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Animalia

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Animalia

  1. 1. Kingdom Animalia<br />
  2. 2. ~ Characteristics ~ <br /><ul><li> Multicellular
  3. 3. Eukaryotic with no cell walls
  4. 4. Heterotrophs (consumers) </li></li></ul><li>~ Characteristics ~<br />Have a nervous system to respond to their environment <br />Locomotion relates to ability to obtain food<br />Most animals develop from a zygote becoming a<br />A single layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled space forming a hollow ball of cells called a gastrula.<br />
  5. 5. ~ Developmental Characteristics ~<br />The gastrula ismade up of three parts:<br />Ectoderm, a layer of cells on the outer surface of the gastrula,grows and divides developing into skin and nervous tissue.<br />Endoderm, a layer of cells lining the inner surface of the gastrula,develops into the lining of the animal’s digestive tract. <br />Mesoderm, made up of two layers of cells lying between the ectoderm and endoderm, forms muscles, reproductive organs and circulatory vessels.<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. ~ Developmental Characteristics ~<br />Animals that develop a mouth from the indented space in the gastrula are protostomes.<br />Animals that develop an anus from the opening in the gastrula are deuterostomes.<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. ~Body Plans ~<br />Animals that are irregular in shape are asymmetrical.<br />Animals that are regular in shape are symmetrical.<br />
  10. 10. ~ Body Plans ~<br />An animal has radial symmetry if it can be divided along any plane, through a central axis, into equal halves.<br />An animal has bilateral symmetry if it can be divided down its length into similar right and left halves forming mirror images of each other.<br />
  11. 11. Which figure has bilateral symmetry? Which has radial symmetry?<br />
  12. 12. ~ Body Plans ~<br />Acoelomates– animals have three cell layers with a digestive tract but no body cavities.<br />Pseudocoelomates – animals with a fluid-filled body cavity partly lined with mesoderm. <br />Coelomates – animals with a body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm.<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. ~ Protection and Support ~<br />Though not all animals have a skeleton, those that do can be divided into two groups:<br />Those with an exoskeleton – a hard, waxy coating on the outside of the body that protects internal organs, provides a framework for support, and a place for muscle attachment.<br />Those with an endoskeleton – support framework within the body that protects some organs and a brace for muscles to pull against.<br />
  15. 15. ~Invertebrates~<br />8 main phyla<br />No backbones<br />95% of all animals are in this group<br />
  16. 16. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~<br />Sponges<br />simplest form of animal life<br />live in water<br />Do not move around<br />no symmetry<br />Pores (holes) all over body<br />5000 species<br />
  17. 17. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~<br />Filter Feeders: a sponge filters particles of food from water using collar cells and then pumps the water out the osculum.<br />
  18. 18. ~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~<br />Examples: Tube Sponge, Glass Sponge, Sea Sponge<br />
  19. 19. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~<br />Live in water<br />Most have tentacles<br />catch food with stinging cells<br />gut for digesting<br />
  20. 20. ~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~<br /><ul><li>2 different shapes
  21. 21. Medusa - like a jellyfish
  22. 22. Polyp - like a hydra</li></li></ul><li>~Invertebrate Phylum Cnidaria~<br />Examples - Jellyfish, Hydra, sea anemones, and corals<br />
  23. 23. ~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~<br /><ul><li>Flatworms
  24. 24. Flat, ribbon-like body
  25. 25. Live in water or are parasites
  26. 26. bilateral symmetry</li></li></ul><li>~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~<br /><ul><li>Examples: Planaria
  27. 27. eyespots detect light
  28. 28. food and waste go in and out the same opening</li></li></ul><li>~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~<br /><ul><li>Examples: Tapeworm
  29. 29. Parasite that lives in intestines of host absorbing food</li></li></ul><li>~Invertebrate Phylum Platyhelminthes ~<br /><ul><li>Examples: Fluke
  30. 30. parasite
  31. 31. lives inside </li></ul> of host<br />
  32. 32. ~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ <br />Roundworms<br />Round, tubular body<br />small or microscopic <br />bilateral symmetry<br />have both a mouth and anus<br />Live in water or are parasites<br />
  33. 33. ~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ <br />Examples:<br />Hookworm <br />Trichinella<br />
  34. 34. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <br />Soft bodies<br />Hard Shells<br />Live on land or in water<br />have a circulatory system and a complex nervous system.<br />Important food source for humans<br />
  35. 35. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <br />Class Gastropoda<br />snails and slugs<br />may have 1 shell<br />stomach-footed - move on stomach<br />
  36. 36. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <br />Class Bivalves<br />2 shells hinged together<br />clams, oysters, <br />scallops and mussels<br />
  37. 37. ~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ <br />Class Cephalopods<br />squids and octopuses<br />internal mantel<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ <br />Segemented worms<br />Body divided into segments(sections)<br />Live in water or underground<br />have a nervous and circulatory system<br />
  40. 40. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ <br />Class Earthworms<br />eat soil and breakdown organic matter, wastes provide nutrients to soil<br />
  41. 41. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~<br />Class bristleworms <br />
  42. 42. ~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~<br />Class leeches<br />parasites that feed on blood of other animals<br />
  43. 43. ~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~<br />Hard, spiny skin<br />Live in salt water<br />Radial symmetry<br />name means ‘spiney skinned’<br />endoskeleton<br />
  44. 44. ~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~<br />Examples: seastar, sea urchin, sand dollar and sea cucumber<br />
  45. 45. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~<br />Body divided into sections/segments<br />Exoskeleton <br />Jointed legs<br />well developed nervous system<br />largest group of organisms on earth<br />
  46. 46. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ <br />3 subphylums:<br />Classified into classes according to the number of legs, eyes and antennae they have. <br />
  47. 47. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~<br />SubphylumChilicerata<br /> is divided into 3 classes <br />Arachnida – spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites<br />Merostomata – horseshoe crabs<br />Pycnogonida – sea spiders<br />
  48. 48. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata<br />Class – Arachnida<br />no antennae<br />4 pairs of legs<br />2 body regions - cephalothorax & abdomen<br />spiders, scorpions, mites & ticks<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata<br />Class Merostomata<br />Horseshoe crabs<br />Ancient group of species <br />Changed little over 350 million years <br />Aquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United States. <br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata<br />Class Pycnogonida<br />Sea spider<br />
  53. 53. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum - Crustacea<br />5 Classes<br />Aquatic ones have gills<br />2 antennae<br />2 body regions or segmented<br />Shrimp, lobsters, crabs, barnacles, isopods<br />Many species taste delicious in butter<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Subphylum Uniramia: 3 classes<br />Class Insecta (insects) <br />Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) <br />Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)<br />
  56. 56. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia<br />Class Insecta<br />no antennae<br />3 pairs of legs<br />2 body regions - head, thorax & abdomen<br />grasshoppers, ants, butterflies, bees<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia<br />Class Diplopoda<br />Millipedes <br />segmented animals<br />Have 2 pairs of legs per segment <br />Primarily herbivores & decomposers<br />
  59. 59.
  60. 60. ~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia<br />Class Chiopoda<br />Centipedes Usually terrestrial carnivores <br />Have 1 pair of antennae <br />Are often poisonous, using modified front claws to immobilize prey <br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. ~ Phylum Chordata ~ subphylumVertebrata<br />5 classes<br />Fish <br />Mammals<br />Reptiles<br />Amphibians<br />Birds<br />

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