Ashikur Rahman Ranok
Bgmea University of fashion &
What is Sewing Machine?
• A sewing machine is a machine used to stitch fabric
and other materials together with thread.
• A sewing machine is a machine which does all the
stitches automatically, so it's easier and quicker than
• A sewing machine is a textile machine used to stitch
fabric, cards and other material together with thread.
1. Basic sewing machines in garments industry are used for
2. Generally available in three versions :
i. Sewing with light materials.
ii. Sewing with medium materials.
iii.Sewing with heavy materials.
3. Speed up to 6000 s.p.m with electronic controls for
4. Electronically controlled thread cutting, needle positioning,
back tacking mechanism through the foot pedal, foot lifting
system available in this machines.
5. Programmable sewing sequence via a micro processes for
6. A great variety of feed systems, attachments and apparatus
available to make the machine more versatile.
Features of Basic Sewing Machines
According to the operating system, there are two types of
1. Manually operated sewing machines :
Driven by physical energy.
Used for domestic and tailoring purposes.
Less production, but more laborious.
1. Electrically operated or Industrial sewing machines :
Usually driven by electric power.
Used in garments industry.
Cost is high.
Types of Sewing Machines
Electrically operated/Industrial Sewing Machines
At present there are used two types of electrically operated
sewing machines in garments industry :
o Semi-automatic electrical sewing machines.
o Computerized sewing machines.
Most common manufacturer of electrical/industrial sewing
machines (semi-automatic) are given below:
Brand Name Made in
There are various types of electrically operated or Industrial
sewing machines. Among them, features of some most usable
machines are described below :
o No. of needle : generally 1 needle or 2 needles.
o SPM : 1500 – 5500.
o Stitch Length : 5 mm in Juki DDL 5500 Model.
o Automatic thread cutting and bobbin winding.
o Edge cutting system.
o More secured sewing.
o Most commonly used for sewing of woven
1. Lock Stitch or Plain Stitch Sewing Machine
o Two types : Single Chain Stitch and Double Chain
o No. of needle: One or more
o No. of thread : One or more
o SPM : 1800 – 6000
o Stitch Length : 1.4 mm to 4.5 mm
o Automatic thread trimmer.
o Various types of feed mechanism is adjusted to the
o Used for both woven and knitted fabrics, specially
to sew jeans or denim wears.
2. Chain Stitch Sewing Machine
• No. of needle: 1 or 2.
• No. of threads : 2 - 5.
• SPM : 6500 – 8500.
• Stitch Length : 4mm (maximum) and it can be
adjusted by push button.
• Stretching : Maximum 1: 0.6 and Gathering :
• Used for sewing both woven and knitted goods, but
extensively used for knitted goods.
3. Over Lock/Over Edge Sewing Machine
Special modification of lock stitch machine.
No. of needle: 1
No. of threads : 2
SPM : 5500
Stitch Length: 2 to 2.5 mm
Stitch Width: 5 to 10 mm
Used in edge stitching or decorative top stitching or
to fit extra component to garments, such as elastic,
tape, pipe etc.
4. Zigzag Lock Stitch Sewing Machine
No. of needle: up to 4
No. of threads : 4 to 9
SPM : 6000
Stitch Density: 8 to 16 per inch
Thread consumption of this machine is
very high. So very expensive machine.
Used for knitted garments. But it can be
also used for woven garments.
5. Flat Lock Sewing Machine
No. of needle: 1
No. of threads : 1 or 2
SPM : 2500
Stitch Length : 3 to 8 mm
Stitches are not seen on the face side of the fabric.
Curved needle is used.
Security is high for 2 thread blind stitch machine.
Widely used for hemming and facing attaching.
6. Blind Stitch Sewing Machine
Stitch Group : Lock or Chain may be used.
For heavy fabric, hole is cut before sewing.
For lighter fabric, hole is cut after sewing.
Arrangement of stitch density being
increased or reduced.
To raise the stitch is called ‘Gimp’.
7. Button Holing Machine
Produces lock stitch, chain stitch or hand
Button positioning can be automatic.
Sewing is according to the hole in button
and may be cross or parallel.
In fully automatic machines, button
feeding and positioning inside the button
clamp is performed by a hopper and pipe.
8. Button Attaching Machine
Cyclic machine of strong sewing in very short
After making tack stitch in short length (1-2cm),
cover stitch (zigzag) is made on tack stitch and the
no. of cover stitch.
Used for sewing of belt loops, closing the ends of
button holes, for increasing strength at the ends of
9. Bar Tack Machine
Used for very fast and accurate sewing.
Very expensive and require very efficient operator, so rarely
used in our country.
Some examples of mostly used computerized sewing machines
are given below :
• Computer Controlled Cycle Machine with large Sewing Area.
• Cylinder Bed Machine with Automatic threads Trimming.
• 1-Needle, lock stitch unison feed machine with double capacity.
• 1-Needle, lock stitch portable Sewing machine with Automatic
• 2-Needle, 2/3/4 thread over lock sewing machine with built-in
rolled hemming and differential feed.
• Automatic Jeans pocket setter with new automatic bobbin
• 3-Needle, plain feed double loop seam machine with Tractor
type presser foot.
• High speed, lockstitch, buttonhole machine.
Computerized Sewing Machine
The following maintenance points are to be considered carefully:
1. Machine should be cleaned every day.
2. Essential parts of the machine should be lubricated or oiled
3. Needle should be adjusted carefully.
4. Needle thread, bobbin thread or looper thread should be
threaded correctly and their tension should be adjusted.
5. The pressure of pressure of pressure foot should be adjusted.
6. Stitch density should be adjusted.
7. Switching (on/off) should be proper.
8. Machine should be handled according to instruction.
9. The hand wheel should always be rotated towards the operator.
10. Bobbin thread should be wound in uniform tension.
11. During fabric feed and with drawl, the needle should be picked
at the top most position and the pressure foot is lifted.
12. One-fifth portion of bobbin should always remain empty after
Maintenance of Sewing Machine