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final case report IO

  1. 1. Industrial/Organizational Psychology Case Report Psychological Assessment and Behavioral Skill Profiling of an Individual High Achiever Supervised by Ms. Tahira Mubashir Submitted By M Ashfaq M.Sc. III R 04 (2012-2014) Institute of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab Lahore
  2. 2. Introduction The current case study was conducted to analyze a successful and high achiever professional through different dimension of personality and working attitudes. In this case study a individual is assessed overall behaviour. The factors which have been study are following. Personality Kelly (1955), theorizing from the vantage point of personality as a personal construct model, discussed personality constructs and the development of personality. He said: ”[Personality is] our abstraction of the activity of a person and our subsequent generalization of this abstraction to all matters of his relationship to other persons, known and unknown, as well as to anything else that may seem particularly valuable.” Kelly’s view supports the notion that police personality is made or shaped by the experiences of an officer, once he is on the job. “Personality refers to those characteristics of the person that account for consistent pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving” (Pervin, 2005). This is very broad definition that allows us to focus on many different aspects of a person. Of particular interest to us in how these thoughts, feelings and overt behavior relate to one another, cohere to form the unique, distinctive individual. Personality entails characteristics which are considered relatively stable and predictable but at the same time personality can vary according to the situation. It is not inflexible but it is generally resistant to change. Definition of personality must not forget the idea of human uniqueness as there are certain characteristics that distinguish one person from another called personality traits (Larsen & Buss, 2005). Personality psychologists have been endeavoring to
  3. 3. rule out the ways to identify enduring characteristics or traits of individuals. So, trait is defined as “internal psychological disposition that remain largely unchanged throughout the lifespan and determine differences between individuals” (Chamorro & Premuzic, 2007). Traits have 3 key roles to play: (Help in describing people and aid in understanding the dimensions of difference among people, Explain human behavior i.e. reason behind the behavior and what people do may be somewhat function of their personality traits, Traits are helpful in predicting human behavior as well) Our culture and our family also have a great impact to formulate our personality. Psychologists generally agree that early experiences can be important for personality development, but they disagree on whether these experiences lead to development of relatively fixed personality characteristics. In Five Factor Model, the investigators try to find basic traits of personality. Five Factor Model of Personality Psychologists have agreement on the number as well as nature of traits essential in describing the basic differences among individuals. In past two decades, Five Factor Model (FFM) also named as Big Five personality traits have gained most attention, interest and support from personality psychologists. McCrae and Costa (1985) concluded it as a “Universal” model. These traits are (1) Neuroticism; (2) Extraversion; (3) Openness to experience; (4) Agreeableness; and (5) Conscientiousness (Larsen & Buss, 2005). These five categories are usually described as follows:
  4. 4. Extraversion. It includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. Neuroticism. It is the tendency to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability and sadness. Agreeableness. It includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection and other prosocial behaviors. Conscientiousness. It includes high levels of thoughtfulness with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details. Openness. It includes active imagination, creativity and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests, are daring, independent, untraditional and liberal. (Larsen & Buss, 2005).Literature Literature proves that Barrick and Mount (1991) conducted a study, in their study, they did meta-analysis which was; professional group, police group, managers group, sales group, skilled/semi-skilled group and three criteria of performance on job i.e., job aptitude and expertise, training aptitude and expertise, and personal records. The sample size consisted of 13 to 1401(M=148.11, SD=185.79) yielding a total sample of 23,994. 31% data collected from unpublished resources. They used Digman’s (1990) personality terms and classifications which are extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. To study the relationship of personality to job performance criteria, an acknowledged taxonomy is used which shows that this study differs from the prior studies. It was not used to conclude the overall strength of the personality but was used to improve the understanding about
  5. 5. the interrelationships of Big Five personality dimensions to the selected professional groups and standard types. The worth mentioning result in the study is that the Conscientiousness was found to be a reliable and valid forecaster for all standard types and for all professional groups studied. Secondly for two professions, manager and sales, Extraversion was observed to be an effective forecaster. Ranked by supervisors in another meta-analysis, the Conscientiousness was also shown as an effective forecaster in the performance on the job. Forero, Pujol, Olivares and Pueyo (2009) conducted a study, the purpose of the study was to investigate that the performance of police officers depends on individual dispositions. Although predictive studies of police performance using personality measures often focus on academy training; in this study the authors fitted a longitudinal structural equation model to examine the predictive validity of the training process for actual performance after graduation. To do so, the authors used behavioral and self-reported personality measures as predictors in a sample of 2,010 police candidates enrolled at the Catalan Institute for Public Safety. While academic qualifications alone predicted 27.3% of performance variance; the predictive power was greatly improved when training was included as a mediator of personal dispositions. The full final model accounted for 60% of performance variance. Results suggest that actual job performance is indeed influenced by personality, but that this influence is mediated by training. Emotional intelligence From the historical point of view, the term used for emotional intelligence was social intelligence which was firstly introduced by Thorndike in late 1920's. For more clearance Wechsler introduced the intelligence as an effect and consider non-intellectual factors, such as personality, will influence the development of an individual's intelligence. Furthermore, attention in social intelligence or other intelligence revitalized in 1983 when Gardner introduced the
  6. 6. theory of multiple intelligence (Brualdi, 1996, Gardner, 1993 & Gardner, 1995), and proposed an extensive field of differing intelligences, Mayer and Salovey used the term emotional intelligence in their article in1990’s. Goleman, (1995) described the mainstream of emotional intelligence and also present a model of emotional intelligence, after that this term is being used as an emotional intelligence “Emotional Intelligence is a subtle or soft skill “these skill has become radically popular in the fields of management and psychology. According to the Bar-On model, “emotional intelligence consists of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how well we understand and express ourselves, understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands, challenges and pressures.” According to Jordan et al. (2002) looked in his study that high level and low emotional intelligence with perspective to work performance. They found if the emotional intelligence is high, it will operate a high level of performance and low level of emotional intelligence operates low performance at work place. They also found that in low level of emotional intelligence, initially team are build and operate low level performance but equaled the performance of the high emotional intelligence teams by the end of the study period. Quebbeman and Rozell (2002) defined emotional intelligence; emotional intelligence is the combination of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. They find emotional intelligence with workplace aggression. They propose a model that finds how emotional intelligence is related to workplace aggression. Dulewicz and Higgs (2001) developed a model that puts EQ at the centre of the predictors of job performance. Thus, they find that cognitive ability and specified management competencies contribute to a person’s EQ
  7. 7. (self-awareness, interpersonal sensitivity, etc). They find emotional intelligence is directly related to leadership through specific leadership competencies. Motivation Motivation refers to “the reasons underlying behavior” (Guay, et al., 2010). Paraphrasing Gredler, Broussard and Garrison (2004) usually define motivation as “the attribute that moves us to do or not to do something”. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure. As Deci et al. (1999) observe, “Intrinsic motivation energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent in effective volitional action. It is manifest in behaviors such as play, exploration, and challenge seeking that people often do for external rewards”. Researchers often contrast intrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation, which is motivation governed by reinforcement contingencies. Traditionally, educators consider intrinsic motivation to be more desirable and to result in better learning outcomes than extrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 1999) Deci et al. (1999) meta-analyzed 128 studies that recognized the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation represented by free-choice behavior and self-reported interest in the activity or task. The authors found that the use of extrinsic rewards significantly affected free-choice behavior, with an effect size of -0.24. There was no significant effect on students’ self-reported interest. Thus, when students received extrinsic rewards in exchange for task participation, when the reward condition was removed, they were less likely to persist in the task although their levels of self-reported interest did not decline. Overall, the authors concluded that the negative effects of tangible rewards were more dramatic for children than they were for college students. The effect of such rewards varied depending on the type of reward (i.e.,
  8. 8. whether it was tangible or intangible) and the context in which the reward was given. Such moderators have implications for the types of rewards that should (or should not) be used in schools, as well as the instructional contexts in which they should (or should not) be provided. Leadership The most comprehensive theory is the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership that best exemplifies all aspects of the transactional model. At the heart of the path-goal theory is the notion that leader’s primary purpose is to motivate followers by clarifying goals and identifying the best paths to achieve those goals. According to path-goal theory the job of the leader is to manipulate these three factors in desirable ways. Manipulate follower valences by recognizing or arousing needs for outcomes that the leader can control. Second, Leaders must manipulate follower instrumentalities by ensuring that high performance results in satisfying outcomes for followers. Third, leaders need to manipulate follower’s experiences by reducing frustrating barriers to performance. The path-goal theory proposes that four behavioural styles can enable leaders to manipulate the three motivational variables: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented leadership (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2002). Leader’s primary purpose is to motivate followers by clarifying goals and identifying the best paths to achieve those goals. According to path-goal theory the job of the leader is to manipulate these three factors in desirable ways. Manipulate follower valences by recognizing or arousing needs for outcomes that the leader can control. Second, Leaders must manipulate follower instrumentalities by ensuring that high performance results in satisfying outcomes for followers. Third, leaders need to manipulate followers’ experiences by reducing frustrating barriers to performance. The path-goal theory proposes that four behavioural styles can enable
  9. 9. leaders to manipulate the three motivational variables: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented leadership (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2002). Literature shows that Eisenberger, Fasolo, and Davis-Lamastro (1990) examined the impact of leader’s emotional intelligence on follower’s insight of servant leadership behaviors and culture. Data was collected from two sample organization on the emotional intelligence of supervisors, followers' perception of servant leadership behaviors from supervisors, and followers' insight of servant leadership. Followers' insight of servant leadership behaviors in manager was found to be a significant predictor of followers' insight of servant leadership civilization, as well as supervisors' ability to appraise the emotions of others was significant and supervisor's use of emotion was moderately significant in predicting followers' perception of servant leadership culture when go into the regression model. Workplace happiness In the starting when a new employee who needs a job and an organization needs his or her services, he or she is enthusiastic. The employee stays with the organization. He or she tries to become an apple his or her superior’s eye. The employee is ready to face the challenges. Workplace happiness, the employee stays with the organization and tries to be very punctual. But some employees fail to show up punctuality due to his or her health problem, conveyance problem, job dissatisfaction and lack of motivation in workplace. A good organization structure is also important for workplace happiness. The employee likes peaceful environment and temperature that are compatible with him or her leader helps advises and motivates the individual member, they feel happy at workplace. Reward system is also a part of workplace happiness and organization establishment. Reward system motivates to the employee to work well. And he or she feels happy to workplace (Chitale, Mohanty & Dubey, 2013) If the factor of workplace
  10. 10. bullying or workplace incivility does not occurs in an organization, the employee feels happiness at workplace. The employees feel happiness in an organization without workplace violence. (McShane & Von Glinow, 2002). Amjad (2012) conducted a study on quality of life and work place happiness a predictor of job commitment in rescue 1122 workers. Within Group research design was used to conduct this research. Purposive sampling technique was used/ A sample of 60 workers were selected Punjab Emergency Service Rescue 1122. Result showed that quality of life and work place happiness at work predicts job commitment in rescue workers. Enhanced quality of life at work can ultimately improve job performance where by leading to organizational growth among rescue 1122 workers. Self image Self-esteem is the evaluative features of the self-concept that corresponds to an overall view of the self as worthy or unworthy (Baumeister, 1998). Coopersmith (1967) described the classic definition of self-esteem. Self esteem is the evaluation which the individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to himself, it shows an attitude of approval and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. Self-esteem is a personal judgment of the worthiness that is articulated in the attitudes the individual holds towards himself. Thus, self-esteem is an attitude about the self and it is related to personal beliefs about skills, abilities, social relationships, and future outcomes. Self-esteem is considered an overall self-attitude that describes all aspects of people’s lives. Hendin, and Trzesniewski (2001) developed a single-item measure of global self-esteem. It simply consists of the statement, “I have high self-esteem,” with a 5-point scale. This single item
  11. 11. shows a similar extent as the most widely used trait scale with a variety of measures, including domain-specific evaluations, personality factors, and psychological well-being. Deviance Researchers called the deviance behaviour in different name including workplace deviance (Bennett and Robinson, 2003), counterproductive behaviour (Mangione & Quinn, 1975), and antisocial behaviour (Giacolone & Greenberg, 1997). In real meaning, behaviour is deemed deviant when an ‘‘organization’s customs, policies, or internal regulations are violated by an individual or a group that may expose the well-being of the organization or its citizens’’ (Robinson & Bennett, 1995). Case formulation Inside cities, one department is dealing with crimes for long time. In Pakistan, Punjab Police department is handling crimes in Punjab. There are different ranks of officers who are working in this department. They have to be active, more punctual and more skilled in problem solving. Mr. Ouple, H. N. Station house officer (SHO) is energetic officer of Punjab police, Nawab town Lahore. He is famous officer in Lahore in encounter the criminals. He is promoting very quickly from the lowest rank of constable to station house officer. He was attacked by criminals many times. His progress in police department is very prominent and his officers feel proud of him. Most of time, he was posted in most criminal areas where he have to perform duty day and night to finish crime.
  12. 12. He is 42 year of old. He has four children they are two sons and two daughters. First son is 20 years and second son is 15 years old. Third is daughter which 13 years and forth daughter is 7 years old. The occupation of his wife is house wife. He belongs from joint family system. He has middle socio-economics. His father’s occupation is farmer. They are 9 members in family. His education is F.A in 1994 from M.A.O College. He was active student in his childhood. He was also representative of student welfare in student life in matriculation. He has a lot of friends in his student life Mr. R was his best friend in his school life. In his opinion, friends thought himself a good administrative and good person. Teachers love him and he respects them a lot. He also remembers some teachers till now. Through his problem solving ability, he can easily solve the problems at his work place. He is performing this duty till 14 years. His responsibilities are to take charge to concern police station and to become active the subordinate officer to deal the dangerous situation. His major responsibility is to solve the problems of people and observe the given area in which he is performing duty. He duty timing is 24 hours also in Nawab Town. The most enjoyable aspects of his job are to arrest the criminal and provide justice to the effectives. His first choice for job is also to work for the welfare of citizen and him like to a Punjab Police officer. He was selected in this job through proper physical and written test. His relationship with colleagues is good and enjoyable. He also likes his colleagues and his officers. He has achieved accomplishment during his career is; how to manage the concern area and maintain the peace of that area. He is probably not satisfied with his current post. He shared his experience that he was in a special group of Punjab police. His group was famous by the name “encounter group”. His worst experience is attack on himself in the area of Shahpur Kanjra where he was with his family and was badly
  13. 13. injured. His wish is to be at the post of SP in next 5 years. He described that there is no accompanying benefits and no bonuses his job. Method Participant Mr. Ouple, H. N participated in this study. He is 42 years old and is currently working at the post of SHO (station house officer) in Punjab Police Lahore, Pakistan. He was selected for this study because of rapid and prominent progress in Punjab police and also much famous as encounter group due to his efforts and constant hard work. He has 4children and 5 other members are dependents on him. Assessment measures Demographic information questionnaire
  14. 14. A demographic information questionnaire was formed particularly for this case study. The questionnaire inquired information like age, hometown, current city, education, number of dependents, marital status, parents’ and wife’s occupation. Some questions related to personal history were also asked in that questionnaire. Through those questions, information about educational carrier, past working experience, personal ascriptions, and relationship with coworker and goals for future was taken. Neo five factor Personality Inventory To measure personality traits a inventory named neo five factor inventory used developed by Costa & Maccrae (1985). The internal consistency of the NEO-PI-R was high, at: N = .92, E = .89, O = .87, A = .86, C = .90. It is a Likert-type scale, ranging from 1=strongly disagree, 2 =disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, and 5=strongly agree. Emotional intelligence scale Emotional intelligence was measured with the self-report measure of Emotional Intelligence developed by Schutte, Malouff and Bhullar (1998). This scale is consisted of 33 items. Internal consistency for subscales is as follows: Perception of Emotion.76, .80; Managing Own Emotions: .63, .78; Managing Others’ Emotions: .66, .66 and Utilization of Emotion: .55. All items were ranged from 1= strongly disagree to 5= strongly agree. Individual score on Schutte self-report emotional intelligence test indicates the level of emotional intelligence. Psychological capital Questionnaire The Psychological Capital Questionnaire is a 24 item scale. It is a measure of psychological capital and has undergone extensive psychometric analyses and support from
  15. 15. samples representing service, manufacturing, education, and high-tech, military and cross cultural sectors. Each of the four components in psychological capital is measured by 6 items. The resulting score represents an individual’s level of positive psychological capital. Self image profile To measure self image a profile is used named Self-Image Profile for Adult was developed by Butler and Gasson (2006). It contains 30 items based on likert scale. This scale asks about the present perception of a person about one’s own self and also instructs the participant to respond that how one would like to be in future in term of particular traits to assess self esteem. Responses are recorded along a series of 6 point likert. Shade indicated your real self-whereas star was used to indicate how you would like to be Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, a measure of internal consistency for self-image profile is .89. The standard score 82 for the age 42 and above. The Work Locus of Control Scale The Work Locus of Control Scale (WLCS) is used which has 16 item instruments designed to assess control beliefs in the workplace. It is a domain specific locus of control scale, which correlates about .50 to .55 with general locus of control. The format is summated rating with six response choices: disagree very much, disagree moderately, disagree slightly, agree slightly, agree moderately, agree very much, and scored from 1 to 6, respectively. Total score is the sum of all items, and ranges from 16 to 96. The scale is scored so that externals receive high scores. Internal consistency (coefficient alpha) generally ranges from .80 to .85 in the English language version. Test-retest reliability for a year was reported as .57 by Bond & Bunce (2003) and .60 by Moyle (1995). The scale has been shown to relate to several work variables, including
  16. 16. job performance and job satisfaction. It also relates to counterproductive behavior and organizational commitment. Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale The Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) is an 18-item measure of work motivation theoretically grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). It is based on 7 points likert which are categorized into 3 phases of responses; do not correspond at all, correspond moderately, correspond exactly. The internal consistency or Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of this scale is .84. Leadership Skills Questionnaire To measure the leadership qualities, a scale is used which has 18 items on 5 points likert. This consists 3 subscales namely; interpersonal skills, administrative skills and conceptual skills. Each subscale contains 6 items assessing different type of skills involved in leadership behavior. No items are reversed scored.
  17. 17. Time management Questionnaire This questionnaire is comprised of 27 items. There are no subscales of this questionnaire. All items are answered on two option of yes and no. all the ‘yes’ responses are scored 1 while all ‘no’ responses are scored 0. No reverse scoring is required to do. Work place happiness scale To measure work place happiness, a scale is used which has 23-items based on statements inquiring factor general opinion about work place in terms of personal happiness and satisfaction while felt while working. All items are responded on 5-point likert. There is no subscale and no reverse scoring in this scale Deviance Scale This is a 19-item scale adopted by Shao (2010) designed to assess the deviant behavior of an individual at work place. All items are responded on 7 point likert. This questionnaire is comprised of two subscales; interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance. Cut off score is 90 according to participant’s age. Interview A semi structured interview was also conducted for more information about Mr. Ouple, N. H. The interview was comprised of 15 questions exploring information on 7 different dimensions; those were pressure handling, emotional handling, self awareness, self control, empathy, social expertness and conflict resolution. Procedure An authority letter was issued from institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore which explained nature of case study and request to give data. The participant was told that data will be collect in three sessions and it would be an extensive study. It was
  18. 18. assured to the participant that all collected data will be kept confidential. In first session, demographic questionnaire was filled in. Some personal history was also taken in first session. In second session, all quantitative assessment measures were filled in by the participant while in third session, Semi structured interview was conducted in which the participant was asked open ended questions. At the end, the participant was thanked for his cooperation. All ethical considerations were kept in mind while using and interpreting data. Results Results are; NEO five factor personality Inventory The participant scored a total of 193. On five factors of scale, participant scored 25 on Neuroticism which is a low score showing secure, hardy personality and trait to be generally relaxed in stressful situation. During the pressure handling question in interview, the participant reported that he works efficiently and better in stressful situations which confirm the validity of interpretation of his score on neuroticism. On extraversion subscale, the participant scored 52which is very high showing outgoing active and highly spirited personality who prefers to be around people most of the time. As the participant reported himself as sociable and communicative in interview, this score approves the strength of self report. The participant scored 36 on openness to experience subscale which is above average, showing that he is practical but willing to consider new ways of doing things and seeks a balance between the old and the new. The participant scored 42 on agreeableness subscale which is
  19. 19. above average score showing that he is generally warm, trusting and agreeable, but he can sometimes be stubborn and competitive. On conscientiousness subscale, the participant scored 49 which shows that he is conscientious, well organized, has high standards and always strives to achieve goals.
  20. 20. Emotional intelligence scale The participant scored total of 147 on emotional intelligence scale. The given average range for this scale is 33-165. In comparison to given range, participant’s total score, 147 is above average which shows that the participant has higher emotional intelligence and can handle emotional situations efficiently. On 4 subscales of emotional intelligence, participant scored 45 on perception of emotions, 38on managing own emotions, 36 on managing others’ emotions, and 28 on utilization of emotion. Psychological capital questionnaire The participant showed total score of 132 on psychological capital scale. Given average range of this scale is 24-156, while the participant’s obtained score shows his higher level of psychological capital which means that the participant has positive psychological state of development. On subscales, the participant scored 36 on self efficacy, 30 on resiliency, 35 on hope and 31 on optimism. This score also supports the conclusions of the study by Trzesniewski, Donnellan and Robins, (2003) which says that people with higher self image are tend to be more sociable and outgoing. The Work Locus of Control Scale The participant scored 30 on the work locus of control scale. The given average range of this score was 19-96. According to the average range, total obtained scored shows average level of locus of control. This shows that he has an average level of belief about contingency between his action and the actual outcome brought about through social learning mechanism. The work extrinsic and intrinsic motivation scale
  21. 21. The participant scored a total of 25 in work motivation. On all 6 subscales of this assessment measure, he scored 21 on intrinsic motivation, 17 on integrated motivation, 11on identified motivation, 18 on interjected motivation, 10 on external motivation and 15 on a motivation. Leadership Skills Questionnaire On leadership skills questionnaire, the participant scored total of 67. On 3 subscales, he scored 23 in administrative skills, 19 on interpersonal skills and 25on conceptual skills. Time management Questionnaire On time management questionnaire, the participant scored 9 which interprets that his time management skills are not reasonable but those are no cause of smugness and the participant has to sort out his priorities in order to manage time. This score goes a little bit diverted of the trait of being punctual and in habit of planning everything before that the participant mentioned in demographic questionnaire. Workplace happiness The participant scored 109 on workplace happiness scale. The average score range on this scale is 23-115. Comparing to this range, the obtained scored shows very high level of workplace happiness because it is near to 115. As the participant described him fit for his work and he feels that was born to do this job, interpretations of his high score on happiness scale justifies and authenticate his description. Deviance
  22. 22. On deviance participant scored total of 31 while scoring 18 on interpersonal deviance and 13 on organizational deviance. The given cut off score is 90. Interpretation of the total obtained score is that the participant has lower level of deviance. His deviant behavior is not usual and he is honest with his professional work. A study by Neuman and Baron (2005) concluded that the reason of an individual’s deviant behavior can be stressful work situation. But as the participant scored higher on work extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, this proves that the participant is not effected by work place stress and thus has a low level of deviance. Conclusion Overall, the scores on different scales depict the traits of a high achiever and successful person. The scores show his well-established traits assessed on the basis of five factor personality theory. He is opened to experiences, extrovert and sociable. His above average score on self-image show strength of his personality. Higher score on psychological capital depicts his positive traits. Taking in to account his work behavior, he has strong level of motivation for work and less deviance. His higher score on leadership show his capability to lead people around him, while he needs to improve his time management skills. Limitations and suggestions  The whole assessment was based on self-reporting in which fakeness of responses is possible.  Absence of cross checking of information is another question to validity of data. To overcome this limitation.
  23. 23.  Lack of training of study conductor is another limitation of this study.  Scales used in this study were not indigenous and norm based.  To get the permission from that person was much difficult time taking.  For the accurate rating, the availability of information about the person from his parents, teachers and friends was not got.  There is no availability of information about the person by the view of organizational evaluation.  There is also lack of information from his colleagues  For completion a number of questionnaires, fatigue influenced the accurate data.  In spite of availability of valuable and more authentic questionnaire, but could not be used due to unavailability of scoring key. Suggestions  The whole assessment should be based number of other persons which could provide accurate data about him. In this way, fakeness of responses could be reduced.  Absence of cross checking of information was another question to validity of data. To overcome this limitation, so multiple rating should be used overcome this limitation.  Study conductor should be trained and confident.  Scales used for study should be indigenous and norm based.  According to the point of organization’s view to evaluate the person should be included.  Colleague’s information about the person should be considered valuable and be included in measurement.
  24. 24.  Valuable and more authentic questionnaire should be used in appropriate items, in this way, fatigue should be reduced.
  25. 25. Reference Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1(3), 232-242 Goleman, D. (2001). An EI-based theory of performance, in Cherniss, C. and Goleman, D. (Eds). The EmotionallyIntelligent Workplace: How to Select for. Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco. CA; 27-44. Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110. Myers, D.G, &Diener, E. (1995).Psychological science. Costa,& McCrae.(1985). Revised Neo Personality Inventory and Neo five factor inventory. Psychological assessment Resources ,Inc.florida Neuman, J. H., & Baron, R. A. (2005). Aggression in the workplace: A social psychological perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Rockstraw,L.J.(2006). Self-efficacy,locus of control and the use of simulation in undergraduate nursing skills acquisition. PhD dissertation.Drexel. Rothmann, S; E.P. Coetzer (24 October 2003).Thebig five personality dimensions and job performance. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990).Emotional intelligence.Imagination, Cognition and
  26. 26. Personality. Toulabiz, Z., Rauofi, M., &Allahpourashraf, Y. (2013).The relationship between teacher’s happiness and quality of Working. Social and Behavioral Sciences Vardi, Y., &Weitz, E. (2004). Misbehavior in organizations: Theory, research, and management. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Yukura,M.,Ueda,s.,&Yoshimori ,M.(1993).The relationship between Locus of Control and happiness. Hiroshima forum for Psychology.
  27. 27. APPENDIX
  28. 28. APPENDIX
  29. 29. Consent Form I ____________________ voluntarily agree to participate in this case study conducted by Seemal Mazhar khan under the supervision of Ms. Tahira Mubashir, Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore. I also acknowledge that she has explained this research project to me and I have been informed that I can withdraw from participation without any penalty or prejudice. She also assured me that any information which I give will remain confidential and will only be used for this project. __________________ ____________________ Signature of researcher Signature of participant
  30. 30. APPENDIX
  31. 31. APPENDIX
  32. 32. APPENDIX