Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ethyl alcohol2

207 views

Published on

Pharmacology

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Ethyl alcohol2

  1. 1. ETHYL ALCOHOL
  2. 2. Topics to be discussed • Pharmacokinetics • Interactions • Contraindications • Guidelines for safe drinking
  3. 3. PHARMACOKINETICS A B S O R P T I O N • In stomach –quite slow • In intestine- very fast • From skin – minimal in adults • Significant in infants given alcoholic sponges • Distributed widely in body • Crosses BBB & placenta efficiently • Concentration in brain near to blood
  4. 4. Ethyl alcohol •Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde •Aldehyde dehydrogenase Acetate •Carbon dioxide •water A small amount of alcohol is oxidized by hepatic microsomal enzymes mainly CYP2E1 Metabolism of alcohol is zero order kinetics.
  5. 5. EXCRETION • Medico legal determination of drunken stateIn exhaled air 0.05% of blood concentration • Neither is quantitatively significantThrough kidney and lungs
  6. 6. INTERACTIONS • Marked cns depression with motor impairment Anxiolytics Antidepressants Antihistaminics Hypnotics Opioids • Experience bizarre, somewhat disulfiram like reactions Sulfonyl urea Cefoperazone Metronidazole
  7. 7. • Enhances hypoglycemic action Insulin Sulfonyl urea • Increases gastric bleeding Aspirin Other NSAID`S
  8. 8. • Acute alcohol intake-inhibits • Chronic alcohol intake-induces • Toxic metabolites of paracetamol increased CYP Enzymes (especially CYP2E1) • Metabolism of these drugs are affectedOther drugs like tolbutamide, phenytoin
  9. 9. FOOD VALUE • Alcohol requires no digestion &metabolised rapidly • It is an energy yielding substrate,7cal/g • Spares carbohydrates and fats as energy source • Regular intake can contribute to obesity • Alcohol does not supply body buildings & other essential constituents of food • It cause nutritional deficiencies
  10. 10. CONTRAINDICATIONS • Intake of alcohol should be avoided by Peptic ulcer,hyperacidity& gastroeosophageal reflux patients Epileptics Unstable personalities Severe liver patients Pregnant women produce foetal alcoholic syndrome
  11. 11. Foetal alcohol syndrome • Results in  Intrauterine & postnatal growth restriction Low IQ Microcephaly Craniofacial &other abnormalities Increased susceptibility to infections • Heavy drinking during pregnancy increases incidence of miscarriage, still birth & low birth weight babies
  12. 12. Guidelines for safe drinking • On an average 1-2 drinks per day is usually safe • Not more than 3 drinks on any occasion • Do not drive or engage in hazardous activities after drinking • Do not drink if an interacting drug has been taken • Subjects with any contraindication should not drink • Safer limit for women is lower than men since metabolism is slower & bioavailability high in women

×