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CITATION.pptx

  1. 1. LEGAL ZEMS INTERNSHIP BATCH VI CITATION 20th BLUE BOOK CITATION
  2. 2. WHAT IS CITATION?  A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:  information about the author  the title of the work  the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source  the date your copy was published  the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
  3. 3. WHEN ARE CITATIONS NEEDED?  Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:  whenever you use quotes  whenever you paraphrase  whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed  whenever you make specific reference to the work of another  whenever someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas  Whenever you refer to a case law.
  4. 4. SHORTCUT KEYS FOR CITATIONS Footnotes: Ctrl + Alt + F Endnotes: Ctrl + Alt + D Small Caps: Ctrl + Shift + K Italics: Ctrl + I Bold: Ctrl + B Underline: Ctrl + U
  5. 5. IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER WHILE DOING CITATION  In case the referred sentence is followed by full stop, then always put the citation after the full stop.1  “In case of citing a quotation, always place the citation after quotation marks”2  In case the referred sentence is followed by comma, then place the citation after comma,3  Citation should always appear before dash5 ─ or colon4:  When the citation guide asks to use symbols of paragraph or section, then you definitely need to use them ¶ §
  6. 6. TYPES OF LEGAL CITATIONS  Harvard Bluebook, 20th edition.  Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA), 4th edition.  New York University School of Law, Guide to Foreign and International Citations, 2nd edition  Standard Indian Legal Citation.  Indian Law Institute .  Chicago Style (Footnotes and In-text Citations).
  7. 7. SHORT FORMS  Ibid./Id. – used when referring to immediately previous citation  Supra – used to refer a citation previously cited in the document  n – used in OSCOLA instead of usage of ‘supra’  et al. – used to refer the remaining authors when any book/article is written by multiple authors
  8. 8. TYPES OF STYLE IN BLUE BOOK  Blue Pages (Court Documents and Legal Memorials)  White Pages (Law Reviews and academic works)
  9. 9. BOOKS Single Author:  Name of Author, Title of the Book Pg no./Para no./Section no. (Name of editor(s), Edition, Publisher Year).  Charles Dickens, Bleak House 49-55 (Norman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971). More than two Authors:  Name of one Author et al., Title of the Book Pg no./Para no./Section no. (Name of editor(s), Edition, Publisher Year).  Richard H. Fallon et al., Hart and Wechsler’s the Federal Courts and the Federal system 330 (6th ed. 2009).
  10. 10. Books in Volumes:  Volume no. Name of Author(s), Title of the Book Pg no./Para no./Section no. (Name of editor(s), Edition, Publisher Year).  21 Charles Alan Wright & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure § 1006 (3d ed. 1998).
  11. 11. PERIODICALS MATERIAL ConsecutivelyPaginatedJournals:  Name of Author(s), Title of the article, Volume no. Name of the Journal Pg no. at which article starts, Pg no. which is referred (Year of Publication).  David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence be Contained?, 27 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 465, 500 (1992). Non - ConsecutivelyPaginatedJournals:  Name of Author(s), Title of the article, Name of the Journal, Month(s) of issue Year of Publication, at Pg no. at which article starts, Pg no. which is referred.  Barbara Ward, Progress of Small Planet, Harv. Bus. Rev., Sept.-Oct. 1979, at 89, 90. Newspaper:  Name of Author(s), Title of the article, Name of the Newspaper, Published date, at Pg no. of the article  John M. Broder, Geography is Dividing Democrats over Energy, N.Y. Times, Jan. 27, 2009, at 1.
  12. 12. INTERNET SOURCES WebArticles:  Name of Author(s), Title of the Article, Portal name (Date of publication, Time of Publication), URL.  Eric Posner, More on Section 7 of the Torture Convention, Volokh Conspiracy (Jan. 29, 2009, 10:04 AM), http://www.volokh.com/posts/1233241458.shtml. (Last accessed on 13th August, 2021 at 8:45 p.m.) ArticleavailableinPDF:  Name of Author(s), Title of the article, Volume no. Name of the Journal Pg no. at which article starts, Pg no. which is referred (Year of Publication), URL.  Kenneth W Simons, Retributivists Need Not and Should Not Endorse the Subjectivist Account of Punishment, 109 Colum. L. Rev. Sidebar 1, 3 (2009), http://columbialawreview.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/03/1_Simons.pd f.
  13. 13. NEWS PAPER - ONLINE  Name of Author(s), Title of the article, Name of the Newspaper, Published date, URL.  John M. Broder, Geography is Dividing Democrats over Energy, N.Y. Times (16th May, 2021), http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/27/science/earth/ 27coal.html.
  14. 14. DOMESTIC CASES IndianCases:  Name of the first party v. Name of the second party, citation of the reporters, pinpoint pg no. (if any).  Justice K.S. Puttuswamy v. Union of India, (2017) 10 SCC 1. UnreportedCases:  Name of the first party v. Name of the second party, Case no. (Name of the Court Date of Judgement).  Justice K.S. Puttuswamy v. Union of India, W.P. (Civil) 494 of 2012 (S.C. Aug. 24, 2017).
  15. 15. U.S.A. Cases:  Name of the first party v. Name of the second party, citation of the reporters, pinpoint pg no. (if any).  Illinois Central Railway v. Illinois,146 US 387 (1892). U.K. Cases:  Name of the first party v. Name of the second party, citation of the reporters, pinpoint pg no. (if any).  Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co., [1893] 1 QB 256.
  16. 16. THANK YOU

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