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Ethyl alcohol2


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Ethyl alcohol2

  2. 2. Topics to be discussed • Pharmacokinetics • Interactions • Contraindications • Guidelines for safe drinking
  3. 3. PHARMACOKINETICS A B S O R P T I O N • In stomach –quite slow • In intestine- very fast • From skin – minimal in adults • Significant in infants given alcoholic sponges • Distributed widely in body • Crosses BBB & placenta efficiently • Concentration in brain near to blood
  4. 4. Ethyl alcohol •Alcohol dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde •Aldehyde dehydrogenase Acetate •Carbon dioxide •water A small amount of alcohol is oxidized by hepatic microsomal enzymes mainly CYP2E1 Metabolism of alcohol is zero order kinetics.
  5. 5. EXCRETION • Medico legal determination of drunken stateIn exhaled air 0.05% of blood concentration • Neither is quantitatively significantThrough kidney and lungs
  6. 6. INTERACTIONS • Marked cns depression with motor impairment Anxiolytics Antidepressants Antihistaminics Hypnotics Opioids • Experience bizarre, somewhat disulfiram like reactions Sulfonyl urea Cefoperazone Metronidazole
  7. 7. • Enhances hypoglycemic action Insulin Sulfonyl urea • Increases gastric bleeding Aspirin Other NSAID`S
  8. 8. • Acute alcohol intake-inhibits • Chronic alcohol intake-induces • Toxic metabolites of paracetamol increased CYP Enzymes (especially CYP2E1) • Metabolism of these drugs are affectedOther drugs like tolbutamide, phenytoin
  9. 9. FOOD VALUE • Alcohol requires no digestion &metabolised rapidly • It is an energy yielding substrate,7cal/g • Spares carbohydrates and fats as energy source • Regular intake can contribute to obesity • Alcohol does not supply body buildings & other essential constituents of food • It cause nutritional deficiencies
  10. 10. CONTRAINDICATIONS • Intake of alcohol should be avoided by Peptic ulcer,hyperacidity& gastroeosophageal reflux patients Epileptics Unstable personalities Severe liver patients Pregnant women produce foetal alcoholic syndrome
  11. 11. Foetal alcohol syndrome • Results in  Intrauterine & postnatal growth restriction Low IQ Microcephaly Craniofacial &other abnormalities Increased susceptibility to infections • Heavy drinking during pregnancy increases incidence of miscarriage, still birth & low birth weight babies
  12. 12. Guidelines for safe drinking • On an average 1-2 drinks per day is usually safe • Not more than 3 drinks on any occasion • Do not drive or engage in hazardous activities after drinking • Do not drink if an interacting drug has been taken • Subjects with any contraindication should not drink • Safer limit for women is lower than men since metabolism is slower & bioavailability high in women