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Gross National Happiness.pptx

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Gross National Happiness.pptx

  1. 1. GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS K. Schroeder 20229552 | DBI | Asadbek Obidjonov
  2. 2. THE LAND OF HAPPINESS - The highest rate of happiness (according to GNH) - Geographic isolation - Mystical eastern spirituality - and the rural lifestyle that dominates much of its population
  3. 3. WHAT IS HAPPINESS?
  4. 4. WHAT IS HAPPINESS? - It is relative. - Happiness comes from a well-rounded balance of the material and non-material. - Genuine happiness involves an intricate link between individual and collective happiness. Both require and consolidate other. - Positive or pleasant emotions from material and non-material things.
  5. 5. WHAT IS GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS? According to Karma Tshiteem, former Secretary of the Gross National Happiness Commission, GNH is a development approach that "seeks a balance between material wellbeing and the spiritual, emotional and cultural needs of society“. (Royal Government of Bhutan [RGoB] 2012, pp. 40— 41).
  6. 6. GNH AND BUDDHISM Our approach to development has been shaped by the beliefs and values of the faith we have held for more than 1000 years. Firmly rooted in our rich tradition of Mahayana Buddhism, the approach stresses not material rewards, but individual development, sanctity of life, compassion for others, respect for nature, social harmony, and the importance of compromise. (“Long term plan” by Planning Commission 1999a, p. 19)
  7. 7. HAPPINESS AND BUDDHISM Sukkha Dukkha Dukkha - represents the notion of suffering, ranging from extreme distress to minor discomfort. Sukkha - stable and foundational form of happiness. Adequate material necessities are important to avoid dissatisfaction, but true happiness requires moving from dependence on such material sources to the harmonization of_the material and non-material. (Ricard 2011)
  8. 8. HISTORY OF GNH
  9. 9. PILLARS OF GNH More specifically: health, education, living standard, ecological diversity and resilience, cultural diversity and resilience, good governance, community vitality, time use, and psychological well-being. Equitable social and economic development Environmental conservation Cultural preservation and promotion Good governance Pillars intended to work together to promote the material and non-material aspects of happiness:
  10. 10. PILLARS OF GNH - Economic growth is important but not an end in itself. - Humans are intimately interconnected with the natural environment. - Maintaining culture is particularly important in the onslaught of increasingly homogenous global culture.
  11. 11. FROM PILLARS TO HAPPINESS - Popular perceptions of GNH often assume a direct link between the implementation of the framework and the creation of happiness. - Promoting the material and non-material conditions necessary for pursuing foundational happiness; the framework itself does not directly lead to happiness. - According to Karma Tshiteem “ Happiness still remains an individual responsibility, but the State makes sure that the necessary conditions are there for people to pursue the path they choose”.
  12. 12. THE IMPORTANCE OF GNH (FOR BHUTAN) - GNH is deeply infused into the very character of the state. - Bhutan’s identity and, consequently, its sovereignty - Gross National Happiness is therefore part of the state’s character as well as its protector. - According to a former Bhutanese cabinet minister, “ The good thing is that GNH is the image of our country. It is our North Star. We sail our ship in faith and hope.”
  13. 13. I WILL DIE BEFORE YOU CUT MY LAND
  14. 14. POLICY INTENTIONS - A farm road is defined by the Bhutanese government as one that “ links agricultural farmland areas to national highways and other roads primarily to enable the transportation of inputs to the farm and agriculture produce to the market”. - Farm road policy intends to integrate the socio-economic, environmental, and good governance dimensions of GNH.
  15. 15. POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONS - Annual grants are provided to dzongkhag and gewog governments to implement activities - The annual grant for dzongkhag and gewog was split into tied (80%) and untied components (20%). - Planning: - It is started at gewog level, so they identify farm road locations. - Investment feasibility studies are carried out by Engineering Division of DoA (Department of Agriculture) and dzongkhag level engineers. - An environmental clearance is further required by the National Environment Commission ( NEC) and Forest Clearance must also be carried out. - Everyone in the community who is affected by the proposed farm road must sign-off on its location, known as its alignment.
  16. 16. POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONS - The process and the problem: - Method for constructing a farm road is chosen by gewog officials. - Once a farm road is constructed, the local government is responsible for budgeting for its maintenance, but in fact, there is not enough financing. - Compensation, however, has historically not been provided when private land is needed for the road. - “I will die or lay down here before you cut my land” - In many cases, the community’s proposed realignment has negative environmental consequences or violates technical standards. - The solution: - Locals should be educated that the households that lose parts of their land to the construction of the road end up seeing their property values rise dramatically once the road is built.
  17. 17. POLICY OUTCOMES - Despite the challenges that characterize the process of implementing farm road policy, the most visible outcome is the dramatic increase in rural connectivity. - Two Poverty Analysis Reports released just before and at the end of the 10th FYP demonstrate a dramatic reduction in rural poverty. - A common situation was summed up by the administrative head of one of the dzongkhags: “ If you look at the household income, there is a tremendous difference and it is immediate. The moment a farm road opens, you’ll see a lot of plantations... So farm roads are the most important aspect of livelihood”.
  18. 18. CONCLUSION - The government’s GNH policy intention has been only partially realized. - Democratic decentralization is taking hold. - The expression of common cultural values was also constrained by capacity and funding challenges that accompany decentralization. - The experience of farm road policy raises the possibility that democratic decentralization may be shifting how GNH values are prioritized. - The GNH tools could play a pivotal role in refocusing both government and community on the integrated nature of GNH values and corresponding dimensions.
  19. 19. THANK YOU!

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