Thank you for giving me an opportunity to share with you something I accumulated over the number of years of experience.
Key definitions: Super-System System-Sub-System
My original background is Aeronautical Engineering, and for more than 20 years I was involved in complex systems design. I developed optimal guidance algorithms for the atmospheric portion of the ascent trajectory of Energia heavy space launcher – the Soviet answer to the US space shuttle. (Ascent). I also worked in satellite communication field, automated air traffic control system and air defense. All these convinced me that any complex system – and not only technical – built on the same principles and obeys the same rules. It brought me to M.I.T. System Architecture program, which taught exactly that.
System Architecture EMERGED AS A DISCIPLINESystem Architecture defines the rules, guidelines, and constraints for creating conformant implementations of the system. Acting as a vehicle for communications between stakeholders, it helps with:■ Establishing context;■ Providing a decision/tradeOFFframework;■ Providing guidance to the creation of detailed designs;■ Handling complexity and uncertainty;■ Supporting re-use of system elements;■ Supporting extension, enhancement or scaling;■ Dealing with transformation or evolution of systems over time.
Sustainable SystemSystem, maintaining its state (not necessarily static) without need for external resources.
There are several ways to look at the Architecture of the System, includingPrinciples, Roles, Themes, Frameworks, Processes and Methods, . System Architecture does establish guidelines that must be observed in making implementation choices, which are then analyzed through specific Themes and Cases.
The major principles of successful System Architecture are: as aboveIn software, Coupling or dependency is the degree to which each program module relies on each one of the other modules.Coupling is usually contrasted wit Cohesion. Low coupling often correlates with high cohesion, and vice versa. A highly-cohesive system is easier to understand, and the likelihood of reuse is increased, while complexity is kept manageable.
My mother worked 40 years on the railway, and during her lifetime trains underwent quite an evolution..
Architectural Framework is a tool for managing complexity by structuring data in common language and common format (Conventions and Notation)Provides consistency. Deserves a separate discussion.Companies can use the open-sustainability approach to introduce better sustainability practices into their business models, share success stories and work with partners and customers in a collaborative fashion. Government organizations can use open-sustainability to supplement existing frameworks, share information across departments and national boundaries and better engage citizens. Through open-sustainability, individuals have a chance to contribute to best practices and help shape the behavior of both Companies and Government.Zachman FrameworkThe Zachman Framework (Zachman, 1987) is a logical structure used to categorize and organize the descriptive representations of an enterprise IT environment, which are significant to the organization management and the development of the enterprise’s information systems. It takes the form of the two-dimensional matrix, and has achieved a level of penetration in the domain of business and information systems architecture and modeling. It is mainly used as a planning or problem-solving tool. However, it tends to implicitly align with the data-driven approach and process-decomposition methods, and it operates above and across the individual project level.E2AFExtended Enterprise Architecture Framework (E2AF) (IEAD, 2004) takes a very similar approach to the Zachman Framework. Its scope contains business, information, system, and infrastructure in a 2-D matrix. E2AF is more technology-oriented. Both Zachman Framework and E2AF approaches are heavyweight methodologies, which necessitate a fairly steep learning curve to get started in an organization.TOGAFAnother heavyweight approach, The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) (The Open Group, 2007), is a detailed framework with a set of supporting tools for developing an enterprise architecture to meet the business and information technology needs of an organization. The three core parts of TOGAF are architecture development method, enterprise architecture continuum, and TOGAF resource base. The scope of TOGAF covers business process architecture, applications architecture, data architecture, and technology architecture. The focal point of TOGAF is at the enterprise architecture level, rather than the individual application architecture level.RUPRational unified process (RUP) (Kruchten, 2003) attempted to overcome the shortcomings in the heavyweight methods by applying the unified modeling language (UML) in a use-case driven, object-oriented, and component-based approach. The concept of 4+1 views interprets the overall system structure from multiple perspectives. RUP is characterized by process orientation and is generally a waterfall approach. RUP barely addresses the phases of software maintenance and operations, and lacks a broad coverage on physical topology and development/testing tools. It mainly operates at an individual project level. RUP has recently been expanded to enterprise unified process (EUP), and was partially open sourced—OpenUP. RUP is now part of the IBM Rational Method Composer (RMC) product, enabling the process customization.MDAModel-driven architecture (MDA) (OMG, 2007) takes a different approach. MDA aims to separate business logic or application logic from the underlying platform technology.It provides an open, vendor-neutral approach in UML to the challenge of business and technology change. The core of MDA is comprised of the platform-independent model (PIM) and platform-specific model (PSM), which provide greater portability and interoperability as well as enhanced productivity and maintenance. Platform-independent models of an application or integrated system’s business functionality and behavior can be implemented via the MDA on practically any open or proprietary platforms. MDA is primarily for the software modeling part in the development lifecycle process.MSF/MSAMicrosoft Solutions Framework (MSF) (Microsoft, 2007) is a comprehensive set of software engineering principles, processes, and proven practices that are specified to enable developers to achieve success in the software development lifecycle (SDLC). MSF is equipped with an adaptable guidance, based upon experiences and best practices from inside and outside of Microsoft, to enhance the chance of successful delivery of information technology solutions to clients by working fast, reducing the headcounts on the project team, mitigating risks, while not sacrificing high quality in the results.The Microsoft Systems Architecture (MSA) is a program developed by Microsoft with the objectives of defining, designing, verifying, and documenting a set of IT infrastructure architectures, which comprise software, hardware machines, storage, connectivity, networking infrastructure, data center, and other tools/products.C4ISRThe C4ISR Architecture Framework (DoD, 1997) provides comprehensive architectural guidance for the various commands, services, and agencies within the United States (U.S.) Department of Defense, to guarantee the interoperability and cost-effectiveness in the military systems. The framework consists of the guidance, policies, and product descriptions for defining and developing architecture descriptions that guarantee a common denominator for understanding, comparing, and integrating architectures.FEAThe Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) framework (Federal Office, 2007) specifies direction and guidance to U.S. federal agencies for structuring enterprise architecture. The FEA is a group of reference models with a common taxonomy and ontology developed to describe IT resources, comprising the performance reference model, business reference model, technical reference model, data reference model, and service component reference model.The performance reference model is a standardized construct to quantify the performance of key ITspendings and their impact on overall program performance. The business reference model specifies a function-centric structure to depict the agency-independent business operations in the public sector. The model provides an organized, hierarchical framework describing the daily business operations of the U.S. government via a functionally driven method. The technical reference model defines a component-based technical structure to classify the specifications, standards, guidelines, and solutions, which enable and support the delivery of service capabilities and components. The data reference model describes the data and information at an aggregate level, which support government programs and line-of-business operations. It empowers agencies to specify the types of interaction and exchanges that occur between citizens and the U.S. government. Finally, the service component reference model defines a business and performance-centered, functional structure that categorizes service components regarding how they support business and/or performance goals.TEAFThe Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework (TEAF) (Treasury Department, 2000) is to guide the planning and development of enterprise architectures in all bureaus and offices of the Treasury Department. It provides a framework for producing an EA, guidance for developing and using an EA, and guidance for managing EA activities. The framework subdivides an EA by views, perspectives, and work products.PERAThe Purdue Enterprise Reference Architecture (PERA) (Purdue University, 2007) is aligned to computer integrated manufacturing. The PERA generic enterprise model consists of three basic elements: product facilities, people/organization, and control and information systems. The most basic way to structure the enterprise model in PERA is by “phase”. Various diagrams are used in each phase of the enterprise to reflect the developing detail, ranging from initial definition to operations phase, to dissolution.RM-ODPThe ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) (Putman, 2001) is a coordinating framework for the standardization of open distributed processing in heterogeneous environments. It creates an architecture model that integrates the support of distribution, interworking and portability, using five “viewpoints”—enterprise, information, computational, engineering, and technology—and eight “transparencies”—access, location, relocation, migration, persistence, failure, replication, and transaction. RM-ODP was adopted as ISO Standard 10746 in late 1990s, composed of four fundamental elements: an object modeling approach, system specification, system infrastructure definition, and system conformance assessment framework.ATAMIn software engineering, Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM) (SEI, 2007) is a risk-mitigation process used early in the software development lifecycle. ATAM was developed by the Software Engineering Institute at the Carnegie Mellon University. Its purpose is to help choose a suitable architecture for a software system by discovering trade-offs and sensitivity points.ATAM is most beneficial when used in the early stage of the software development lifecycle, in which the cost of changing architectures is minimal. The ATAM process consists of gathering stakeholders together to analyze business drivers and from these drivers extract quality attributes that are used to create scenarios. These scenarios are then used in conjunction with architectural approaches and architectural decisions to conduct an analysis of trade-offs, sensitivity points, and risks (or non-risks). This analysis can be converted to risk themes and their impacts whereupon the process can be repeated.SAAMScenario-based Architecture Analysis Method (SAAM) (SEI, 2007a) is an evaluation method of software architecture. As one of the first documented software architecture analysis methods, it was developed to analyze a system for modifi- ability but is useful for testing any nonfunctional aspect. Architecture models are examined via scenarios in SAAM with regard to achieving quality attributes. SAAM can be used to assess existing systems, evaluate planned systems, or compare old and new systems. As a low-cost method, SAAM’s results may not be precise. In spite of inaccurate results, the main value of SAAM is in the way that it focuses on investigation, stimulates discussions among the stakeholders, and helps build consensus among the parties involved.IDEFIntegrated Definition Methods (IDEF) (IDEF, 2007) forms a structured approach to enterprise modeling and analysis. IDEF was produced by the integrated computer-aided manufacturing (ICAM) initiative of the U.S. Air Force. More specifically, the integrated information support sys tem (IISS) project priorities 6201, 6202, and 6203 fathered IDEF. IISS was an effort to build an information processing environment running on heterogeneous physical computing systems. The purpose was to build “generic subsystems” that can be reused by a large number of collaborating enterprises, such as U.S. Defense contractors and the armed forces of alliance nations.IDEF consists of 16 methods, covering a wide range of uses—function, information, data, simulation, process description capture, object-oriented design, ontology description capture, design rationale capture, information system auditing, user interface, scenario-driven information system design, implementation architecture, information artifact, organization, schema mapping, and network design.MODAFThe UK Ministry of Defense Architectural Framework (MODAF) (UK, 2007) defines a standardized way of modeling an enterprise. The purpose of MODAF is to ensure a consistent approach to enterprise architecture development. It defines architectural views covering the strategic goals of the enterprise as well as the people, processes, and systems that deliver those goals. It also includes capability management (lines of development, doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership & education, personnel, and facilities) and programmatic aspects such as project dependencies. A MODAF model is organized into six viewpoints: operational, system, strategic, technical, acquisition, and all viewpoints.
Generic System Development process very well fits into the Sustainable System Development, up to its retirement.
Moving to the subject of today’s discussion. We said that we want to build Sustainable Systems. We talked about Systems, but what is Sustainable?There is no lack in definitions of Sustainability. In very general terms, it is a system’s ability to maintain its state over time without need for external resources or energy. Using the previous example, the Solar System with planets spinning around the Sun on the stable orbits, can be considered sustainable system. We may often hear about sustainable economy, sustainable society, sustainable ecosystem etc.
Compare to the satellite being launched onto orbit
What is a sustainable building – is it a collection of alternative, renewable etc. and other pieces of technology? If throw everything we know, or even all the most technologies in, would it be the most efficient solution ?
There are a number of different “green”, “sustainable”, “clean energy” (and other buzzwords) technologies around,
..from tested and proven
… to all sorts of exotic ones
Wouldn’t it be like a lego constructor? Would it work as one system?
Actual energy production from different sources is shifted from theoretical
The typical energy demand in the building is in few big splashes with long periods of low demand in between.
NINE years agoI was giving a presentation at UBC Electrical Engineering Department on the subject of System Architecture, as applied to space mission, based mostly on my own experience. Since then I have found even more proof of the applicability of the same universal principles to other areas and systems, including biological, sociological, economical and Ecological.
Far from exhaustive list, but just few, which I can’t fail to mention
Predictive algorithm for sustainable system ieee regina may 7-2013
Predictive Algorithm for Sustainable System
7 May, 2013
University of Regina
• Every system operates as an element of a larger system
and is itself composed of smaller systems
Guidance & Navigation
Air Traffic Control
1. Edward Crawley. System Architecture. Course of Lectures. M.I.T. Sloan School of Business
2. Eberhard Rechtin. Systems Architecting: Creating and Building Complex Systems.
3. Mark W. Maier. The Art of Systems Architecting
4. Philipp Kruchten. The 4+1 Views Model of Architecture
5. Pip Coburn. The Change Function. Why some technologies take off and others crash and burn.
6. Fred Brooks. Mythical Man Month.
7. William McDonough. The Hannover Principles Design for Sustainability
8. Laura Porcher. Community Energy Association. Expanding Options for Renewable Energy
9. Jim Kissane. Sustainable Design & Green Building.
10. Boris Golden. Complex Systems Modeling II: A minimalist and unified semantics for
heterogeneous integrated systems
Drawings Credit: SD Projects (Lithuania)
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