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Human behaviour


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Human behaviour

  1. 1. Human Behaviour : Psychological Perspective ARUN KUMAR RAI
  2. 2. What is Behaviour?  Most people use the word behaviour mean to ‘conduct’  Psychology regards behaviour as any observable activity by human being  Most Human Behaviours result from a combination of factors.
  3. 3. Stimulus ResponseConsequence How can behaviour be observed ?
  4. 4. What is stimulus?  A Stimulus can be defined as “the energy available in the physical environment which impinge on an individual.”  How do we recognise or ignore this energy ?
  5. 5. Response to the Stimulus : Sensation (Information)  The response to the stimulus is Sensation  At least 10 sensations have been isolated – Vision – Audition – Olfaction – Touch, temperature, pain, taste – Common chemical sense – Kinesthetic sense – Vestibular sense Audition Vision Olfaction Individual
  6. 6. Perception  Perception results from adding meaning sensation  Perception can be defined as “the cognitive process of selecting, organising and attaching meaning or interpretation to events objects or people in the environment”  Perception is said to have taken place only after the information (sensation) has been interpreted  Perception plays an important role in the “Human Behaviour”
  7. 7. Perception : Influencing Factors Major Factors  Learning  Motives and Emotions  Maturation and Heredity
  8. 8. Learning  We learn through perception  Past experiences or previous learning affect present perception  For e.g. : Gun – Hunter perceives it to be an object that evokes excitement . – A person whose son is killed in a firing incident in the past perceives it to be an object that evokes fear and pain
  9. 9. Motives and Emotions  Emotions and Motives have major influence on perception For e.g.: Hungry people, tend to perceive food and related things everywhere.  Prejudiced mind perceives selectively other people in ways that support it For e.g.: – A boy who is in love with a girl perceives her every action as an indication of love towards him.
  10. 10. Maturation and Heredity  Maturity of sensory organs – Born blind cannot make sense of the visual environment, even after getting vision with the help of a surgery. – After surviving for years in a lightless world, they have to unlearn all their auditory and tactile – Need to accommodate the new visual frame of reference  Heredity – Human beings are born with talents, these need to be developed through practice
  11. 11. Cognition- Thinking  Cognition represents the most complex form of a Human Behaviour – It is the highest form of mental activity – It is the basis for all human achievements – Concepts, problem solving, language intelligence and creativity all are depend upon the ability to think – It is purposeful,mental manipulation of words and images – It helps the human to solve problems without any physical motion
  12. 12. Cognition- contd  There are few elements of thinking are identified such as – Concepts – Propositions – Images – Reasoning
  13. 13. Cognition- Concepts Concepts are mental categories for objects or events that look different but similar to one another in certain respects  Concept formation – Abstraction – Dog ness – Generalisation – Biting is essential
  14. 14. Concepts- Classification  Concepts- classification1 – Objects – Table, Horse and Man – Qualities – Brightness, Sincerity and Honesty – Relations – Big, Small and Narrow  Concepts- classification2 – Artificial concepts – Tomato, Triangle – Natural concepts – Painting, music and dancing
  15. 15. Cognition- Propositions Propositions are cognitive actions that relate concepts to one another  Basic element of thinking process  Thinking is an active process  Frequently thinking involves relating one concept to another or one feature of concept to the entire concept e.g. 1.Politicians are often-Self serving 2. This is a very interesting book.
  16. 16. Cognition - Images Images may be defined as a revived percept without a stimulation of the sense organs from an external source  Think about your friend!!!!!!!! You make a mental picture of your friend What happens??
  17. 17. Cognition- Imagination Imagination is the process of manipulating the mental images in our thinking  We can imagine any way e.g. Imagine a dog chasing a Tiger!!!!!!
  18. 18. Cognition-Reasoning  Reasoning is a form of logical thinking  Reasoning can be defined as ‘a cognitive activity that transforms the information to reach specific conclusions’  How people use formal reasoning procedures  There are two major forms – Deductive reasoning – Inductive reasoning
  19. 19. Cognition- Deductive reasoning  To explain deductive reasoning Aristotle proposed a logical form called –Syllogism  Syllogism is a step by step approach to arrive at a conclusion  The steps are – Major premise – Minor premise – Conclusion e.g. All men are mortal (major premise) Socrates is a man ( minor premise) Therefore Socrates is mortal (conclusion)
  20. 20. Cognition-Inductive reasoning ‘The conceptual complement of deductive reasoning is inductive reasoning’ In inductive reasoning  We infer general rule from a specific case.  Generally detectives and secret agents use this form of reasoning to identify criminals by amassing all the clues – e.g. If a person blows pop music regularly. We try to form an impression about that person as a whole with that specific piece of information
  21. 21. Cognition-Other Important aspects  Problem solving – Trial and error method – Testing hypothesis – Algorithms – Heuristics – Working background – Analogies  Intelligence – Emotional intelligence – Artificial intelligence
  22. 22. Cognition- Other important aspects  Creativity – Divergent thinking – Convergent thinking  Memory – Sensory memory – Short-term memory – Long-term memory
  23. 23. Attitudes: Human behaviour  Attitudes are associations between attitude objects and evaluations of those objects. “Attitude is nothing but the quality and direction of our thought process through which we respond to the world”.  According to most psychologists attitudes are learned. How attitudes are formed?
  24. 24. Attitudes: Human behaviour Attitudes are acquired through experience – Social learning: Acquiring attitudes from others  Classical conditioning  Instrumental conditioning – Modeling: Learning by example – Comparison and attitude formation – Genetic Factors
  25. 25. Attitude Formation: Social Learning  When we interact with others or merely observe their behaviour attitudes are learned. This is known as classical conditioning  Classical conditioning can occur below the levels of conscious awareness even when persons are not aware of the stimuli – e.g. We can quote a real life situation here. – A young child, for instance sees her mother frown and show emotional discomfort each time she encounters members of a minority group- a particular racial group.
  26. 26. Attitude Formation: Social Learning A learning state to “Right” views . This process is called instrumental conditioning. By rewarding children with smiles, approval or hugs elders can play a key role in this process. – e.g.: Parents applause every time their child dances for a popular dance number, dancing becomes a habit for the child.  Positive reinforcement is the basis of this process – People repeat their attitudes when they receive reward and recognition for their ‘Right’ views
  27. 27. Modeling: Learning by example  Modeling is a basic form of a learning in which we acquire new forms of attitude by observing others  Often children observe their parents and repeat what ever they do. – Parents need to be careful and conscious in the way they exhibit their attitudes in the presence of children. – Normally parents deny children from doing lot of things which are fine for themselves e.g.: Telling lies, Smoking and Watching adult movies  It is very clear that children learn to do what their parents do , but not what they say!!!!!!!!!!!
  28. 28. Attitude formation: Comparison  This refers to our tendency to compare ourselves with others.  We use this, in order to determine whether our view of social reality is correct or not.  We often change our attitudes, so as to hold our views closer to that of others  This process helps us to form new attitudes
  29. 29. Attitude formation: Genetic factors  We accept the fact that genetic factors influence the physical aspects i.e.; Height, color of skin and eyes etc...  Similarly these genetic factors influence our way of ‘thinking’  Thought occurs in brain and it is also a physical part, as any other part of the body which has influence of genes.  However, to some extent, genetic factors do influence attitude
  30. 30. Attitudes : Influence on Human Behaviour  Does attitude influence Human Behaviour?  If yes when and how? According to Allport attitudes are a set of tendencies and predispositions which have major impact on Human behaviour. Studies have shown that there is often a sizable gap between attitudes and behaviour La-Piere had interpreted the attitude Behaviour gap-as something between what people say and what actually they do.
  31. 31. Attitudes : Influence on Human Behaviour Several studies have shown that there are major factors which serve as ‘moderators’ –they influence to which extent attitudes affect behaviour. They are most related to  Aspects of situation  Aspects of attitudes of themselves  Aspects of individuals
  32. 32. Moderators : Aspects of Situation They are purely  Situational In fact, people cannot express their attitude, since that would be contrary to the norms in a given situation  Time pressure If persons are under time pressure and as a result haveto – Take a decision – Act quickly They tend to fallback on their attitudes as quick-and-easy guides. - They become more attentive and use info carefully!
  33. 33. Moderators : Aspects of attitudes themselves  The link between attitudes and Behaviour is strongly moderated by aspects of attitudes themselves  Attitude origins – Direct experience and indirect process  Attitude Strength – Strength refers to the extremity or intensity of the attitude how strong is the emotional reaction provoked by attitude object  Attitude importance – Self – interest – Social identification – Value relevance
  34. 34. Moderators : Aspects of Individual  Is attitude Behaviour link is stronger for some persons than for others ? Yes through process called - Self-monitoring  Low self-monitored – Focus their attention outward and try to match with the people around them – Predictable  High self-monitored – Use their attitude as a guide to their behaviour – Look or focus inward – Unpredictable
  35. 35. Attitudes: Influence on Human behaviour  How do attitudes influence behaviour? Two basic mechanisms identified by researchers  Attitudes, Reasoned thought and Behaviour – Intentions of the person – Subjective norms. Related to beliefs of the person how others will evaluate this behaviour  Attitudes, immediate Behaviour Reactions – Attitude influences perception – Knowledge about several social norms
  36. 36. Personality- Human Behaviour Clearly speaking, there is something inside people that makes them think, feel and act in a situation That “Something Inside” is what we mean by personality “Personality can be defined as the unique and consistent pattern of behaviour , thoughts and feelings in a wide variety of situations over a long period of time” Consistency is the “KEY”
  37. 37. Personality -Determinants  Biological factors – Genetics – Hormones  Physical environment – Climate – Ions  Psychological factors – Self-concept – intelligence
  38. 38. Personality – Determinants  Familial Determinants – Identification – Child rearing practice – Influence on self-concept  Social class – Social stratification  Cultural factors – Values and Norms – Religion – Education
  39. 39. Personality - Types  Generally people describe persons or personalities as shy, irritable, gullible, aggressive, dominant, sociable, easygoing, jovial, cunning etc….  To put it in simple terms personality is the unique, relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feeling and behaving”  Our personality , otherwise is the behaviour noticed by others
  40. 40. Personality-Types  Carl Gustav Jung studied personality vs behaviour in depth and established personality types theory  He believed that each individual has a psychological type  He believed there are two basic functions which humans use in their lives – How we take information (Perceive) – How we make decisions (Response) 1875 to 1961 Jung with Freud
  41. 41. Personality-Types  He believed that within these two categories, there are two opposite ways of functioning:  We can perceive information via our – Senses or – Intuition  We can make decisions based on our – Objective logic or – Subjective feelings
  42. 42. Personality-Types  Jung believed that we all use these four functions in our lives  An order of preference and difference in usage of these functions is identified in every individual by Jung  The most frequently used function is “Dominant”  This is supported by an “Auxiliary” function  Tertiary  Inferior
  43. 43. Personality-Types  Jung derived in his theory that individuals either be – Extroverted or – Introverted as a dominant function He felt that the dominant function is so important, it over shadows the all other functions in terms of defining a personality type.
  44. 44. Personality-Types  Therefore Jung defined 8 personality types – Extraverted Sensing (modern types: ESFP, ESTP) – Introverted Sensing (modern types: ISTJ, ISFJ) – Extraverted Intuition (modern types: ENFP, ENTP) – Introverted Intuition (modern types: INFJ, INTJ) – Extraverted Thinking (modern types: ESTJ, ENTJ) – Introverted Thinking (modern types: ISTP, INTP) – Extraverted Feeling (modern types: ESFJ, ENFJ) – Introverted Feeling (modern types: INFP, ISFP)
  45. 45. Personality-Types  The developed theory today is that every individual has a primary mode of operation within four categories:  Our flow of energy  How we take in information  How we prefer to make decisions  The basic day-to-day lifestyle that we prefer
  46. 46. Personality-Types  Within each of these categories, we "prefer" to be either: – Extraverted or Introverted – Sensing or intuitive – Thinking or Feeling – Judging or Perceiving  The combination of our four "preferences" defines our personality type
  47. 47. Personality-Types  Flow of Energy defines – How we receive the essential part of our stimulation? – Do we receive it from within ourselves (Introverted) or from external sources (Extroverted)? – Is our dominant function focused externally or internally?  Take in Information deals with our preferred method of taking in and absorbing information. – Do we trust our five senses (Sensing) to take in information, or – do we rely on our instincts (Intuitive)?
  48. 48. Personality-Types  Make Decisions refers to – Whether we are prone to decide things based on logic and objective consideration (Thinking)? or – based on our personal, subjective value systems (Feeling)?  Day-to-day Basis. – Are we organised and purposeful, and more comfortable with scheduled, structured environments (Judging)? or – Are we flexible and diverse, and more comfortable with open, casual environments (Perceiving)?
  49. 49. Personality - Types Today  The theory of Personality Types, as it stand today, contends that: – An individual is either primarily Extraverted or Introverted – An individual is either primarily Sensing or Intuitive – An individual is either primarily Thinking or Feeling – An individual is either primarily Judging or Perceiving The possible combinations of the basic preferences form 16 different Personality Types.
  50. 50. Personality Types- Introverted  Dominant Introverted Intuition – INTJ & INFJ Personality Type  Dominant Introverted Sensing – ISTJ & ISFJ Personality Type  Dominant Introverted Thinking – INTP & ISTP Personality Type  Dominant Introverted Feeling – INFP & ISFP Personality Type
  51. 51. Personality Types- Extroverted  Dominant Extraverted Intuition – ENTP & ENFP Personality Type  Dominant Extraverted Sensing – ESTP & ESFP Personality Type  Dominant Extraverted Thinking – ENTJ & ESTJ Personality Type  Dominant Extraverted Feeling – ENFJ & ESFJ Personality Type
  52. 52. Personality-Types  The Four Preferences – Extraversion and Introversion – Sensing and Intuition – Thinking and Feeling – Judging and Perceiving
  53. 53. Personality-Types Extroversion and Introversion  We are extroverting when we: – Talk to other people – Listen to what someone is saying – Cook dinner, or make a cup of coffee – Work on a car  We are introverting when we: – Read a book – Think about what we want to say or do – Are aware of how we feel – Think through a problem so that we understand
  54. 54. Personality-Types Sensing and Intuition  We are Sensing when we: – Taste food – Notice a stoplight has changed – Memorize a speech – Follow steps in a plan  We are Intuitive when we: – Come up with a new way of doing things – Think about future implications for a current action – Perceive underlying meaning in what people say or do – See the big picture
  55. 55. Personality-Types Thinking and Feeling  We are making decisions in the Thinking mode when we: – Research a product via consumer reports, and buy the best one to meet our needs – Do "The Right Thing", whether or not we like it – Choose not to buy a blue shirt which we like, because we have two blue shirts – Establish guidelines to follow for performing tasks
  56. 56. Personality-Types Thinking and Feeling  We are making decisions in the Feeling mode when we: – Decide to buy something because we like it – Refrain from telling someone something which we feel may upset them – Decide not to take a job because we don't like the work environment – Decide to move somewhere to be close to someone we care about
  57. 57. Personality-Types Judging and Perceiving  We are using Judging when we: – Make a list of things to do – Schedule things in advance – Form and express judgments – Bring closure to an issue so that we can move on  We are using Perceiving when we: – Postpone decisions to see what other options are available – Act spontaneously – Decide what to do as we do it, rather than forming a plan ahead of time – Do things at the last minute
  58. 58. Personality-Types  Few points to remember – No individual will fall into one category – It becomes clear that we cannot box individuals into prescribed formulas for behaviour – Each of us has a natural preference which falls into one category (Native Personality) – Personality Type indicates how we are likely to deal with different situations that life presents, and in which environments we are most comfortable. – Learning about our Personality Type helps us to understand why certain areas in life come easily to us, and others are more of a struggle
  59. 59. Practical Application for Personality Types Learning about other people's Personality Types help us to understand the most effective way to communicate with them, and how they function best  Career Guidance – What types of tasks are we most suited to perform? Where are we naturally most happy?  Managing Employees – How can we best understand an employee's natural capabilities, and where they will find the most satisfaction?
  60. 60. Practical Application for Personality Types  Inter-personal Relationships – Understanding of their reactions to situations, – Communicate with them on a level which they will understand  · Education – We can develop different teaching methods to effectively educate different types of people  · Counseling – we can help individuals understand themselves better, and become better able to deal with their strengths and weaknesses
  61. 61. Stimulus ResponseConsequence Personality Type -Human Behaviour
  62. 62. Human Behaviour- Change “Change is the only thing that is constant” Human Behaviour is complex and it changes by experience
  63. 63. Thank you