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Flagella

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Flagella and Motility

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Flagella

  1. 1. A SEMINAR ON F L A G E L LA & M O T I L I T Y G.D.RUNGTA COLLEGE OF SCIENCE & TECHENOLOGY, KOHKA BHILAI 1 BY:- Dr. Arunima Karkun Asst. Professor
  2. 2.  INTRODUCTION  DEFENITION  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION  STRUCTURE  TYPES  FLAGELLA- SYNTHESIS  IMPORTANCE  FUNCTION  REFERENCES S Y N O P S I S FLAGELLA & MOTILITY
  3. 3. FLAGELLA & MOTILITY FIG1- FLAGELLA & FIMBRIAE1
  4. 4.  A large number of bacteria are motile.  Most possess one or more flagella on their surface that allow them to swim.  Bacterial flagella are tiny hair like organelles of locomotion.  The straight line movement is called a run and the turn is called a tumble.  Motility of eukaryotic flagella is depenedent upon ATPase activity .  Their fine protein structure requires special staining techniques for demonstrating them with the light microscope.  The pattern of flagellation is an important feature in identification of motile bacteria. I N T R O D U C T I O N FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 2
  5. 5. D E F E N I N T I O N FLAGELLA & MOTILITY FIG 2- STRUCTURE OF FLAGELLA 3
  6. 6.  Protein-70-81%  Lipid-13-23%  Carbohydrate-1-6% C H E M I C A L C O M P O S I T I O N FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 4
  7. 7.  The ultra structure of the flagellum of E coli is illustrated.  About 50 genes are required for flagella synthesis and function.  The flagella apparatus consists of several distinct proteins  distinct proteins: a system of rings embedded in the cell envelope (the basal body), a hook-like structure near the cell surface, and the flagella filament. S T R U C T U R E FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 5
  8. 8.  The innermost rings, the M and S rings, located in the plasma membrane, comprise the motor apparatus.  The outermost rings, the P and L rings, located in the periplasme and the outer membrane respectively, function as bushings to support the rod.  where it is joined to the hook of the filament on the cell surface. As the M ring turns, powered by an influx of protons, the rotary motion is transferred to the filament which turns to propel the bacterium S T R U C T U R E FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 6
  9. 9.  Transmission electron microscope studies have shown that the bacterial flagellum is composed of three parts:  The longest & most obvious portion is the flagellar filament,which extends from the cell surface to the tip.  A basal body is embedded in the cell.  A short curved segment, the flagellar hook, links the filament to its basal body & acts as flexible coupling.  The filament hollow rigid cylinder constructed of sub unit of the protein flagellar which ranges in molecular weight from 30,000-60,000 daltons FLAGELLA & MOTILITY S T R U C T U R E 7
  10. 10. The innermost rings, the M and S rings, located in the plasma membrane, comprise the motor apparatus. The outermost rings, the P and L rings, located in the periplasm and the outer membrane respectively, function as bushings to support the rod. where it is joined to the hook of the filament on the cell surface. As the M ring turns, powered by an influx of protons, the rotary motion is transferred to the filament which turns to propel the bacterium FLAGELLA & MOTILITY FIG 3– The UltraStructure Of Bacterial Flagella 8
  11. 11. FLAGELLA & MOTILITY FIG4- MECHANISM OF FLAGELLAR MOVEMENT9
  12. 12.  MONOTRICHOUS Bacteria have one flagellum if it is located at & end it is said to be a polar flagellum . Ex –pseudomonas v,cholerae  AMPHITRICHOUS Bacteria have a single flagellum at each pole . Ex –organism in clusture,lactobaccilus.  LOPHOTRICHOUS Bacteria have a cluster of flagella at one or both ends Ex-spirillum,  PERITRICHOUS Flagella are spread fairly evenly over the whole surface of Peritrichous bacteria. . Ex proteins vulgaris FLAGELLA & MOTILITY T Y P E S 10
  13. 13.  The synthesis of bacterial flagella is a complex process involving at least 20-30 gens.  Besides the gene for flagellin, 10 or more genes code for hook & basal body proteins, other genes are concerned with the control of flagella construction or function.  When flagella are removed the regeneration of the flagellar filament can then be studied.  Transport of many flagellar components is carried out by an apparatus in the basal body that is a specialized type III protein secretion system. FLAGELLA & MOTILITY F L A G E L L A R - S Y N T H E S 11
  14. 14.  Filament synthesis is an excellent example of self-assembly.  Many structures form spontaneously through the association of there component parts without the aid of any special enzymes or other factors.  The information required for filament construction is present in the structure of the flagellin sub unit it self. F L A G E L L A R - S Y N T H E S FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 12
  15. 15. You should be able to differentiate true motility from Brownian motility Brownian movement is usually caused by the activity of water molecules. (characterized by back and forth movement) True motility (the bacterial cells runs and tumble.) I M P O R T E N T FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 14
  16. 16. Locomotion  Cilia Or Flagella Responsible For Locomotion In Ciliate And In Ciliate And Flagella Protozoa Ctenophores, some Annelida, And Nemertea,rotifers,some Snails & The Ciliated Larvae Of Annelid Mollusks & Echinodermata.  In palamiciue the cilia cover the entire body surface and the protozoan swims by the help of its cilia.  In the larva of annelida,mollusla and echinodermata cilia are arranged in bands. Feeding Many sessile or sluggish animals are celery filter feeders.  example – the lancet amphioxus the ascidian rotifers & the fresh water mussel. F U N C T I O N FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 15
  17. 17. FLAGELLA & MOTILITY F U N C T I O N Respiration water cunrents created by cillia facilitate respiration The continuous movement of water helps exchanges of gases Circulation The animals lacking a true blood –vascular system eg- some annelids like tomopteris. 16
  18. 18. C.B. POWER CELL BIOLOGY 3rd Edition PRESCOTT JOHN HARLEY 5th Edition & DONALD KLEIN GERALD KARP CELL & MOLECULAR 5th Edition BIOLOGY R E F R E N E S S FLAGELLA & MOTILITY 17
  19. 19. THANK YOU 18

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