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Neighbourhood Design Report

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As the population of Lahore is increasing day by day and its central hub is getting densely populated, people are demanding for new neighborhoods with self-contained facilities. Therefore new neighborhoods are being developed outside the main city with self-contained facilities. This report is about a neighborhood design of an area in Shadira, Lahore with detailed features and facilities including residential houses, market, shopping centers, parks and open spaces, streets and public buildings.

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Neighbourhood Design Report

  1. 1. SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING AN AREA OF SHADIRA AS A RESIDEMTIAL SECTOR : INDUS HOUSING SOCIETY A COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN REPORT Figure 1 Land Use Map
  2. 2. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 1 Group Members Sr. # NAMES REG # 1 MUHAMMAD AHMAD MUSTUFA 49 2 ASAD ULLAH MALIK 16 3 MUHAMMAD JUNAID ABBAS 66 Acknowledgement First of all, we would thank Allah Almighty because whatever we are, whatever we do, whatever we did and whatever has been done by us is solely due to Him and Him alone and rest all are his creatures which He created to assist us. We would like to express our very great appreciation to Mrs. Rubina Hussain for her valuable and constructive suggestions during the planning and development of this research work. Her willingness to give her time so generously has been very much appreciated. Finally, we wish to thank our parents for their support and encouragement throughout our study.
  3. 3. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 2 “There is no logic that can be superimposed on the city; people make it, and it is to them, not buildings, that we must fit our plans.” ― Jane Jacobs
  4. 4. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 3 INTRODUCTION As the population of Lahore is increasing day by day and its central hub is getting densely populated, people are demanding for new neighborhoods with self- contained facilities. Therefore new neighborhoods are being developed outside the main city with self-contained facilities. This report is about a neighborhood design of an area in Shadira, Lahore with detailed features and facilities including residential houses, market, shopping centers, parks and open spaces, streets and public buildings. Located on the G.T. Road (a.k.a. Old Ravi Road), in North West part of Lahore, the land is spread over an area of 4 km2. With its plain topography and Ravi river flowing adjacent to it, the sector has an amazing and beautiful landscape. Figure 2 Location of the Land w.r.t to Lahore city shown with a black dot Lahore city is expanding across the North-South direction. The new sectors being developed are linked to N5, Raiwind road and Ferozpur road. The land for IHS lies along the belt of River Ravi. The land is best suitable for neighborhood development because recreational and historical facilities, like Noor Jehan and Jehangir’s Tomb, are closer to this area. The total area of the sector is 150 acres. The neighborhood is designed under Lahore Residential Sector Zoning Building control Regulation 2005 and National Reference Manual. The sector is designed by keeping in mind location of river Ravi, railway track, accessibility to Metro Bus Terminal and highway. Schools, parks and masjids are at five minute distance, masjid and class three shopping centers have their own space parking. The sector is divided into 2 sub sectors with each sub sector having centrally located elementary school, parks, playgrounds and shopping center. Rectangular street pattern was used.
  5. 5. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 4 DEMERITS OF RECTANGULAR STREET PATTERN:  It is unsuited for application in areas of even gently rolling topography, where it may require excessive amounts of cut and fill for street construction and excessive grading for the development of building sites;  It may create costly drainage problems  It may make the establishment of street and alley grades difficult.  It may be un-stablising influence since it allows heavy traffic to shift readily from street to street.  It may be monotonous if applied over large areas without interruption  And is considered by some to be aesthetically unsuited to use it in residential areas. ADVANTAGES OF RECTANGULAR STREET PATTERN:  The widespread use of rectangular street pattern may be attributed to its powerful advantages  It is simple to “design” and to lay out, providing efficient lotting.  It is well suited for applications in commercial core areas because traffic can shift readily from street to street, a desirable feature in such areas.  It facilitates the use of one-way streets.  It is orient for people to orient to and is readily house numbered.  It increases safety by reducing the traffic speeds and reduces the severity, if not the number, of accidents. PLANNING There is no “normative” land use allocation at the city scale nor ideal pattern of distribution of activities. The proportions and form of the city scape are the resultants of past and present socio-economic forces.
  6. 6. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 5 Figure 3 Master Plan of Lahore LAND SUBDIVISION -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 POPILATION/SqKm YEARS Population/ Sq Km Vs Years Linear (Population/ Sq Km Vs Years)
  7. 7. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 6 Land subdivision is one of the most important determinant of different urban patterns e.g. Curvilinear, rectangular, etc. It is far more detailed that Zoning Plan. ABOUT THE PROJECT The project has Green and Clean Environment, civic amenities including mosque, school, club House (Including facilities of swimming pool, squash courts, Tennis courts, Badminton Courts, Indoor games and Gym etc. the housing scheme has parks, Children Play land, Open Air Restaurant around the river Ravi with a walking Trail, Cricket & Football Ground, Modern Shopping Malls, Modern Landscaping, Walkways, Jogging track around Cricket and Football grounds, Enquiry Office, Higher Level Amenities provided. Infrastructure Facilities include minimum 35 ft Wide Streets and 64 ft Wide Boulevards, Predesigned Services Ducts, Underground Electricity & Sui Gas System, 24/7 Potable Drinking Water, Efficient Drainage & Sewerage System, Solid Waste Management System, Broadband Optical Fiber Network, Environment Friendly Planning & Development and Positive Energy Waste Treatment Plant. Special Security arrangements include Gated community with sub security sections, Bio and Face recognition access at central gate, Guest reception area at central gate , Video Conferencing in between House and central gate, Database of servants, regular visitors and criminals etc., Wireless communication between guards and central office, and Camera’s at street corners with recording system Environment & renewable energy is the added feature of the scheme as it would have Zero or Least Emission Houses, Bio-gas Generation at Combined Waste Treatment Plant, Treated Effluent for Gardening & Road Washing., Solar Street Lights and Communication Panels, Solar Panels at Roof Tops for Domestic Use, Solar Heaters for Water Heating and Rainwater Harvesting for Flushing Toilets. It would also be equipped with Broadband (Telecom, TV & Internet) having Fiber to the home (FTTH) network for all type of communication, telephone network with internal free access, Broadband high speed internet, High speed gaming for children, HDTV & TV on demand, Distance learning for homework from community school, Digital Library, Books, and videos, Communication media for Traffic control system and Communication media for Security system For the first time, IHS is introducing water metering and billing through digital metering as a pilot project. IHS will provide 8-10 different designs based on Eco Architecture to be developed. The proposed designs of the housing Units would have low energy footprint incorporating the contemporary green building concept.
  8. 8. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 7 SCHOOLS EDUCATION
  9. 9. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 8 Education is the most vital investment for socio-economic advance. Usually all schemes of Lahore have 1 primary and 1 secondary school in their subsectors. We have also planned in a similar way. In Pakistan, the minimum threshold size of schools is effected by  Different participation rates (between male/females, urban/rural populations, and regions)  Very different population densities (within and outside cities, between provinces) Keeping in view the above factors we planned our schools for large catchment areas while realizing that these are designed for the compact environment of large cities. TYPE OF INSTITUTION SITE AREA (hectares) SITE AREA (ft2) Minimum Tolerable Site Area/ Student in large Cities (ft2) Maximum Tolerable Distance for farthest Students (Km) Primary School 0.65 70466 108 1 Secondary School 0.47 50158 161 2.45 Total Area= 120624 Our planned Secondary Schools weren’t located near Major busy roads carrying fast traffic. We also focused on locating primary schools where they were served by pedestrian routes which did not involve crossing major roads. Schools were located close to community facilities such as clinics, mosques and public open spaces.
  10. 10. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 9 Generally followed hierarchy of educational institutes: HEIRARCHY OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS Universities Vocational Training Institutes Polytechnics Degree Colleges Intermediate Colleges Secondary Schools Primary Schools Figure 5 Secondary School Figure 4 Primary School
  11. 11. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 10 HOSPITALS / CLINICS
  12. 12. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 11 Hospitals were designed with the aim to provide 10 beds for 1000 persons from the catchment area. GENERAL HEIRARCHY OF HOSPITALS We planned a 100 bed hospital near the CBD on an area of 0.35 hectares (.i.e. 37673.69 ft2). . Teaching Hospitals General Hospitals District HQ Hospital Tehsil Hospital Community Hospital / Polyclinic RHC (Rural Heath Centre) BHU (Basic Health Unit) Dispensary Figure 6 Hospital
  13. 13. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 12 ROADS / STREETS
  14. 14. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 13 There are many road classification systems; most are oriented to the culture of the country of origin. Classification of urban roads previously used in Pakistan was adopted, based on their function, volume of traffic, type of traffic and position in network. Road widths were decided in the following manner:  Secondary Roads (width = 106 ft)  Local Roads o Local Access Roads (width = 64 ft) o Streets (width = R.O.W = 35 ft) ROAD TYPES Widths / R.O.W Function / Purpose Secondary Roads 150 ft These roads provide access to major geographical sub- sectors and may carry large traffic volumes. LocalRoads Access 64 ft They provide access to individual premises and blocks Streets 35 ft Their use and ownership is considered to be a communal extension to the adjoining properties. Road type Width of road ( ft) Length of road ( ft) Area of road (sq ft) Secondary road 106 1847 195782 Local (Land Access) 64 20033 1282112 Local (Streets) 35 21589 755615 Total = 2233509
  15. 15. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 14 9% 57% 34% DISTRIBUTION OF ROADS SECONDARY ROAD LOCAL (Land Access) LOCAL (Streets)
  16. 16. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 15 MOSQUES
  17. 17. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 16 `Mosques are a major component of the community facilities available at local neighbourhood level. Socially they perform wider functions than simply accommodating religious services. They are a focal point for a community that’s why we located most of our Mosques near or in residential areas. We also calculated that the maximum walking distance to the nearest Mosque wasn’t more than 500 m for any resident living in a locality of a mohalla. As our population for the whole sector did exceed 7000 person (according to our householf population estimates) we did incorporate a Markazi Mosque, in our Green Belt along the River Ravi and many Mohalla Mosques in the sub-sectors of IHS. We took precautions that a Mohalla Mosque was designed for people ranging from 5000-6000 on a plot measuring 600-700 sq. metres and was adjacent to open space. Figure 7 Markazi Mosque along the River Ravi MARKAZI MOSQUE
  18. 18. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 17 OPEN SPACES
  19. 19. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 18 554987 ft2 (5.2 ha) is the total planned open spaces comprising the parks as well. We took care that the open spaces of our planned neighborhood were more than 7 % of the total usable area. We provided Neighborhood Level Playgrounds with a combined playfield of 1.63 ha. Figure 8 Samples of open spaces for Parks
  20. 20. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 19 PUBLIC SERVICES
  21. 21. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 20 PUBLIC SERVICES  Fire Brigade o (town committee with 5000-25,000 people, o equipment=one tanker with pump, o location=shed near town committee office, o water source = tubewell )  Petrol Station o (or service station, o located on 100 ft plus width road, o front side was 190 ft, o Total Area = 11600 ft2 ) ENTERTAINMENT  Water Sports Amusement Park o Area = 47701 ft2 (.i.e. 0.44 ha) Figure 10 Water Amusement Park Figure 9 Fire Brigade and Petrol Station
  22. 22. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 21 LAND USE DISTRIBUTION Themes Categories Area (ft2) No. of plots Household size Population residing in it Residential Apartments High Income 85059 3 216 648 Middle Income 88000 4 360 1440 Low Income 33000 3 324 972 Housing 5 Marla (25x45) 564750 510 6 3060 10 Marla (35x65) 1230775 541 6 3246 1 Kanal (50x90) 450000 100 6 600 River Side Round Houses 84664 22 6 132 TOTAL 2534428 1183 10098 Commercial Central Business District (CBD) 378000 84 12 1008 Local Commercial Centre of Residential Areas 112500 25 6 150 Total 490500 109 1158 Total Population = 11256 Note: As we were planning IHS solely as a residential housing scheme that’s why we didn’t incorporate any Heavy Scale Industry. All the percentages satisfied the standards specified by National Reference Manual of Pakistan.
  23. 23. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 22 40% 8% 36% 4% 9% 3% DISTRIBUTION OF LAND HOUSING/RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL ROADS/STREETS EDUCATION, HEALTH & OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES 24% 52% 24% DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENTIAL ZONE Low Income Residential Medium Income Residential High Income Residential
  24. 24. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 23 Figure 12 High Income Luxury Apartments Figure 11 Medium Income Apartments Figure 13 Central Business District (CBD) Figure 14 Railway Line passing through the scheme. Two Level Crossing are provided which will be guarded 24/7 `Figure 15 Low Income Apartments
  25. 25. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 24 Figure 18 MEDIUM INCOME RESIDENTIAL HOUSES: 10 Marla Residential Plots along with High Income River Side Round Houses at the Bottom-right Figure 19 LOW INCOME RESIDENTIAL HOUSES: 5 Marla plots Figure 16 HIGH INCOME RESIDENTIAL HOUSES: 1 Kanal Plots Figure 17 Graveyard
  26. 26. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 25
  27. 27. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 26 LANDUSEPLAN
  28. 28. August 25, 2015 [SEMESTER PROJECT-PLANNING IHS AS A RESIDENTIAL SECTOR] ATP| 27 THE END

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