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Wireless technology BY ARUN


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Wireless technology BY ARUN

  1. 1. Submitted by, Anila Jacob (06) Ankita Singh(07) Anuja Abraham(08) Arun Franco(09) Arya Thulasidharan(10)
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Wireless is a term used to describe communications in which electromagnetic waves are used for communication purpose.
  3. 3. The first wireless transmitters went on the air in the early 20th century using radiotelegraphy (Morse code). Later, as modulation made it possible to transmit voices and music via wireless.
  4. 4. LAN/WLAN World  Wireless LANs provide Flexibility Portability Mobility Ease of Installation
  5. 5. Wireless LAN  A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider Internet. This gives users the ability to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network.
  6. 6.  In response to lacking standards, IEEE developed the first internationally recognized wireless LAN standard – IEEE 802.11  IEEE published 802.11 in 1997, after seven years of work  Most prominent specification for WLANs  Scope of IEEE 802.11 is limited to Physical and Data Link Layers. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standard
  7. 7. Access point (AP): A station that provides access to the DS. Basic service set (BSS): A set of stations controlled by a single AP. Distribution system (DS): A system used to interconnect a set of BSSs to create an ESS. DS is implementation-independent. It can be a wired 802.3 Ethernet LAN, 802.4 token bus, 802.5 token ring or another 802.11 medium. Extended service set (ESS):Two or more BSS interconnected by DS Portal: Logical entity where 802.11 network integrates with a non 802.11 network. IEEE 802.11 Terminology
  8. 8.  The IEEE 802.11 has two basic modes of operation: ad hoc mode and infrastructure mode. In ad hoc mode, mobile units transmit directly peer-to-peer. In infrastructure mode, mobile units communicate through an access point that serves as a bridge to other networks (such as Internet or LAN).
  9. 9. WLAN Topology Ad-Hoc Network
  10. 10. WLAN Topology Infrastructure
  11. 11. IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11a Makes use of 5-GHz band Provides rates of 6, 9 , 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) IEEE 802.11b 802.11b operates in 2.4 GHz band Provides data rates of 5.5 and 11 Mbps
  12. 12. Future of WLAN WLANs move to maturity Higher Speeds Improved Security Seamless end-to-end protocols Better Error control Long distances New vendors Better interoperability Global networking.
  13. 13. WI-FI  Wi-Fi means Wireless Fidelity  Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily to the Internet. Standardized as IEEE 802.11 a,b,g,n, Wi-Fi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the de facto standard for access in private homes
  14. 14. WI-MAX  Formed in April 2001.  Based on wireless MAN technology.  Developed by CONSORTIUM.  Worldwide interoperability for microwave access.  Broadband internet access.  Replaces satellite internet services by providing universal internet access.  Data rate 75Mbps.
  15. 15. Wi-Max provides 2 types of services : 1) Non-line-of-sight : Service is a Wifi sort of service. Small antenna on the computer connects the computer to Wi-max tower. 2) Line-of-sight : Services where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the Wimax tower from a roof top or pole. More stable ,so a lot of data with fewer errors.
  16. 16. Wimax system has 2 major parts. They are :  A Wimax base station  A Wimax receiver Indoor electronics Wimax tower Wimax base station
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES  Single station can serve hundreds of users.  Speed of 10Mbps at 10km with line-of-site.  It is standardized.
  18. 18. DISADVANTAGES  Weather conditions like rain can interrupt the signal.  Other wireless equipment could cause interference.  Requires strong electrical support.  Big installation and operational cost.
  19. 19. ZIGBEE  It is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols.  It can activate in 15msec.  Can transmit data over long distances.  Speed rate- 250Kbps.  Low power requirement.  Wireless mesh networking proprietary standard.  Longer life with smaller batteries.
  20. 20. APPLICATION  Building automation.  Remote control.  Easy –to-use touchpads.  LED lighting control.
  21. 21. ADVANTAGES  Low cost.  Eliminates dependence on infrared devices.  Low power requirement.  Battery lasts for upto 10yrs.
  22. 22. DISADVANTAGES  It is confusing at first to the homeowner.  Battery not rechargeable.  It is vulnerable to various network attacks and penetration.  Restrictions in the case of memory size, processing speed of data etc.
  23. 23. VOIP  Voice over internet protocol  Provisioning of communications services over the internet. (Voice , SMS, Fax etc)
  24. 24. HOW… ???  In VOIP telephone calls, digital information is packetized and transmission occurs as IP packets over a packet switched network.  VOIP employs session control and signaling protocols.  Transport audio streams over IP networks using special media delivery protocols that encode audio with codecs and video with video codecs.
  26. 26. WHY USE VOIP… ???  Bandwidth efficiency  Low cost  Simple user interface  Maintainance becomes simpler
  27. 27. PROBLEMS YOU CAN EXCEPT  Latency  Packet loss  Jitter  Prone to congestion and DoS attacks
  28. 28. REGULATORY AND LEGAL ISSUES  Types of internet telephony permitted in India:  PC to PC: within or outside India  PC/ a device/ adapter to PSTN abroad  Any device/adapter to similar device or adapter within or outside India
  29. 29. Bluetooth Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994.  It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Physical range up to 50 metres
  30. 30. Bluetooth (cont..)  Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG).  The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks.  To be marketed as a Bluetooth device, it must be qualified to standards defined by the SIG.A network of patents is required to implement the technology, which is licensed only for that qualifying device.
  31. 31. Bluetooth Implementation  Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum.  The transmitted data are divided into packets and each packet is transmitted on one of the 79 designated Bluetooth channels. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz.
  32. 32. Bluetooth connections  Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to seven slaves .  The master chooses which slave device to address; typically, it switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin fashion.
  33. 33. Bluetooth-Uses  Bluetooth is a standard wire- replacement communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption.  Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in visual line of sight of each other, however a quasi optical wireless path must be viable.
  34. 34. Bluetooth applications  Bluetooth mobile phone headset.  Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a hands free headset.  Wireless control of and communication between a mobile phone and a Bluetooth compatible car stereo system.
  35. 35. Bluetooth applications(cont..)  Wireless control and communication with tablets and speakers such as I- Pad and Android devices.  Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required.  Wireless communication with PC input and output devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard etc.
  36. 36. Bluetooth Devices  A Bluetooth USB dongle with a 100 m range.  Bluetooth exists in many products, such as telephones, tablets, media players, robotics systems, handheld and console gaming equipment, and some high definition headsets, modems, and watches.
  37. 37. Bluetooth Versions  All versions of the Bluetooth standards are designed for downward compatibility. That lets the latest standard cover all older versions.  Bluetooth v1.0 and v1.0B - had many problems, and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable
  38. 38. Bluetooth Versions  also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level)  major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments.
  39. 39. Bluetooth Versions  Bluetooth v1.1  Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed.  Added possibility of non-encrypted channels.  Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).
  40. 40. Bluetooth Versions  Bluetooth v1.2  Faster Connection and Discovery  • Adaptive frequency-hopping spread spectrum (AFH), which improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence.  • Higher transmission speeds in practice
  41. 41. Bluetooth Versions  Bluetooth v2.0 + EDR  Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer  Bluetooth v2.1 + EDR  The headline feature of 2.1 is secure simple pairing (SSP): this improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices, while increasing the use and strength of security
  42. 42. Bluetooth Versions  "Extended inquiry response" (EIR), which provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection; and sniff subrating, which reduces the power consumption in low- power mode.
  43. 43. Bluetooth Versions  Bluetooth v3.0 + HS  Bluetooth 3.0+HS provides theoretical data transfer speeds of up to 24 Mbit/s  Enhanced Power Control  The main new feature is AMP (Alternative MAC/PHY), the addition of 802.11 as a high speed transport for large quantities of data .
  44. 44. Bluetooth Versions  Bluetooth Smart (v4.0 & 4.1)  adopted as of 30 June 2010. It includes Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth high speed and Bluetooth low energy protocols. Bluetooth high speed is based on Wi-Fi, and Classic Bluetooth consists of legacy Bluetooth protocols.
  45. 45. Near field communication  Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no more than a few inches.  applications include contactless transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi.
  46. 46. Near field communication  NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 10 cm or less. NFC operates at 13.56 MHz. Data rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to 424 kbit/s.  . NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive target. This enables NFC targets to take simple form factors such as tags, or cards that do not require batteries.
  47. 47. RuBee  RuBee (IEEE standard 1902.1) is a two way, active wireless protocol designed for harsh environment, high security asset visibility applications. RuBee utilizes Long Wave (LW) magnetic signals to send and receive short (128 byte) data packets in a local regional network.  RuBee is slow (1,200 baud) compared to other packet based network data standards (WiFi).
  48. 48. RuBee  131 kHz as an operating frequency provides RuBee with the advantages of ultra low power consumption (battery life measured in many years), and normal operation near steel and/or water. These features make it easy to deploy sensors, controls, or even actuators and indicators.
  49. 49. RuBee  RuBee uses long wavelengths and works in the near field (under 50 feet) it is possible to simultaneously transmit and receive from many adjacent antennas, without interference providing the signals are synchronized.  RuBee has no reflections and is not blocked by steel or liquids and therefore is not line-of-sight.
  50. 50. RuBee  RuBee is robust in harsh environment visibility and security applications. It also means RuBee has no eavesdropping risks in secure facilities. RuBee is the only wireless technology to ever be approved for use in secure facilities by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE).
  51. 51. Li-Fi  Li-Fi refers to 5G visible light communication systems using light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a medium to deliver networked, mobile, high-speed communication in a similar manner as Wi-Fi and Optical fibre. Li- Fi could lead to the Internet of Things, which is everything electronic being connected to the internet, with the LED lights on the electronics being used as internet access points.
  52. 52. Li-Fi  The light waves cannot penetrate walls which makes a much shorter range, though more secure from hacking. Direct line of sight isn't necessary for Li-Fi to transmit signal and light reflected of walls achieve 70 Mbps.  Li-Fi can be used in electromagnetic sensitive areas such as in aircraft cabins, hospitals and nuclear power plants without causing electromagnetic interference.
  53. 53. Transfer Jet  Transfer Jet is a new type of close proximity wireless transfer technology by Sony and initially demonstrated 2008. By touching (or bringing very close together) two electronic devices.  Allows high speed exchange of data.  Transmission Rate 560 Mbits (max) / 375 Mbits (effective throughput).  Transfer jet maintain a robust link even when the surrounding wireless condition fluctuates.
  54. 54. Poken  Poken is a technology that utilizes NFC technology to allow the exchange of online social networking data between two keychain accessories.  Poken are used for social networking, personal identification and as a device for loyalty programs.  Corporations such as BMW and IBM use poken at conferences to enhance interaction with conference attendees and to facilitate business networking.
  55. 55. 1G  1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile telecommunications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s.  After 2G was launched, the previous mobile telephone systems were retrospectively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog
  56. 56. 2G  2G is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. Three primary benefits of 2G networks:-  phone conversations were digitally encrypted.
  57. 57. 2G  2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels.  2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages, picture messages and MMS.  , radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers
  58. 58. 3G  3G, is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology.  3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.  3G networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 200 Kbits to several Mbits to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.
  59. 59. 4G  4G is the fourth generation of mobile communication technology standards.  A 4G system provides mobile ultra- broadband Internet access.  Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high- definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.
  60. 60. Flash Transfer  Flash transfer is an application software used in mobiles and tablets.  Two device with flash transfer can transfer data of large size with great speed.  This application is available for devices using android O.S.  Single Image can be transferred by sliding and image folders and other documents can be transferred by shaking.
  61. 61. GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS) a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the U.S and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
  62. 62. GPS  The GPS project was developed in 1973 .  GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defence (DoD) and was originally run with 24 satellites.  It became fully operational in 1995.  Bradford Parkinson, Roger L. Easton, and Ivan A. Getting are credited with inventing it.
  63. 63. GPS  The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid- 2000s.  There are also the planned European Union Galileo positioning system, India's Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System and Chinese Compass navigation system.