Study • The case method is a means of simulating experience in the classroom. • Trainees are given a problem or case which is more or less related to the concepts and principles already taught. • Trainees analyze the problem and suggest solutions which are discussed in the class. • The Trainer helps them reach a common solution to the problem. • This method gives the trainee an opportunity to apply his knowledge to the solution of realistic problems.
  • 44. • Cases may be used in either of the two ways. • It can be used to the expansion of formal theory under which the trainees apply their knowledge of theory to specific situations. • The trainees may be assigned the cases for written analysis and oral discussion in the class without any prior explanation of pertinent concepts and theory. The case study places heavy demands trainees should have a good deal of maturity in the subject- matter concerned. The comprehension of cases can also vary.
  • 45. (iv) Role Playing • In Role Playing technique, the trainees are made to experience what others feel of a particular situation. • They understand the viewpoint of others and come to know of constrains within which others are working. • Such an interaction and understanding helps in reducing the dysfunctional conflicts within the organizations.
  • 46. • Many times, various departments of the organizations disagree because they do not understand each others’ viewpoint. • Role playing is an effective training technique to bridge the differences between them. For example: The sales staff is often asked to play the role of the customers. • Role-playing is a very flexible training method. • It may be elaborately pre-planned, with each task specified. • At the end the discussion trainer sum up the situation after role-playing. • This planning helps in time management otherwise the exercise can go uncontrolled.
  • 47. (v) Behavioural Simulation Games • This method focus primarily on the process of inter- personal relations, on how decisions are made, and with what consequences, rather than on the substance of the decisions. • Structured exercises is used to predict all types of simulations, but there is a distinction between a game and an exercise. • Games have set rules and have predictable results. • Often, design of game is hidden in order to highlight a behavioural process and to dramatize its effects.
  • 48. • The repetition of the game becomes meaningless on the other hand, repetition of exercises simulate a process. • Exercise provide scope for improvisation, adaptation, and redesigning according to the personal and situational needs.
  • 49. Expert trainers use following steps for designing instructional simulation: 1. Defining the instructional problems 2. Describing operational educational system. 3. Relating the operational system to the problem. 4. Specifying objectives in behavioural terms. 5. Generating criterion measures. 6. Determining appropriateness of simulation.
  • 50. 7. Determining the type of simulation required. 8. Developing specifications of simulation experience. 9. Developing simulation type prototype. 10. Trying out simulation type prototype. 11. Modifying simulation type prototype. 12. Conducting field trial. 13. Making further modifications to the system on the basis of the field trial.
  • 51. (vi) In-basket Exercises • These are more elaborate simulation exercises in which a complex organization is created in the form of an office environment. The trainees work in an office setting with their in-basket full of interdepartmental memos, letters, reports, forecasts and other data on their desks, as one receives in an office. The normal phone calls, emails and face to face meetings also keep on happening to give a real office-like environment. Such a simulation of the office in-basket familiarizes the trainees with the role that they are expected to play.
  • 52. • They also get acquainted with the nature of communication that they have to perform in the work-settings. Critical incidents are also included in the in-basket to familiarize to the trainees. • While this is one of the most real-life experiences, the trainees might get carried away with the enactment of the scene and might not achieve the desired goal, i.e. learning.
  • 53. (vii) Laboratory training • Laboratory training provides the participants with an extensive experience of how various groups and individuals interact in group situations. • Laboratory is a controlled environment for training where the external factor are not allowed to interfere with the training process. • The biggest advantage of laboratory training if its effectiveness • Limitation is that controlled conditions might not provide a real-life enactment of the situations.
  • 55. • 7.7 Choosing the Right Training Method • The availability of a wide range of training methods and techniques poses a problem of choosing the one that solves the organizations’ problems. Various training methods are compared on three grounds, as specified below:
  • 56. • 1. Comparing on the basis of training objectives. • The most commonly specified training objectives, used as a basis for evaluating a training programme are: – • Realistic and manageable part of the job. – • Help with internalizing learning. – • Protection for participants and organization against mistakes. – • Learning to learn
  • 57. • 2. Comparing on the basis of learning process and its stages. • The training method is evaluated on the basis of the following characteristics of learning process: – • Training programme being realistic. – • Interaction and involvement of training programme. – • Experiences arising out of a training programme. – • Training programme practices.
  • 58. • • Feedback of training programme. • • Repeat practices and feedbacks. • • Conceptual understanding of task and change process. • • Creative experimentation in a training programme.
  • 59. • 3. Comparing training methods on the basis of the available time, skills, facilities and resources. • Every training programme consumes several resources and the capacity of the organization to sacrifice the same can also be one of the bases of choosing a training programme method.
  • 61. Traditional Training Methods Categories 7 - 61 A. Presentation Methods B. Hands-on Methods C. Group Building Methods
  • 62. A. Presentation Methods  Presentation methods refer to methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information.  This information may include: Facts or information Processes Problem – solving methods  Presentation methods include: Lectures Audio-visual techniques 7 - 62
  • 63. Presentation Methods: 1. Lecture • Lecture involves the trainer communicating through spoken words what he/she wants the trainees to learn. • The communication of learned capabilities is primarily one-way – from the trainer to the audience. 7 - 63
  • 64. Lecture (continued) • One of the least expensive, least time- consuming ways to present a large amount of information efficiently in an organized manner. • Useful because it is easily employed with large groups of trainees. 7 - 64
  • 65. Variations of the Lecture Method 7 - 65 Standard Lecture Team Teaching Guest SpeakersPanels Student Presentations
  • 66. Presentation Methods: 2. Audio-Visual Techniques  Audio-visual instruction includes: Overheads Slides Video  It has been used for improving: Communication skills Interviewing skills Customer-service skills Illustrating how procedures should be followed 7 - 66
  • 67. B. Hands-on Methods • Hands-on methods refer to training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning. • These methods include: – On-the-job training – Simulations – Case studies – Business games – Role plays – Behavior modeling 7 - 67
  • 68. B. Hands-on Methods: 1. On-the-Job Training • On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior. • OJT includes: – Self-directed learning programs – Apprenticeships 7 - 68
  • 69. On-the-Job Training (continued) • OJT can be useful for: –Training newly hired employees –Upgrading experienced employees’ skills when new technology is introduced –Cross-training employees within a department or work unit –Orienting transferred or promoted employees to their new jobs 7 - 69
  • 70. Effective OJT Programs Include: • A policy statement that describes the purpose of OJT and emphasizes the company’s support for it. • A clear specification of who is accountable for conducting OJT. • A thorough review of OJT practices at other companies in similar industries. 7 - 70
  • 71. Effective OJT Programs (continued)  Availability of lesson plans, checklists, procedure manuals, training manuals, learning contracts, and progress report forms for use by employees who conduct OJT.  Evaluation of employees’ levels of basic skills before OJT. 7 - 71
  • 72. OJT Programs: i. Self-Directed Learning  Employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning: When it is conducted Who will be involved  Trainees master predetermined training content at their own pace without an instructor.  Trainers are available to evaluate learning or answer questions for the trainee. 7 - 72
  • 73. Self-Directed Learning (continued) Advantages • Learn at own pace • Feedback about learning performance • Fewer trainers needed • Consistent materials • Multiple sites easier • Fits employee shifts and schedules Disadvantages • Trainees must be motivated to learn on their own • Higher development costs • Higher development time 7 - 73
  • 74. OJT Programs: ii. Apprenticeship • Work-study training method with both on- the-job and classroom training. • To qualify as a registered apprenticeship program under state or federal regulations: – 144 hours of classroom instruction – 2000 hours (or one year) of OJT experience • Can be sponsored by companies or unions. • Most programs involve skilled trades. 7 - 74
  • 75. Apprenticeship (continued) Advantages • Earn pay while learning • Effective learning about “why and how” • Full-time employment at completion Disadvantages • Limited access for minorities and women • No guarantee of full- time employment • Training results in narrow focus expertise 7 - 75
  • 76. Hands-on Methods: 2. Simulations • Represents a real-life situation. • Trainees’ decisions result in outcomes that mirror what would happen if on the job. • Used to teach: – Production and process skills – Management and interpersonal skills 7 - 76
  • 77. Hand-on Methods: 3. Case Studies  Description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation.  Trainees are required to: Analyze and critique actions taken Indicate the appropriate actions Suggest what might have been done differently  Major assumption of this approach is that employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge and skills learned through a process of discovery. 7 - 77
  • 78. Hands-on Methods: 4. Role Plays • Trainees act out characters assigned to them. • Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. • Focus on interpersonal responses. • Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. • The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity. 7 - 78
  • 79. Hands-on Methods: 5. Behavior Modeling • Involves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate. • Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors. • Based on the principles of social learning theory. • More appropriate for learning skills and behaviors than factual information. • Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills. 7 - 79
  • 80. C. Group Building Methods  Group building methods refer to training methods designed to improve team or group effectiveness.  Training directed at improving trainees’ skills as well as team effectiveness.  Group building methods involve trainees: Sharing ideas and experiences Building group identity Understanding interpersonal dynamics Learning their strengths and weaknesses and of their co-workers. 7 - 80
  • 81. Group Building Methods (continued) • Group techniques focus on helping teams increase their skills for effective teamwork. • Group building methods include: – Adventure learning – Team training – Action learning 7 - 81
  • 82. Group Building Methods: 1. Adventure Learning  Focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills using structured outdoor activities.  Also known as wilderness training and outdoor training.  Best suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness such as: Self-awareness Problem solving Conflict management Risk taking 7 - 82
  • 83. Adventure Learning (continued)  To be successful: Exercises should be related to the types of skills that participants are expected to develop. After the exercises, a skilled facilitator should lead a discussion about  what happened in the exercise  what was learned  how events in the exercise relate to job situation  how to apply what was learned on the job 7 - 83
  • 84. Group Building Methods: 2. Team Training • Involves coordinating the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal. • Teams that are effectively trained develop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other. 7 - 84
  • 85. Components of Team Performance 7 - 85 Behavior Knowledge Attitude Team Performance
  • 86. Main Elements of the Structure of Team Training 7 - 86 Tools Team Task AnalysisTeam Task Analysis Performance MeasurementPerformance Measurement Task Simulation and ExercisesTask Simulation and Exercises FeedbackFeedback PrinciplesPrinciples Methods Information-BasedInformation-Based Demonstration-Based VideoDemonstration-Based Video Guided PracticeGuided Practice Role PlayRole Play Strategies Cross-TrainingCross-Training Coordination TrainingCoordination Training Team Leader TrainingTeam Leader Training Team Training Objectives Content KnowledgeKnowledge SkillsSkills AttitudesAttitudes
  • 87. Group Building Methods: 3. Action Learning • Involves giving teams or work groups: – an actual problem, – having them work on solving it, – committing to an action plan, and – holding them accountable for carrying out the plan. 7 - 87
  • 88. Action Learning (continued) • Several types of problems are used including how to: –Change the business –Better utilize technology –Remove barriers between the customer and company –Develop global leaders 7 - 88
  • 89. Choosing a Training Method 1. Identify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence. 2. Consider the extent to which the learning method facilitates learning and transfer of training. 3. Evaluate the costs related to development and use of the method. 4. Consider the effectiveness of the training method. 7 - 89
  • 91. Training Materials and aids The effectiveness of trainers is determined by the degree and diversity of skills he possesses in communicating with the trainees. In the process use of training aids and equipment becomes necessary so as to enhance the intensity and pace of learning. It become imperative for a trainer to impart knowledge and skills to the trainees and make it effective by selecting appropriate aid. The trainer should strive to be innovative in modifying the aid to make it more suitable to a specific training situation. Contd…
  • 92. The training aids can be divided into: 1.Non Projected aids 2.Projected Aids 3.Field work 1.Non-Projected Aid •Charts •Posters •Flush Cards •Flip Charts •Model •Chalk Boards Contd…
  • 93. Tips for technology Training There are some useful techniques for technology trainers. •Avoid Abstract Language. •Do not take the keyboard and mouse away from the learner. •Pay attention to your body language during the session. •Most user interfaces are not perfect. •Help should be given in the beginning and not when things have become jeopardized. •A computer is a means to an end. •Nobody is born knowing his stuff.
  • 94. Instrumentation of Training Definition: It refers to devices used to “assess, evaluate, describe, classify and summarize the varied aspects of human behaviour. The need for instrumentation In most training situations, the participants need information about themselves in order to understand their own strengths and areas of needed improvement in a better manner. We call this kind of information feed-back. Personalized feed back is important as it helps the participant to understand how others see him. The feed back also helps the participant to understand himself in a systematic manner. Use of instrument helps to open such a channel.
  • 95. Audio-Visual Materials These materials provide an important channel of communication between the trainers and the trainer group. Audio visual aids represent another key element in the transaction between the trainers and the training group, through a situation, objects, a graph or a diagram. This provides a multi-sensory approach to training and instruction that can bring a refreshing change in the learning environment enhance interest and raise the attention level of the participants. The materials are pictures images, films, video, 3 dimensional presentations, audio materials like tapes etc. Contd…
  • 96. Advantages of Audio-Visual •For enhancing the performance levels of participants. •The participants can relate to visual images and real sound. •Sometimes it can become a one way communication, then one can promote participation through interaction during the momentum and pace of presentation. •Materials can always be revised for clarifying a point. •This adds variety to presentation. •A well selected film can vary the pace of presentation and capture attention more easily.
  • 97. 2. Projected Aid •Overhead Transparency Projector •Opaque Sheet •Slide and Film Stripes •Films •Computer with LCD 3. Field Work It is through this method that trainees perceive things better, relate theory with practice and give rich feedback to the training agency.
  • 99. Training AidsTraining Aids • Ice breaker. • Previously nominated student to introduce an ice breaker • Introduction • What type of training aids are there. • Last lesson. • Learning outcome. • Lesson structure. • Why should we use a variety of training aids.
  • 100. • Title • Training aids. • Aim • To provide the learner with the skills and knowledge use various training aids. • Learning Outcome • At the end of the session the learner willl be able to use a variety of training aids for the delivery of skills lesson plan, in a classroom situation. • Assessment Criteria • Successfully deliver a variety of training aids in a classroom situation. Training AidsTraining Aids
  • 101. • Overheads • Computer projections • Whiteboard • Electronic whiteboard • Posters and charts • Flip charts • Prepared video • Models • Real samples • Equipment What training aids can we use:What training aids can we use: Training AidsTraining Aids
  • 102. • Overhead transparency – 5-7 points per overhead. – Size and space important. – Use creativity in you layout. – Professional overheads enhance presentation. – Use graphics. – Use colours. Training AidsTraining Aids
  • 103. • Video Production – Scripting • Transfer thinking to paper. – What are you trying to do. » Use story board for plan of action. –Determine what will be used for each scene.. –Sketch and describe each scene. –Prepare appropriate dialogue to complement each scene. –Shoot each of the scenes. Training AidsTraining Aids
  • 104. • Scripting for making a overhead transparency using the photocopier. – Materials • Photocopier • Overhead • Transparency – Stages, Steps and Key points • Use stages from task analysis as scenes. • Use steps from each stage for each scene. Training AidsTraining Aids
  • 105. • Group activity – Form into 2 groups. – Group No 1. prepare an overhead using Microsoft Powerpoint. • List stages and steps to make an overhead transparency using a photocopier. – Group No 2. prepare a short video aid. • How to make an overhead transparency using the photocopier. – Present to class. – Handout on Video Production. Training AidsTraining Aids
  • 106. • Conclusion – Outcomes • What are training aids. • Why is it important to use a variety of training aids. – Feedback • Questions. – Future Session. • Evaluation. Training AidsTraining Aids

Editor's Notes

  1. Introduction Ice breaker. Students have previously been nominated to introduce an ice breaker at the beginning of each lesson. Student introduces ice breaker to set scene for lesson. GLOSS What type of training methods are there. Last lesson. Learning outcome. Lesson structure. Why should we use a variety of training methods.
  2. Module: Workplace Training. Title Training methods. Aim To provide the learner with the skills and knowledge use various training methods. Learning Outcome At the end of the session the learner willl be able to use a variety of training methods for the delivery of skills lesson plan, in a classroom situation. Assessment Criteria Successfully deliver a variety of training methods in a classroom situation.
  3. Handout: Supply students with a copy of Page 149 to 155, of Tovey
  4. Conclusion to lesson using the OFF format.