Shift fm sa to ba (ned) v2


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Discuss the emerging role of Business Analyst and the limitation in the role of System Analyst in software development

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Shift fm sa to ba (ned) v2

  1. 1. Shift from System Analyst to Business Analyst Asad Ur Rehman Executive Director Open Integrated Solution (Pvt) Ltd Corporate Trainings
  2. 2. Why a Project is initiated ? 2  What a project does for the organization?  Project is initiated to . . .    Address Business need Solve a problem Fulfill an Opportunity Need = Increase market share (12%) in next six months. Problem = Production Planning is weak (sales) Opportunity = If provides Branch-stock info, can increase sales 8-10 %
  3. 3. System Analyst role - Limitations 3  Suppose – We have a good SW-Dev-Team. Team can write any difficult software, provided customer tell what exactly they need  SW-Dev-Team work hard for few months and develop a software that does not completely satisfy him/her  Customer says - “You did not understand my requirements. This software does not fulfill my needs”  SW-Dev-Team put all their efforts but the output is not acceptable to user. - What went wrong ?
  4. 4. System Analyst role - Limitation- #1 4  What if customer tell you to develop a Software with   His/her - limited Business knowledge Has - poor Communication skills  You work hard in wrong direction and do lots of repair work and re-work.  SW-Dev-Team efforts are completely dependent on customer’s explanation of requirements.
  5. 5. System Analyst role - Limitation- #2 5  Requirements is - Multidimensional & Complex  Components of any automation Solution      Software (features / functions) Process/Practices (need to be automated) People (their experience, knowledge, and ability to adopt change) Usability (Desktop, Internet, Smart-phone) Environment (Temp, Dust-free etc)
  6. 6. System Analyst role - Limitation- #3 6  System Analyst is technology person. Computer Science graduate.  System Analyst approach; give us the requirement (what do you need) we will develop software based on your requirements.  There are many project failures because of this approach. A role is required where somebody focus on Solution that meets the goal of a project.
  7. 7. 7 Project Successful / failed
  8. 8. Project # 1 8 Problem = Production Planning is weak  (Sales) - We do not get required finished goods on time due to shortage of raw-material.  (Stores) - we purchase in advance according to Production-Plan.  (Production) - We must have finished goods requirements from sales department 40 days ahead of production Plan.
  9. 9. Project # 1 9  Purchase a good tool for - Production Planning   Cost about Rs1,500,000 (SW only) Spent 6 months to implement (additional cost of 24 man months)  . . but situation is still the same  There was business problem  Nobody has the expertise to investigate the root-cause of the problem
  10. 10. Why Project failed ? 10  Sales sees the problem from their own perspective. Somebody should analyze the problem from all angels - i.e. Sales, production and stores.  Somebody should have that responsibility to understand problem completely; not the symptoms.  Somebody does the root-cause of problem and than convey that to relevant stakeholders. Proposed them a solution that will solve their problem
  11. 11. Another Project failed . . . 11  Beverage Company in Saudi Arabia thinks their wastage is high.  Company want to analyze wastage though Business Intelligence (BI) tool on Stores (raw-material), production and cost module of SAP.  BI is implemented with heavy cost and in 8-months,  BI report does not provide useful information that was anticipated. What went wrong?
  12. 12. 12 Business Analyst role
  13. 13. Specialization is required 13  About 25-30 years ago programmer used to do everything Taking requirements  Designing of software  Coding (development)  De-bugging  Implementation  User Training   Specialized roles           Project Manager Business Analyst Architecture Developers (Coders) SQA Engineers Test Engineers Configuration Manager Risk Managers Information Security IT Governance
  14. 14. Business Analyst role – Summary 14 Techniques & skills used by System Analyst Communication skill People Handling Skill Business Knowledge Stakeholders’ knowledge
  15. 15. Requirements Classifications 15 Why a change is required? Business Requirements User/stakeholder Requirements Solution Requirements
  16. 16. Shortcoming in SA role 16  Customer/user cannot express their need  Business knowledge is mandatory  Requirements are multi-dimensions & Complex  Knowledge of Organization & people  Need perspective - Requirement or Solution  Project ends when deliverables are complete
  17. 17. Customer cannot express their need 17  Most of the time users know what their problem is, but do not know what they need. They will give list of desires, what they want.  BA is responsible for eliciting the actual needs of stakeholders, not simply their expressed desires.  In many cases, the BA will also work to facilitate communication between organizational units (dept).
  18. 18. Guess my requirements . . . 18 I need a equipment  Is equipped with internal combustion engine  Is available in yellow & black colour  It has three wheels  Has 3 speed forward and 3 speed reverse  Levels uneven surface nicely and quickly
  19. 19. Elicitation (knowledge area) 3.2 Conduct Elicitation Activity 19 (task) Input Business Need Requirements Management Plan Solution Scope Organizational processes Assets Scheduled resources Supporting Materials Output Conduct Elicitation Elicitation Results Elements = Tracing requirements, requirement attributes Techniques = Interview, Observation Stakeholders = Domain-SME, End-Users
  20. 20. Business Analysis Planning & Monitoring 2.4 Plan Business Communication 20  Set the ground rules of mutual communication among the stakeholders.      What should be communicated and to whom ? What is the appropriate delivery method Communication Channel / point of contact Frequency / medium / escalation etc Agreed response Time Eliminate Assumptions
  21. 21. Business Analysis Planning & Monitoring 2.4 Plan Business Communication 21 Example:  It is agreed that only PM will communicate with Steering Committee.  Analyst will communicate through Project Coordinator.       After every meeting, minutes will be published within 48 hours through emails. Minutes will be published in DOC format. In case of any issue/shortcomings in MoM, it should be reported within 2-working days. Detailed document will be sent to domain-SME only. Final version of document would be published in PDF. Weekly summary of the progress will be sent to steering Committee. Steering Committee Project Coordinator SME-1 Project Manager BA Team SME-2 Development Team Key-user Key-user
  22. 22. Requirement Management & Communication 4.5 Communicate Requirements 22  Communicating requirements is essential for bringing stakeholders to a common understanding of requirements.  Communicating requirements includes conversations, notes, documents, presentations, and discussions.  Concise, appropriate, effective communication requires that the business analyst possess a significant set of skills, both soft-skills and technical-skills.
  23. 23. 23 Business knowledge is mandatory
  24. 24. Business knowledge is mandatory 24  Software industry has realized, anybody who is collecting business requirements needs to understand business domain well.  BA must be knowledgeable in that domain, he/she can interact with users in their terminology.  BA provide ideas and alternatives both for requirements and for implementation of the product.
  25. 25. Expertise of business is mandatory Definition of Business Analyst 25  Business Analysis is the set of tasks and techniques used to work as a liaison among various stakeholders - -  in order to understand the structure, policies, and operations of an organization.  to recommend solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals.  BA may be performed to understand the current state of an organization (enterprise analysis) or to serve as a basis; for the later identification of business needs.  Business Analysis involves understanding how organizations function to accomplish their purposes, and defining the capabilities an organization requires to provide products and services to external stakeholders.
  26. 26. Expertise of business is mandatory Definition of Business Analysis 26 Knowledge of organization’s policies and operation Identifies - Business problems - Business needs Knowledge of BA Techniques 2 My Problem My requirement wish list 1 3 Business Analyst Stakeholders determines solutions
  27. 27. 27 Need perspective
  28. 28. Need perspective - Requirement or Solution 28    It is very important to have right solution scope against a need. Somebody need to focus on Business Need and through facilitation and negotiation develop a solution scope which give value to organization. SW-Dev-Team focus on giving a technology based solution. SW team is not a Problem Solver.
  29. 29. Need perspective - Requirement or Solution 29 Requirements Perspective  Mother ask a SA to develop a table for the kids-study.  Mother gave the size, design, color and material (all required details).  SA with his development team will develop a table. Solution Perspective      BA will ask why do you need table? BA will related need with value to business? BA will provide solution that will value to business How many tables do you have? 3 said mother. Do not use dinning table from 6-8pm and let kids use that.
  30. 30. Give business value - not excellence 30     Changing from Information technology to Business enabler. We must have Biz-case, we cannot have ERP because of fashion (everybody is buying it). If currently FoxPro is severing our purpose (we are OK) we do not need state of the art excellent system. Business and technical information align with each other (IT Governance/COBIT).
  31. 31. Enterprise Analysis 5.1 Define Business Need 31 Identify why a change to organisation systems or capabilities is required?  Business need defines the problem that the BA is trying to find a solution for.    Determines which solutions will be considered. Which stakeholders consulted. Which solution approaches will be evaluated. It is common practice for organizations to act to resolve the issue without investigating the underlying business need.
  32. 32. 32 Requirements are Multi-dimension
  33. 33. Requirements are multi-dimensions 33  System Analyst ask question related to featured or functionality, requirements are not simple anymore.  You have to ask question to cover all aspects, from all angles. Not all the possible scenario.  Usability (Interface)  Security (ISO-27001)  Environment (Temp, dust-free)
  34. 34. Requirements are multi-dimensions 34 Environment: Automating whole factory. You want to put a thumb-scanner/smart-card at the gate for attendance system.    Without realizing the temperature at that place, the dust goes into the PC on daily basis. Soon the PC will be DOWN and no information about the staff attendance. You need to look into the environment at factory in that industrial area. Providing a dust free and 22-degree temperature is that a requirement? Not explained by customer.
  35. 35. Requirement Analysis – BABOK 35 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Prioritize Requirements Organize Requirements Specify & Model Requirements (clarify) Define Assumptions & Constraints Verify Requirements Validate Requirements
  36. 36. That is all