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MBA – SecondSemester
1 | P a g e
Career Point
University
KOTA (RAJ.)
OPERATION MANAGEMENT
“Project on JIT Analysis”
Submit...
MBA – SecondSemester
2 | P a g e
Index
 Abstract Pg. 03
 Introduction Pg. 04
 Theory of JIT Pg. 05
 How to Use Just-In...
MBA – SecondSemester
3 | P a g e
ABSTRACT
JIT production system identifies the hidden problems in the value chain and redu...
MBA – SecondSemester
4 | P a g e
INTRODUCTION
Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing is a Japanese management philosophy applied...
MBA – SecondSemester
5 | P a g e
stage of the production irrespective of whether time and resources are needed at the next...
MBA – SecondSemester
6 | P a g e
and time. Less space and time require less peoples and facilities to complete the same jo...
MBA – SecondSemester
7 | P a g e
company’s processes and systems enable it to order and receive inventory and build comput...
MBA – SecondSemester
8 | P a g e
Cons:
The primary disadvantage to JIT is its relative complexity. Management must rethink...
MBA – SecondSemester
9 | P a g e
Disadvantages:
The disadvantages of just-in-time inventories involve disruptions in the s...
MBA – SecondSemester
10 | P a g e
Toyota is considered by many to be the poster child for JIT success. The Toyota producti...
MBA – SecondSemester
11 | P a g e
Harley Davidson:
Harley Davidson’s use of JIT is mostly characterized by its transformat...
MBA – SecondSemester
12 | P a g e
shifts in market demand. The smaller lot-size production made possible by reduced setup ...
MBA – SecondSemester
13 | P a g e
compatible with the degree of employee participation required to satisfy Western workers...
MBA – SecondSemester
14 | P a g e
Conclusion:
Just-In-Time is a manufacturing philosophy which leads to producing the requ...
MBA – SecondSemester
15 | P a g e
and supplying companies to adopt
and implement. Technically, procedurally and managerial...
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Just In Time Analysis

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Just In Time Analysis

  1. 1. MBA – SecondSemester 1 | P a g e Career Point University KOTA (RAJ.) OPERATION MANAGEMENT “Project on JIT Analysis” Submitted To: Submitted By: CMA Jai BansalSir (Astt. Prof.) Ashim Roy (K-13226) Shalu Bharadwaj (K-13995) Manoj Verma (K-14041) Nitesh Agrawal (K-13364) Sonam Sharma (K-13645) Swati Sahu (K-314075)
  2. 2. MBA – SecondSemester 2 | P a g e Index  Abstract Pg. 03  Introduction Pg. 04  Theory of JIT Pg. 05  How to Use Just-In-Time Inventory Management Pg. 06  Pros/Cons Pg. 07  Advantages / Disadvantages Pg. 08  Case Study Pg. 09  Benefits Pg. 11  Limitations Pg. 12  Conclusion Pg. 14  Bibliography Pg. 15
  3. 3. MBA – SecondSemester 3 | P a g e ABSTRACT JIT production system identifies the hidden problems in the value chain and reduces the production waste of the system while increasing the throughout (Sales-Raw Material Cost). Even though the JIT system seems to be interesting and less complicated it requires lot of coordination with supply chain to avoid delays in the production schedule. This article discusses in depth the implementation of JIT manufacturing. The objectives are twofold. The first objective is to acquaint the reader with the overall JIT concept and the factors necessary for its implementation; the concepts presented here represent the ideal principles and methods of implementation. Beginning in the early 1980’s, a number of US firms followed the pioneering efforts of Shigeo Shingo and Taichi Ohno and adopted Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing in an attempt to reshape their manufacturing environments (see Bragg, Duplaga, and Penlesky,2005). JIT requires that a company have a few reliable suppliers and is believed to enhance productivity and build a leaner manufacturing system which minimizes inventories (Helo, 2004) and reduces which reduces risk and helps minimize the cost of manufacturing (Curry and Kennedy, 1999). The present work will analyze what have been the results throughout the supply chain, in terms of inventory - management, of those companies who do business with OEMs that utilize JIT systems. The results of this study should enable managers that have or are considering implementing or participating in a JIT inventory management system to become more effective. Quality improvement and costs control are vital to organizations for work performance enhancement and fulfilling customers’ requirement. Inventories that are stored in large amount of quantities will result in waste and space usage. One effective solution is using Just in Time (JIT) concept as a method to reduce costs, improve quality and meet the ever-changing customer needs. The adoption of Just in Time (JIT) concepts seems to be the most effective way to overcome these circumstances. JIT is management philosophy that emphasizes on eliminating waste and increase productivity.
  4. 4. MBA – SecondSemester 4 | P a g e INTRODUCTION Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing is a Japanese management philosophy applied in manufacturing which involves having the right items of the right quality and quantity in the right place and the right time. It has been widely reported that the proper use of JIT manufacturing has resulted in increases in quality, productivity and efficiency, improved communication and decreases in costs and wastes. The potential of gaining these benefits has made many organizations question and consider this approach to manufacturing. For these reasons, JIT has become a very popular subject currently being investigated by many worldwide organizations. Just-In-Time management involves the application of old management ideas; however, their adaptation to the modern manufacturing firm is a relatively new practice. Presently, many firms are studying and applying the JIT approach in response to an ever more competitive environment. North American organizations are aware of the pressure placed upon them by the success of their Japanese competitors at obtaining phenomenal levels of productivity. In order to remain competitive and experience economic success, these companies have focused on increasing productivity, improving the quality their products and raising the standards of efficiency within their products and raising the standards of efficiency within their firms. The ability to achieve higher standards of productivity without sacrificing quality is also an important goal of a manufacturing firm. Over the long run, application of JIT manufacturing may assist these companies in achieving these goals of manufacturing excellence. JIT in time concept was initiated in Japan making the Toyota as its mater piece. JIT is system whether company starts manufacturing / purchasing once the customer orders the good effectively making zero inventories. In other words, in a JIT environment materials are purchased and produced as and when it is needed. The whole idea is based on the phrase provide the goods just in time as promised when the order is placed by the customer. The opposite of the JIT production is known as JIC (Just in case) system where it produces goods for inventory with the intention of having goods just in case a customer places an immediate order. JIT production system identifies the hidden problems in the value chain and reduces the production waste of the system while increasing the throughout (Sales - Raw Material Cost). Even though the JIT system seems to be interesting and less complicated it requires lot of coordination with supply chain to avoid delays in the production schedule. The whole concept of the JIT is differentiated from traditional productions systems using push vs. pull systems of production. The push system of production pushes materials to the next
  5. 5. MBA – SecondSemester 5 | P a g e stage of the production irrespective of whether time and resources are needed at the next level of production creating lot of inventories at each level of the production flow. The traditional manufacturing organizations adopt push system where they produce for inventory and work in progress. The pull system of production is where the materials are pulled by next level of the production only when is signalled or required by the next stage of production. This drastically reduces the inventory held as it does not keep any work in progress. JIT concept is built based on the concept of pull production which eliminates the total inventory. This article discusses in depth the implementation of JIT manufacturing. The objectives are twofold. The first objective is to acquaint the reader with the overall JIT concept and the factors necessary for its implementation; the concepts presented here represent the ideal principles and methods of implementation. What does 'Just in Time - JIT' mean? Just-in-time (JIT) is an inventory strategy companies employ to increase efficiency and decrease waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in the production process, thereby reducing inventory costs. This method requires producers to forecast demand accurately. This inventory supply system represents a shift away from the older just-in-case strategy, in which producers carried large inventories in case higher demand had to be met. Theory of JIT production: JIT Based Quality management is combination of inventory control, quality control and production management functions that makes sincere efforts for quality improvement by two ways. First, it concentrates on philosophical aspect of quality improvement by making the quality everyone’s responsibility, and then focused on effective implementation of quality control techniques. It recognized that most valuable resources of an organization are its workers, and workers work best when they are motivated, valued, encouraged to contribute, and allowed to make their own decisions. Under this approach, Workers inspect the product quality after each successive operation. They are trained along with managers in preparation and interpretation of process control charts. Managers motivate the workers to think quality first and production rate second. The workers have authority to halt the production line or cell, if quality problems are uncovered. Thus, this concept not only gives the quality responsibility to workers but also match that responsibility with authority to share the quality control functions so that quality problems can be uncovered and solved quickly. Also, JIT production system demands to buy parts in small lots. Small lots require less space
  6. 6. MBA – SecondSemester 6 | P a g e and time. Less space and time require less peoples and facilities to complete the same job. Besides, small lots easy to inspect, and defects can be immediately detected. Thus, the parts those are purchased steadily in small lot sizes with frequent deliveries contribute to higher quality and productivity through lower levels of inventory and scrap, lower inspection costs for incoming parts, and early detection of defects. In short, JIT based approaches has potential to improve the product quality and productivity to significant level but organizations must adopt its principles in way that meet their own organizational structure, design and processes. How to Use Just-In-Time Inventory Management: A challenging economy often forces small business owners to look for new and innovative ways to conduct business. Those unwilling to think outside the box may wake up to find themselves at a serious competitive disadvantage. Inventory management is a good example. Not too long ago, business owners and managers took pride in warehouses and stockrooms full of products and raw materials ready to ship or move into production at a moment’s notice. But savvy entrepreneurs know that lean is the word today when it comes to managing inventory. Unfortunately, many owners don’t realize the true cost of carrying inventory that must be measured against the benefits of potentially faster product delivery or greater availability. When you add the costs of inventory storage, handling, damage, obsolescence, spoilage, and warehouse space, this cost can be as high as 30 percent of the inventory’s value per year. The fact is, excess inventory is really excess cash that may — or may not — be benefiting your company. One of the best ways to improve profitability is to use a process known as just-in-time inventory management. As the name implies, with JIT, inventory is ordered and received just as it is needed, rather than days (or weeks) in advance. The concept of just-in-time isn’t new — it was first used by the Ford Motor Company in the early 20th century — but today’s sophisticated inventory management software makes it practical for even relatively small companies. The idea is to manage inventory so that you have just the right material, at just the right time, in just the right location, and in just the amount needed. When combined with modern computerized inventory management systems, JIT helps companies to keep better track of inventory that’s on the shelf and to reorder as soon as items get to a certain level. A great example of a company using JIT is Dell, which revolutionized the computer world in the 1990s by selling “custom-made” computers to customers over the phone and, later, online. Dell does not possess the raw materials needed to build a computer until a customer places an order. The
  7. 7. MBA – SecondSemester 7 | P a g e company’s processes and systems enable it to order and receive inventory and build computers to exact customer specifications in about the same time it takes competitors to ship computers sitting on warehouse shelves. The philosophy behind JIT is simple: Excess inventory is wasteful and should be minimized or eliminated if possible. Therefore, JIT systems aim to increase profitability and return on investment by reducing ordering and inventory holding costs. In a best case scenario, finished goods and services are produced only when needed at the point of sale and never even put into what would traditionally be called inventory. In a manufacturing environment, the JIT process relies on signals (sometimes referred to as kanban, a Japanese word literally meaning signboard) between different points in the manufacturing process that tell production when to make the next part. This can result in significant reductio ns in work-in-process inventory due to more efficient movement of raw materials between workstations on the manufacturing floor. In a retail/supplier environment, JIT aims for close coordination between suppliers and retailers to maximize the relationship between production and sales levels and inventory, thus reducing carrying costs. JIT systems are often linked with computerized point-of-sale systems so that inventory levels can be monitored and maintained via automatic reordering systems to minimize the number of out-of-stock items in a store. To implement JIT successfully, businesses must have strong relationships with a relatively small number of suppliers. These suppliers will become your partners in the manufacturing or stocking process, and must be willing and able to provide smaller and more frequent deliveries. Before deciding to implement a JIT system, therefore, it’s wise to speak with your current and potential new suppliers to determine their ability to meet your new requirements. Pros: By minimizing inventory, JIT frees up resources to employ elsewhere in the company. A retail store using JIT can remodel the warehouse space into more retail sales floor space without expanding the physical store. A manufacturer gets more space to produce goods. Both companies free the workforce to focus on primary tasks, from making goods to interacting with customers rather than stocking merchandise. Manufacturers can train employees to work at different stages of the assembly line or at different workstations, to meet shifts in demand. A better-trained, more flexible workforce focusing on quality production can mean faster set-up or customization of workstations and lower defect rates, which lower costs and increase customer satisfaction.
  8. 8. MBA – SecondSemester 8 | P a g e Cons: The primary disadvantage to JIT is its relative complexity. Management must rethink the entire work flow of the company, from initial intake of raw materials to final output of finished product. Supply-chain relationships require retooling that involves multiple suppliers, closer locations, or companies that can supply materials with little advance notice. Companies ordering smaller amounts of goods may encounter difficulty meeting minimum orders, requiring a different contract or a way to break up a large order over time or among several smaller manufacturers. All goods must meet quality requirements to avoid shutdown due to defects. Staff must understand more of the entire process and shift to where they are needed as work flow ebbs and surges to meet customer demand swings. This overhaul requires a sizable commitment of time and money initially, plus a change in mind-set and a commitment to stay the course in implementing JIT, at the risk of the system's never gaining traction within the corporate culture. Advantages: Just-in-time inventory control has several advantages over traditional models. Production runs remain short, which means manufacturers can move from one type of product to another very easily. This method reduces costs by eliminating warehouse storage needs. Companies also spend less money on raw materials because they buy just enough to make the products and no more. a. Just in time inventory system reduces the amount of money tied up in inventory of raw material and finished goods. b. This systems creates saving of space. c. It does not required maintaining large inventory storage facilities. d. Just in time inventory systems minimizes wastage. e. It helps to improve the labour efficiency.
  9. 9. MBA – SecondSemester 9 | P a g e Disadvantages: The disadvantages of just-in-time inventories involve disruptions in the supply chain. If a supplier of raw materials has a breakdown and cannot deliver the goods on time, one supplier can shut down the entire production process. A sudden order for goods that surpasses expectations may delay delivery of finished products to clients. a. The effectiveness of this system depends on the co-operation and faith with the supplier. b. This systems works well when there is proper knowledge of quality and quantity of materials needed. c. There must be some alternative suppliers as the regular suppliers may not be able to dispatch the material all the times. Case Study: JIT manufacturing is a powerful and proven system of producing products efficiently while keeping costs low. Some of the most successful companies in the world have used this philosophy to improve their manufacturing processes and better meet customer demand. Just in Time Manufacturing (JIT) refers to a system of manufacturing in which products are not built until the product is ordered and paid for. Some companies that have successfully implemented JIT include Toyota, Dell and Harley Davidson. Toyota:
  10. 10. MBA – SecondSemester 10 | P a g e Toyota is considered by many to be the poster child for JIT success. The Toyota production strategy is highlighted by the fact that raw materials are not brought to the production floor until an order is received and this product is ready to be built. No parts are allowed at a node unless they are required for the next node, or they are part of an assembly for the next node. This philosophy has allowed Toyota to keep a minimum amount of inventory which means lower costs. This also means that Toyota can adapt quickly to changes in demand without having to worry about disposing of expensive inventory. Important Factors to Toyota Success:  Small amounts of raw material inventory must be kept at each node in production, so that production can take place for any product. These parts are then replenished when they are used.  Accuracy of forecasting is important so the correct amount of raw materials can be stocked. Dell: Dell has also leveraged JIT Principles to make its manufacturing process a success. Dell’s approach to JIT is different in that they leverage their suppliers to achieve the JIT goal. They are also unique in that Dell is able to provide exceptionally short lead times to their customers, by forcing their suppliers to carry inventory instead of carrying it themselves and then demanding (and receiving) short lead times on components so that products can be simply assembled by Dell quickly and then shipped to the customer. Important Factors to Dell’s Success:  Dependable suppliers with the ability to meet Dell are demanding lead time requirements.  A seamless system that allows Dell to transmit its component requirements so that they will arrive at Dell in time to fulfil its lead times.  A willingness of suppliers to keep inventory on hand allowing Dell to be free of this responsibility.
  11. 11. MBA – SecondSemester 11 | P a g e Harley Davidson: Harley Davidson’s use of JIT is mostly characterized by its transformation in the late World War 2 era from an inefficient manufacturer that solved all of its problems with extra inventory to a nimble manufacturer able to meet demand and provide short lead times. Results of Harley Davidson’s JIT Implementation:  Inventory levels decreased 75 percent.  Increased productivity. Harley Davidson’s success with the implementation of JIT had a lot to do with the fact that when JIT was put into practice, process problems could no longer be hidden by costly inventory that helped to meet ship dates. The inefficiencies in the processes were quickly identified and solved. Benefits: The potential benefits of JIT are numerous. First, JIT practice reduces inventory levels, which means lower investments in inventories. Since the system requires only the smallest quantity of materials needed immediately, it substantially reduces the overall inventory level. In many Japanese companies that use the JIT concept, inventory levels have been reduced to a point at which the annual working-capital turnover ratio is much higher than experienced by U.S. counterparts. For instance, Toyota reported inventory-turnover ratios of 41 to 63, while comparable U.S. companies reported inventory-turnover ratios of 5 to 8. Since purchasing under JIT requires a significantly shorter delivery lead time, lead-time reliability is greatly improved. Reduced lead time and increased reliability also contribute to a significant reduction in the safety-stock requirements. Safety stock extra units of inventory carried as production against possible stock outs reduced lead times and setup times increase scheduling flexibility. The cumulative lead time, which includes both purchasing and production lead times, is reduced. Thus, the firm schedule within the production planning horizon is reduced. This results in a longer “look-ahead” time that can be used to meet
  12. 12. MBA – SecondSemester 12 | P a g e shifts in market demand. The smaller lot-size production made possible by reduced setup time also adds flexibility. Improved quality levels have been reported by many companies. When the order quantity is small, sources of quality problems are quickly identifiable, and can be corrected immediately. In many cases, employee quality consciousness also tends to improve, producing an improvement in quality at the production source. The costs of purchased materials may be reduced through more extensive value analysis and cooperative supplier development activities. Other financial benefits of JIT include: 1. Lower investments in factory space for inventories and production; 2. Less obsolescence risk in inventories; 3. Reduction in scarp and rework; 4. Decline in paperwork; 5. Reduction in direct material costs through quantity purchases. Limitations: Although the benefits of using JIT are numerous and cited more frequently than any potential limitations, several shortcomings have been identified as follows: Cultural differences have been cited as a possible limitation of JIT. There exist many cultural differences which may be intrinsically tied to JIT success. These will be problems that may be difficult to overcome or work around without changes in attitudes and worker philosophy. The magnitude of their impact may be difficult to measure because of their nature. The traditional approach to manufacturing involves the use of large inventories with safety stocks. Safety stocks can act as a buffer for companies to fall back on to offset inaccurate demand forecasts. This has the potential to cause problems for the organization which relies heavily on safety stocks to absorb any increases in demand. The benefits associated with increased employee involvement and participation resulting from the use of quality circles may be evident in Japanese organizations. However, Western ideas of participation involve largely ‘empowering’ the workforce with respect to decision making. This suggests that the level of involvement established within Japanese organizations using JIT is not
  13. 13. MBA – SecondSemester 13 | P a g e compatible with the degree of employee participation required to satisfy Western workers. The benefits associated with JIT may be culturally bound and somewhat limited to the Japanese environment. Loss of individual autonomy has been suggested as another possible short-coming of JIT. Loss of autonomy has largely been attributed to limited cycle times or the ‘time between recurring activities’. Buffers such as slack or idle time are significantly reduced resulting in greater amounts of stress and pressure placed upon the worker to perform. The time which would otherwise be present would allow the worker more freedom to perform ‘vertical tasks’ which constitute administrative tasks or team meeting. In addition, reduced cycle times force workers to adjust immediately to changes in demand without taking their needs into consideration. Loss of team autonomy is a possible result of reducing or eliminating buffer inventories. This serves to reduce the flexibility of workers to discuss possible solutions to problems. This is a function of quality circles, which are an important part of JIT. Reduced buffer inventories and workers flexibility contradict the other aspects of JIT concerning quality circles. Loss of autonomy over methods involves the idea that, under JIT, employees must adhere to strict methods of production in order to maintain the system. This idea diminishes the ‘entrepreneurial spirit’ which many workers may have previously enjoyed prior to JIT implementation. JIT success may be ‘industry specific’, i.e. craft-oriented businesses are considered to be better candidates for a JIT programme than organizations producing commodity-type products. Resistance to change may be experienced since JIT involves an organizational level of change which will affect almost every member of the organization. Employees may resist the change based on two different levels: emotional and rational resistance. Rational resistance occurs when an individual is deficient of the necessary information and facts pertaining to the degree to which the change will affect them. Emotional resistance refers to the psychological processes of fear, anxiety and suspicion which arise which arise from inducing change and cause resistance.
  14. 14. MBA – SecondSemester 14 | P a g e Conclusion: Just-In-Time is a manufacturing philosophy which leads to producing the required items, at the required quality and in the right quantities at the precise time as they are required. It is an approach to achieving excellence in elimination of waste. In this case waste can be thought of as all things that don’t add value to the product. Overproduction, Inventory, defect products, transport and waiting time are some examples of what can be waste according to JIT. Just-In-Time manufacturing is a system of enforced problem solving. Managers have the choice between putting a huge effort in finding and solving causes of production problems, or they can learn to live with an intolerable level of interruptions in production. As everybody knows, the situation in which one has to put huge efforts is highly undesirable, and therefore the system is called enforced. Quality within JIT manufacturing is necessary, because without a quality program in JIT, the JIT will fail. Here we think about quality at the source and the Plan, Do, Check, Action with its statistical process control. Furthermore, techniques are also very important. The JIT technique is a pull system rather than a pull system, based on not producing things until they are needed. The well-known Kanban card is used as a signal to produce. Moreover, integration also plays a key role in JIT systems. JIT integration can be found in four points of the manufacturing firm. The Accounting side, Engineering side, Customer side and Supplier side. At the accounting side, JIT has concern for WIP, utilization and overhead allocation and at the engineering side of JIT focuses on simultaneously and participative design of products and processes. Just-In-Time has its influence in ordering, scheduling and producing sides of a manufacturing firm. JIT production contains the well-known Kanban System. This influence in the manufacturing firm is depending on employees, suppliers or customers. Therefore a large element of training is put toward the JIT to reach certain goals. One of these goals is mutual trust and teamwork. This is an important factor in the JIT principle. When managers and workers see each other as equal, committed to the organization and its success, they are more willing to co-operate with each other in order to find the problems and solve these problems. Moreover, a firm which empowers it’s workers, gives the workers the authority to solve problems on their own. When this is done, workers have the authority to stop production and to solve problems, instead of first waiting for guidance from a supervisor. The objective of worker empowerment is having workers involved in the problem as it occurs. In all, JIT is an important operational system for manufacturing
  15. 15. MBA – SecondSemester 15 | P a g e and supplying companies to adopt and implement. Technically, procedurally and managerially it requires attention to data, information and communication. But if looked at through the eyes of the corporation that has implemented the JIT system, the positive outcomes that arise from the use of the system is far greater than those that are not. The JIT system really is a state of the art idea that is beginning to catch on in a tremendous way all over the world. BIBLIOGRAPHY:  www.google.com  www.wikipedia.com  http://onlineaccountreading.blogspot.in  http://files.eric.ed.gov  http://smallbusiness.chron.com

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