Section 24.1 Genes in Populations

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End of Semester Evolution Project

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Section 24.1 Genes in Populations

  1. 1. Section 24.1 LECTURE SLIDES Prepared by Ashish MurthyRaritan Valley Community College To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please note: once you have used any of the animation functions (such as Play or Pause), you must first click in the white background before you advance the next slide. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  2. 2. SECTION 24.1 OUTLINE Population Genetics Gene Pools Polymorphic/Monomorphic/SNP Allele/Genotype Frequency* Hardy Weinberg Principle* Micro-Evolution*
  3. 3. POPULATION GENETICS The Study of Genes and Genotypes in a population Population - a group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment (that can interbreed) Genetic Variation Genetic Variation related to Phenotypic Variation
  4. 4. GENE POOLS All of the alleles for every gene in a given population Changes between Generations Use to examine variation in alleles between individuals of a population
  5. 5. DIFFERENT TYPES OF GENES Polymorphic – 2 or more alleles for a single gene that occur at greater than 1% frequency Monomorphic – 1 allele for a single gene occurs at greater than 99% frequency
  6. 6. POLYMORPHISM Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)  Sickle Cell Anemia Deletion Duplication
  7. 7. ALLELE FREQUENCY 30 Homozygous Dominant Humans (TT) 20 Heterozygous Humans (Tt) 10 Homozygous Recessive Humans (tt)Frequency of T: (30)(2) + 20 Frequency of t: (10)(2) + 20 (30+20+10)(2) (30+20+10)(2)
  8. 8. GENOTYPE FREQUENCY 30 Homozygous Dominant Humans (TT) 20 Heterozygous Humans (Tt) 10 Homozygous Recessive Humans (tt) Frequency of TT: 30 (30+20+10) Frequency of Tt: 20 Frequency of tt: 10 (30+20+10) (30+20+10)
  9. 9. HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE Relates Allele Frequency and Genotype Frequency Developed in 1908 Godfrey Harold Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg
  10. 10. HARDY-WEINBERG VARIABLESIf p = 0.4, then q = 0.6
  11. 11. HARDY-WEINBERG EQUATION
  12. 12. EXAMPLE CALCULATION
  13. 13. HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM P = .8 Q = .2 = = .64 = . 32 = .04
  14. 14. HARDY-WEINBERG ASSUMPTIONS No new mutations No natural selection No random change in allele frequencies (large population) No Migration Random mating
  15. 15. MICRO-EVOLUTION Changes in a population’s gene pool Allele Frequency changes New Genetic Variation Evolutionary Mechanisms
  16. 16. SOURCES OF NEW GENETIC VARIATION
  17. 17. EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS

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