Ethical leadership in nursing and healthcare


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Focuses on Ethical leadership qualities in nursing and healthcare

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Ethical leadership in nursing and healthcare

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  2. 2. Learning objectives • Describe the nature of leadership ethics in nursing and health care • Discuss seven key characteristics of ethical leadership • Outline undesirable moral consequences of unethical leadership • Explore key processes for improving ethical practices in nursing and healthcare • Evaluate your own capacity of ethical leadership 2
  3. 3. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Always directs people and communities toward the common good, i.e., towards justice. • The study of ethical issues related to leadership and the ethics of leadership. • consists of what is right, wrong, good, evil, virtue, duty, rights, obligations, justice, fairness, … in human relationships with each other and other living things 3
  4. 4. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Distinguishing features: ethical leadership VS effective leadership • Two Top leadership qualities – Integrity (Being strongly committed to doing what he/she knows right) – Trustworthiness (worthy of being trusted; honest, reliable and dependable) 4
  5. 5. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Ethical leadership really has two elements. • First, ethical leaders must act and make decisions ethically, as must ethical people in general. • But, secondly, ethical leaders must also lead ethically – in the ways they treat people in everyday interaction, in their attitudes, in the ways they encourage, and in the directions in which they guide their organizations or institutions or initiatives. 5
  6. 6. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Ethical leadership is both visible and invisible. • The visible part is in the way the leader works with and treats others, in his behavior in public, in his statements and his actions. • The invisible aspects of ethical leadership lie in the leader’s character, in his decision-making process, in his mindset, in the set of values and principles on which he draws, and in his courage to make ethical decisions in tough situations. 6
  7. 7. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Ethical leaders are ethical all the time, not just when someone’s looking; and they’re ethical over time, proving again and again that ethics are an integral part of the intellectual and philosophical framework they use to understand and relate to the world. 7
  8. 8. SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Put the good of the organization and the general good before your own interests and ego • Encourage the discussion of ethics in general and of the ethical choices involved in specific situations and decisions as an ongoing feature of the organizational culture • Institutionalize ways for people to question your authority. • Don’t take yourself too seriously 8
  9. 9. SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Consider the consequences to others of your decisions, and look for ways to minimize harm • Treat everyone with fairness, honesty, and respect all the time • Treat other organizations in the same way you treat other people – with fairness, honesty, and respect • Collaborate inside and outside the organization 9
  10. 10. SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP • Try to become culturally sensitive and culturally competent – Learning, or improving your grasp of, the language of the population with which you work. – Learning about the traditions, behavioral and communication norms, and history of the cultural groups in the community. – Joining in ethnic and other celebrations and rituals. – Making an effort to hire people from various cultures. 10
  11. 11. SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF ETHICAL LEADERSHIP – Learning how to deal with cultural traditions that are at odds with the majority culture, and the dislocation that can mean for some immigrant groups. – Identifying and establishing a working relationship with other organizations that serve the same populations you work with, for purposes of both cross-referral and consultation. 11
  12. 12. Specific components of ethical leadership • Work to be inclusive – That means working with – and being willing to hire – people from all ethnicities, races, classes, cultures, sexual orientations, etc.. . – It also means using diversity creatively, by encouraging people to learn about and value one another’s traditions and views, and to be willing to discuss them openly when there’s conflict or disagreement. • Constantly strive to increase your competence • Don’t outstay your usefulness - - Founder’s disease • Never stop reexamining your ethics and your leadership 12
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  14. 14. Principles of Ethical Leadership  Ethics - is central to leadership because of: – The process of influence – The need to engage followers to accomplish mutual goals – The impact leaders have on establishing the organization’s values 14
  15. 15. Principles of Ethical Leadership Respects Others • Leader shall: – Treat other people’s values and decisions with respect – Allow others to be themselves with creative wants and desires – Approach others with a sense of unconditional worth and value individual differences Leader behaviors: - Listens closely to subordinates - Is empathic - Is tolerant of opposing viewpoints Treating others as ends (their own goals) rather than as means (to leaders’ personal goals) 15
  16. 16. Principles of Ethical Leadership Leader’s have - – A duty to help others pursue their own legitimate interests and goals – To be stewards of the organization’s vision; in serving others they: clarify, nurture, and integrate the vision with, not for, organization members – An ethical responsibility to make decisions that are beneficial to their followers’ welfare Follower-centered - Based on the altruistic principle of placing followers foremost in the leader’s plans Leader behaviors • Mentoring behaviors • Empowerment behaviors • Team building behaviors • Citizenship behaviors Serves Others 16
  17. 17. Principles of Ethical Leadership Leader’s shall – – adhere to principles of distributive justice Leader behaviors • All subordinates are treated in an equal manner • In special treatment/special consideration situations, grounds for differential treatment are clear, reasonable, and based on sound moral values Ethical leaders are concerned with issues of fairness and justice; they place issues of fairness at the center of their decision making Shows Justice 17
  18. 18. Principles of Ethical Leadership 18
  19. 19. Principles of Ethical Leadership Leaders: – Are not deceptive (unreliable) – Tell the truth with a balance of openness and truthfulness while monitoring what is appropriate to disclose in a particular situation Honest leaders are authentic but also sensitive to the feelings and attitudes of others Leader behaviors – Don’t promise what you can’t deliver – Don’t suppress obligations – Don’t evade (escape) accountability – Don’t accept “survival of the fittest” pressures – Acknowledge and reward honest behavior in the organization Manifests Honesty 19
  20. 20. Principles of Ethical Leadership Concern for common good means leaders cannot impose their will on others; they search for goals that are compatible with everyone. Ethical Leaders & Followers  take into account purposes of everyone in the group, and  reach out beyond their own mutually defined goals to wider community Leader behaviors – Takes into account purposes of everyone in the group – Is attentive to interests of the community and culture – Does not force others or ignore intentions of others Builds Community 20
  21. 21. Key characteristics of ethical leadership 1. Moral conduct and adherence to ethical standards 2. Moral purpose (moral vision and commitment to achieving moral ends) 3. Moral accomplishment (achieving desirable moral outcomes) – moral ends are the foundations for ethical leadership. 4. Moral duty/responsibility and obligations 5. Moral knowing (knowing what /knowing how) 6. Moral cooperation and the just exercise of power 7. Moral role modeling 21
  22. 22. Morality definition • Principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour (Oxford dictionary) • Morality is the differentiation of intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are "good" (or right) and those that are "bad" (or wrong)(Wikipedia) • Conformance (compliance) to a recognized code, doctrine, or system of rules of what is right or wrong and to behave accordingly. • No system of morality is accepted as universal, and the answers to the question "What is morality?" differ sharply from place to place, group to group, and time to time. ( 22
  23. 23. Moral Knowing • Keys to successful ethical leadership are the following kinds of moral knowing – Fundamental moral knowing – the art of recognizing and responding effectively to ethical issues – Strategic moral knowing - understanding the significance of moral interests, needs, motivations and goals of the constituents – Tactical moral knowing – taking the appropriate and justifiable moral action to avoid harm/promote benefits. 23
  24. 24. Undesirable moral consequences • Ethical leaders who lack moral knowing (moral competence) will have – unsound moral decision making – Unsound moral action – Causing hurt and moral harm – Creating moral conflict – Perpetuating injustice – Abdication (resignation) of their moral responsibilities 24
  25. 25. Improving ethical practices • Improving formulation, application and evaluation of meaningful standards of ethical practice. • Improvements in the moral culture of the health-care organizations in which constituents work • The development of organizational ethics. 25
  26. 26. Some influences on the development of personal values Personal Value System Family Media Technology Religion Education Peers
  28. 28. Top 10 Characteristics of Ethical Leaders and Values-Driven Organizations • top_10_characteristics_of_ethical_leaders.pdf 28
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  30. 30. 30 IS/article/viewFile/11/9
  31. 31. Reading Materials • A theory of Justice: .pdf • ethicalleaderhip.pdf - • Ethical leadership: 31
  32. 32. Review questions 1. What is the relationship between ethical leadership and effective leadership in nursing and health care domain? 2. How might the principles of leadership ethics can be applied by individual nurses when caring for patients and promoting patient health outcomes? 3. In what ways the moral culture of an organizations be improved through ethical leadership? 32
  33. 33. References • Nursing Leadership; By John Daly, Sandra Speedy, Debra Jackson: preview available online • Ethical leadership: contents/leadership/leadership-ideas/ethical-leadership/main 33