Improvement in educational techniques


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Improvement in educational techniques

  1. 1. <ul><li>A.L.GURUJI K.M.BHAVSAR </li></ul><ul><li>LECTURER E.C. MEMBER & LECTURER </li></ul><ul><li>CIVIL ENGG. DEPT. MECH. ENGG. DEPT. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  2. 2. Teaching methods <ul><li>Recitation and Response-to-Command Method </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture Method </li></ul><ul><li>Project Method </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-study Method </li></ul><ul><li>Direct-Practice Method </li></ul><ul><li>Group Method </li></ul><ul><li>Group Discussion Method </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic Method </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration Method </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. RECITATION AND RESPONSE-TO-COMMAND METHOD <ul><li>The recitation method as the classroom method and the Response-to-command method as an activity method. </li></ul><ul><li>In classroom form, recitation consist of teacher-dominated procedures in which students study, read or answer questions posed by the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Response-to-command method, the teacher giving precise directions, often proceeding, following, or concurrently with demonstrations, with all students responding to the directions in like form. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Practical on any instrument, Learning Car from tutor . </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2.Lecture Method <ul><li>Introduction to subject </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining attention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stating objective </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recalling previous learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of topic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New material </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Guidance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliciting performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarization of topic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing final performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing retention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. A good lecture has following properties <ul><li>It is well planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher should feel confident while delivering lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture should go according to plan . </li></ul><ul><li>There should not be long talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Break lecture into parts . </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement the lecture with visual aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Emote voice tone when delivering lecture . </li></ul><ul><li>There should be moderate movement during lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Include real life example . </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the things covered in lecture. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3.Project Method <ul><li>Original aim was to enable students to put into practice what they learned in class. It generally was considered “outside” work. </li></ul><ul><li>Its chief feature is that subject-matter learning is held secondary to a real-life purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>As originally conceived, the project method was an individualized technique, with each student pursuing his project on his own. </li></ul><ul><li>It is equally effective when used for group projects, the size of the group depending upon the nature of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Assigning subject related project to final year student. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 4.DIRECT-STUDY METHOD <ul><li>Direct-study means assigning of outside work to students. </li></ul><ul><li>The effectiveness of outside assignment depends upon several factors. </li></ul><ul><li>When an assignment is given, it should be clear to all. </li></ul>
  9. 9. DIRECT-STUDY METHOD <ul><li>Exact direction should be given and there should be opportunities for students to shed light on questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments should be relevant to the course and closely related to the total activity. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. site visit of students to power plant, construction site </li></ul>
  10. 10. 5.DIRECT-PRACTICE METHOD <ul><li>Direct practice method proposes outside assignments for practice of motor skill and for development of physical condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of the skills and of needed practice may be learned in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Students generally need more practice to master motor skills that cannot be provided during scheduled class periods. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DIRECT-PRACTICE METHOD: <ul><li>The basics of practical may be covered in practical classes but actual conditions cannot be created in practical class. </li></ul><ul><li>Obviously, the question arises to the faithfulness of students in actually carrying out these directed-practice procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Automobile work, car repairing,scooter repairing,mobile repairing </li></ul>
  12. 12. 6.GROUP METHOD <ul><li>Modern educational practice is based primarily on group activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching requires an understanding of the group behavior of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems and issues must be solved over the conference table, in groups of various sizes and kinds, and be peaceful cooperative means. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Group dynamic, is simply the study of what happens within a group. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with </li></ul><ul><li>What motivates individual members of a group? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they interact with each other? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the most effective means of communication? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors give status within a group? </li></ul><ul><li>How do leaders emerge? </li></ul><ul><li>On the basis of their findings, new modes of group action certainly emerge. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 7. GROUP-DISCUSSION METHOD <ul><li>Group-discussion is an educational technique primarily designed for use in situations where a problem needs solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions are carried in the regular class period, in extra class activities, and in the cocurricular activities such as assemblies, community programmes and parent-teacher-association meetings. </li></ul>
  15. 15. GROUP-DISCUSSION METHOD <ul><li>The group-discussion method has both individual and group value. </li></ul><ul><li>It aids the individual to learn to express himself in front of others, be tolerant to the opinions of others, and improve his ability to think critically about the issues of a problem. </li></ul>
  16. 16. GROUP-DISCUSSION METHOD <ul><li>When students are skillful enough to assume leadership of discussion sessions, the teacher’s responsibilities change but do not diminish. </li></ul><ul><li>He continually evaluates group progress to ascertain that straight thinking dominates the process. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 8. DRAMATIC METHOD <ul><li>With the dramatic method, subject matter is dramatized in various ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and informal plays, parodies, and other dramatic forms are utilized to emotionalize and visualize materials. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 9:DEMOSTRATION METHOD: <ul><li>The demonstration method directs the organization of classes toward preparation for a public performance of some kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration refers more precisely to noncompetitive-type public performances with emphasis placed on skill and form. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion: <ul><li>Different methods may be combined as per needs and that too depend on ability of a teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Particular group of student may be well responsive in some of method(i.e. lecture method) but other group of student may work excellent in particular teaching method.(i.e. Project method, Dramatic method) </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Basic subjects can be taught with specific method to certain age group. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. language like sanskrit ,hindi taught by recitation method. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult theme like good construction work and bad construction work can be dramatized </li></ul>