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about the environmental issues and benefits of LNG

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  2. 2. INDIA – A MAJOR GAS/LNG CONSUMER • 13th largest gas consumer – 55 bcm (~149 mmscmd) • 4th largest LNG importer – 20.5 bcm (~55 mmscmd) • Economy growing at CAGR of about 5-6% with similar • growth in Energy Consumption • Target to increase share of Natural Gas in Indian Energy • basket to increase from 9% to 20% by 2025 • With marginal increase in domestic gas production share • of imported gas to increase substantially • Pipeline network- developing into a national grid- needs • to grow faster, connecting new markets
  3. 3. LNG IN INDIA • “Vision 2030, Natural Gas Infrastructure in India” envisaged a GDP growth of 6%. • Current GDP growth of about 5-6% translate into overall energy demand growth at CAGR of 6-7% • Given India’s growing energy requirements & unlikelihood of matching increase in the domestic supplies, despite some significant oil & gas finds recently, the import dependence is only going to accentuate sharply in the coming years LNG Regas Capacities • Presently, India’s LNG import capacity around 23.0 mmtpa through 4 terminals & meeting more than 35% of total gas supply of the country
  4. 4. PETRONET LNG LIMITED  Incorporated on April 2, 1998 • Authorized Capital US$240 Million, Paid up capital US$150 Million  Commencement of Commercial Operations - April, 2004  Equity • 50% held by Oil & Gas PSUs (ONGC, IOC, BPCL & GAIL ) • 10% held by GDFI (part of GDF SUEZ) • 5.20% ADB
  5. 5. KOCHI LNG TERMINAL • LNG Terminal located in Special Economic Zone with Co-developer status. • Capacity 5.0 mmtpa • Tied up 1.44 mmtpa LNG from Exxon Mobil’s Gorgon Project • Time Charter Party for 4th vessel selected • Kochi terminal commissioned in September, 2013 • Truck loading facility available
  6. 6. LNG Terminal – Economic Growth and Clean Environment Coupled Together • Preservation of the environment with parallel industrial growth has been the limelight for LNG. • Compared with conventional fuels, natural gas is cheaper, cleaner, safer and more efficient. • The various industries in and around the state will benefit from the low-cost electricity generated from LNG, as compared to the conventional methods. • On adjunct lines, the completion of LNG Terminal will result in added benefits to various other industries too – rise in need of skilled manpower, demand for pipes, increase in demand for accessories like valves, joints, meters, PLC fittings, transportation etc. This will hype up the economic turnover within the state, resulting in more economic activity for state bred industries.
  7. 7. Difference between CNG, LNG, LPG and Hydrogen? Compressed Natural Gas or CNG is stored on the vehicle in high-pressure tanks - 20 to 25 MPa (200 to 250 bar, or 3,000 to 3,600 psi). Natural gas consists mostly of methane and is drawn from gas wells or in conjunction with crude oil production. As delivered through the pipeline system, it also contains hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane as well as other gases such as nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, sulphur compounds, and water vapour. A sulphur-based odourant is normally added to CNG to facilitate leak detection. Natural gas is lighter than air and thus will normally dissipate in the case of a leak, giving it a significant safety advantage over gasoline or LPG. Liquefied Natural Gas or LNG is natural gas stored as a super-cooled (cryogenic) liquid. The temperature required to condense natural gas depends on its precise composition, but it is typically between -120 and -170°C (-184 and –274°F). The advantage of LNG is that it offers an energy density comparable to petrol and diesel fuels, extending range and reducing refuelling frequency. The disadvantage, however, is the high cost of cryogenic storage on vehicles and the major infrastructure requirement of LNG dispensing stations, production plants and transportation facilities. LNG has begun to find its place in heavy-duty applications in places like the US, Japan, the UK and some countries in Europe. For many developing nations, this is currently not a practical option.
  8. 8. Liquefied Petroleum Gas or LPG (also called Autogas) consists mainly of propane, propylene, butane, and butylene in various mixtures. It is produced as a by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining. The components of LPG are gases at normal temperatures and pressures. One challenge with LPG is that it can vary widely in composition, leading to variable engine performance and cold starting performance. At normal temperatures and pressures, LPG will evaporate. Because of this, LPG is stored in pressurised steel bottles. Unlike natural gas, LPG is heavier than air, and thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. Such accumulations can cause explosion hazards, and are the reason that LPG fuelled vehicles are prohibited from indoor parkades in many jurisdictions. Hydrogen or H2 gas is highly flammable and will burn at concentrations as low as 4% H2 in air. For automotive applications, hydrogen is generally used in two forms: internal combustion or fuel cell conversion. In combustion, it is essentially burned as conventional gaseous fuels are, whereas a fuel cell uses the hydrogen to generate electricity that in turn is used to power electric motors on the vehicle. Hydrogen gas must be produced and is therefore is an energy storage medium, not an energy source. The energy used to produce it usually comes from a more conventional source. Hydrogen holds the promise of very low vehicle emissions and flexible energy storage; however, many believe the technical challenges required to realize these benefits may delay hydrogen’s widespread implementation for several decades. Hydrogen can be obtained through various thermochemical methods utilizing methane (natural gas), coal, liquified petroleum gas, or biomass (biomass gasification), from electrolysis of water, or by a process called thermolysis. Each of these methods poses its own challenges.