The end-product of
education should be a free creative
man, who can battle against historical
circumstances and adversities of
• He was born in 1888 in TamilNadu.
• He got his early education in the Christian
• He started his teaching career as professor
of philosophy in different universities.
• He wrote Tagore’s philosophy.
• His notes on western philosophy attracted
by the westerners
His book is history of Indian philosophy.
He was invited by the oxford university to
lecture on “The Hindu View of Life”.
He was the vice-chancellor in Andhra
University in 1931.
His book eastern religion and western
thought appeared in 1939.
In 1952, he was elected as the first vice-
president and chairman of the Rajyasabha.
In 1962, this philosopher became the second
president of Indian republic.
•He was got award for the “Bharat Ratna”, the highest
national distinction in 1967.
•He won the international 50 thousand dollar award just a
month before his death.
•Dr. Radhakrishnan’s contribution to education has been
unique and irreplaceable.
•He had first hand experience of educational institutions
and their multifarious problems.
•His educational thinking needs to be studied in the
context of his view of life.
•His function of philosophy is to order life and guide
DR.RADHAKRISHNAN’S VIEW OF LIFE
Philosopher’s vision and educationist’s
Dr. Radhakrishnan’s philosophy is idealism.
Idealism means that life has a purpose, and ideals and
values are the dynamic forces that give direction to
life and help it to achieve its goal. The function of
Philosophy is to order life and guide action.
Matter and spirit
The matters show the superiority of
the human mind. We are not merely a
part of nature; there is a non natural
element in us, an element which exceeds
the quality and potentiality of matter. The
element is the spirit of man. The man
spirit which controls matter. Men may be
nuclear geniuses, but they remain ethical
Place of religion
Dr. Radhakrishnan believes that the way of religion
is the remaking of man, a complete integration of his
being. Religion introduces an entirely new sense, a
totally new set of values. But religion is not doctrinal
conformity of ceremonial piety. It is a personal
encounter of the individual with the supreme.
Religion and science
Emphasis on religion does not be little the role of
science in our life. Science and religion are not
opposed to each other. Both seek truth. The
achievement of science have induced in our minds a
mood of despair, making us feel like homeless exiles,
caught in a blind machine. This cannot be counted as
the failure of science. It is, in fact, the failure of man.
Men sometimes become unmindful of their moral
implications and social consequences.
MEANING AND FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION
Education – Training of Intellect, heart and
“Education, to be complete, must be humane; it must
include not only the training of the intellect but the
refinement of the heart and the discipline of the
Humanism in education
No nation in this world can hold its
place of primacy in perpetuity. Let us, therefore, try
and develop the qualities of charity in judgment and
compassion for people who are suffering. If we adopt
such an approach, the tensions of the world will
Education for Democracy
The cause of democracy is the cause
of the human individual of the free spirit of man with
its spontaneous inspiration and Endeavour. When an
individual is trained or appreciate his own holy being,
he will develop a chastity of mind and sprit and
approach with inner trembling another’s sanctuary.
Education to develop scientific spirit
A lively development and use of intellectual
curiosity, imaginative power, technical skill,
acceptance of goals that stretch one’s talent and
energy to their uttermost extent and the
simultaneous rejection of all clinches of thought.
These are the characteristics of the young person
who is anxious to defend his individuality against
the ever present corrupting force of habit and
tradition and social pressure for conformity. All
this possible with single minded devotion.
Education and Humane Values
There is a great deal of intellectual and
technical skill but the ethical and spiritual vitality
is at low ebb. There is nothing wrong about
science; what is the wrong is the use we make use
of it. Education should give us a purpose.
Coarseness of feeling, darkness of mind and
the very causal way in which we inflict
Cruelties all these indicated inward
Education and spiritual values
Education is the means by which we can tide up
our minds, acquire information as well as a sense of
values. Education gives to us that bent of mind, that
attitude of reason, that spirit of democracy which will
make us responsible citizens of our country. A True
democracy is community of citizens differing from
one another but all bound to a common goal.
Education – A search of integration
Education aims at making us into civilized
human beings, conscious of our moral and social
obligations. We must have an idea of the general plan
of the universe and the search for truth. When we
attain truth or burdens are lightened and our
difficulties are diminished. It lights up our pathway
with the radiance of joy.
Education to develop his spirit of enquiry
We should develop the spirit of enquiry and
dedication to the pursuit of science and scholarship.
We have enough material but it is not funded
properly. We need education in character.
Education to train people for freedom and
The future of democracy in Asia depends on our
willingness to submit to discipline, undergo personal
sacrifice. If India is to remains free, united and
democratic, educational institutions should train
people for freedom not obedience, for unity and not
localism, for democracy not dictatorship. Our young
should have a sense of purpose.
Education and self-discipline
We must train the young to the best possible all
around living, individual and social. We must make
them intelligent and good. They observe unwritten
laws of decency and honour felt by good men but not
enforced by any statue.
Education institution to preserve the spirit
of the Youth
Unless we preserve the spirit of youth, keep an
open mind and change our belief and practice, we
cannot endure. To preserve thought, spirit and
inspiration of this ancient land and let them inform
our customs and institutions are the tasks assigned to
this generation of scholars.
Education of Women
Women are human beings and have as much
right to full development as men as women have.
In regard to opportunities for intellectual
and spiritual development, we should not
emphasize the sex of omen even as we do not
emphasize sex of men. In all Human beings,
irrespective of their sex, the same drama of flesh
and the spirit, of finitude and transcendence takes
DR. RADHAKRISHNAN EDUCATION COMMISSION
University education commission 1948- 1949 also
known as Radhakrishnan commission which was
the first education commission set up in
University commission recommended teaching
that life has a meaningful.
University grants commission should be set up
for allocation of grants.
•The commission recommended that objective
tests should be constructed.
•Most of the recommendation of the university
commission was repetition of earlier reports.
•Educations should be research oriented.
•The commission recommended 180 working
The education should not only help
the students earn their living but also
help them to lead a life which is more
and to attain highest human values.
The curriculum of university education must
have it’s base on Indian history and Indian
Philosophy. The spirituality as well as material
knowledge should be find equal place in the
curriculum of the university.
The teacher should adapt new teaching methods
to narrow, down the gap between teacher and
Tutorial system should be introduced.
REFORMS IN THE EXAMINATION SYSTEM
There is not much use in conducting
examinations once or twice a year.
The teacher must evaluate the students
continuously in the classroom itself.
He must evaluate those often using objective
LEARNIG THROUGH MOTHER TONGUE
Learning, teaching and writing exams should be in
one’s mother tongue itself.
The text books should be prepared in the respective
At every stage of educational system, moral
instructions should be imparted.
Moral values of all religions should be given.
The educational standards among students, the age
of admission of the students to the colleges should be
The school and collegiate education should be for
eleven and three years respectively.
ELIGIBLITY CRITERION FOR ADMISSION
Only eligible students must be admitted to arts and
science course in the colleges.
STANDARD OF TEACHERS
Well disciplined talented teachers should be
employed in the educational institutions.
Education commission is instrumental in formulating
National education policy of India.
DR. RADHAKRISHANAN EDUCATION COMMISSION
Dr. Radhakrishnan formulated the aims of the
university education in independent India as follows.
To provide leadership in politics, administration,
industry and commerce.
To enable the country to attain in as a short time as
possible freedom from wand, diseases and ignorance.
To make the universities serve as the homes of
intellectual adventure and as the organs of
DR. RADHAKRISHANAN EDUCATION COMMISSION
To provide a coherent picture to the universe and an
integrated way of life.
To develop a love for higher values of life such as though
for the poor and the suffering, regard and respect for
women and so on.
To help the students make a critical study of our past and
to appreciate our cultural unity.
To promote patriotism as well as international
understanding among the pupils
CONTRIBUTION OF DR. RADHAKRISHNAN TO
The greatest contribution of Dr.S.Radhakrishnan
to Educational thought and practice is the report of
the university Education commission 1948-1949. The
Report of the commission which was presided over by
Dr.S.Radhakrishnan, a distinguished scholar is a
document of great importance as it has guided the
development of university education in India since
CONTRIBUTION OF DR. RADHAKRISHNAN TO
It recommendations envisaged 12years of
schooling and degree course of three years. It also
recommended that the university teaching be made
more attractive by improving the conditions of
Another important recommendation was the
setting up of a central grants commission. The
commission courageously tackled the problem of
The commission observed
“Our education should encourage the
development in its member fearlessness of mind,
strength of conscience and integrity of purpose”.
It has further observed ‘It we claim to be
civilized, we must develop thought for the poor
and the suffering, chivalrous regard and respect
for women, faith in human brotherhood
regardless of race or colour, nation or religion,
love of peace and freedom, abhorrence of cruelty
and ceaseless devotion to the claims of justice”.
When he became President, some of his students
and friends requested him to allow them to celebrate
his birthday, 5 September. He replied,
"Instead of celebrating my birthday, it would be
my proud privilege if 5 September is observed as
His birthday has since been celebrated as
Teachers' Day in India.