Four principles for crafting your innovation strategy technology review
Close WindowPublished by MIT Wednesday, February 2, 2011 Four Principles for Crafting Your Innovation Strategy Two management consultants explain what successful companies have done to prepare for a world of constant Internet connectivity. By Paul B. Carroll and Chunka Mui The economist Joseph Schumpeter coined the term "creative destruction" in the late 1930s —long before Moores law and the creative destruction that was unleashed by a doubling of computing power every 18 months. Compared with the events of recent decades, what Schumpeter saw was creative destruction in slow motion. And the pace of innovation has picked up markedly in the last five years, because the spread of smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices is letting us all take the incredible power of the Internet with us wherever we go. To come out ahead, companies should follow four principles: Think big, start small, fail quickly, scale fast. Even as he built the DVD business that toppled Blockbuster, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings was guided by the big idea that mailing people DVDs was a mere way station on the road to streaming movies directly into peoples homes. The market is now richly rewarding Netflix for being on the cusp of achieving this vision, but what Hastings should get credit for is how diligently he prepared for this day. As far back as 2001, Hastings spent $10 million on research into streaming; he was willing to forgo most of his small companys profits to get started on his preparation. In the years since, Hastings has frequently prepared to offer streaming video—only to junk the projects when he realized they werent feasible. As streaming started to become real, Hastings did a host of deals with content providers to see which would work and to make sure he wasnt left out, even though it was clear that most of the deals wouldnt amount to much. Hastings also considered numerous pricing models for streaming and ultimately decided to start by giving it away as part of DVD subscriptions. That way, people could get used to streaming while he built his library of offerings, and he wouldnt create an opening for a competitor. In late 2010, after almost 10 years of experimentation, he offered a streaming-only option for about half the price of a subscription for DVDs by mail. That, combined with the increasing size of the library, should accelerate the move to streaming. Hastings had a grand vision from the outset, but he started with lots of small projects that often failed and that he killed quickly. Now hes scaling fast and reaping the benefits of his diligent approach to innovation in confusing times. Many companies are not very good at this process. In particular, they cant seem to start small because senior management wont pay attention to small projects. Companies also arent very good at failing quickly. Instead, they tend to swing between complacency and panic. They wait until theyre way behind and then bet everything on one big idea. And, as one senior executive has told us, "the only thing harder than starting a strategic initiative is killing one." Once something gets under way, too many people are invested in it for it to go
away easily.Start with a clean sheet of paper.At the moment, malls have a huge disadvantage relative to online stores. Electronic retailershave detailed knowledge of a prospective customers preferences and purchase history,while those in malls generally can know nothing about their customers until they present acredit card at the register. At that point, its too late to personalize promotions or shape theshopping experience.New connected technology is giving heretofore "offline" malls and stores a chance toreimagine how they interact with customers. The first step is getting customers to identifythemselves using their smart phones. Some customers already do so through social appssuch as Foursquare and Facebook Places. Others do so when offered small incentivesthrough loyalty programs such as Shopkick, which gives shoppers points when they check inat participating malls, like many of those operated by Simon Property Group, and at retailers,like Best Buy and Crate & Barrel.Building on this newfound identity and location information, and leveraging social media,malls and stores are starting to create social experiences that are not possible online.Eventually, a group of teenage girls might go to a store and disperse but keep track of eachother through the GPS on their phones. Theyd identify themselves through the mall loyaltyprogram and be treated to a slew of customized promotions based on their preferences andbuying histories. The girls would keep up with each other via Facebook, tweets, or texts andgather periodically as someone finds an interesting item or person. They could attract otherfriends to the mall. A movie theater, practicing yield management the way airlines do, mightentice some of the girls with cheap tickets rather than have seats go vacant. The whole mallexperience could become an adventure.By contrast, the descent of Blockbuster during the last decade shows what can happenwhen a company isnt imaginative enough about the new possibilities of a technology. To befair, Blockbuster didnt have an easy task in front of it. It had thousands of stores, manyowned by franchisees who had rights that restricted how quickly Blockbuster could change.Still, Blockbuster apparently never even imagined a world without stores, any more thanKodak imagined a world where photos didnt require film and chemicals. So while Netflixplotted for a decade to make its world-class mail-distribution system irrelevant, Blockbusterclung to its stores and made itself irrelevant. It filed for bankruptcy protection in 2010.Dont just play defense.While many companies respond to technological change by clinging to their traditionalmarkets and business models, Hasbro shows how an old-line business can claim newterritory too. In the face of increasing competition from electronic games and entertainment,many of Hasbros products seemed tired, and the market in which they were competing wasin decline. Transformers—basically, robots that could disguise themselves as cars—weremore than a quarter-century old. G.I. Joe went all the back to the early 1960s. But Hasbroinvigorated sales by leveraging its brands beyond toys and games, for instance makingthem the basis for a series of big-budget Hollywood movies. Hasbro also effectively adaptedScrabble to modern technology. Rather than just fight a rearguard action and protect sales ofScrabble boards, Hasbro now lets people play Scrabble on smart phones and other mobiledevices.Make sure you look good naked.Textbook publishers have traditionally been all bundled up. They relied on their lobbyingwith states to win the right to sell books, rather than having open, continual competitionbased on price, quality, or anything else.The situation is beginning to change because of consumer uproar about the cost of collegetexts, budget cutbacks at schools, and reforms in the educational system. Now technology ispoised to destroy the traditional textbook business model altogether, because the spread ofelectronic devices is reducing the need for books and creating an open field for innovation.Some smart publishers are starting to experiment with new ways of delivering their contentthat will look great naked—meaning it wont be wrapped in the traditional format of a book.Theyre doing it because costs will be reasonably low and because the benefits will be
enormous. Basically, the textbook can become the electronic hub for educating a student.Johnny wont just read a book on his tablet. Hell be able to tap into other resources rightfrom his textbook, like teacher notes, videos, and tutors. When Johnny finishes hishomework, the computer will correct it for him immediately and make suggestions aboutwhat to do differently. Parents will be notified that Johnny has done his homework (or not).The teacher will get an e-mail that night showing which problems caused problems for theclass, so the teacher can address those the next day. School administrators will, over time,get information about which teachers are having success and which arent. Textbookpublishers will get data about areas that are confusing students and will be able to testdifferent wording and different teaching methods.Accelerated TurnoverAny list of the most successful companies in the U.S. would see about half of its membersdrop off every decade, and were willing to bet that the turnover in the next 10 years will beeven higher than that. Companies will have to adapt to a world in which they dont controlthe conversation with their customers. Customers will talk with each other, talk back to thecompany, talk to other companies, and on and on. Every permutation will be possible, andcompanies will struggle to innovate adaptations.But as Schumpeter saw, every act of destruction provides an opportunity to create. Althoughseizing those opportunities will be tricky because its hard to discern exactly how the futurewill look, we find ourselves turning back to one of the famous sayings of our old friend andcolleague, computing pioneer Alan Kay. He says: "The best way to predict the future is toinvent it."Paul B. Carroll and Chunka Mui are co-founders and managing directors of Devils AdvocateGroup, a consultancy that helps businesses test their innovation strategies. They are alsoco-authors of Billion-Dollar Lessons: What You Can Learn From the Most InexcusableBusiness Failures of the Last 25 Years.Copyright Technology Review 2011.