Marine biotechnology
advances towards
application in new
functional foods.
Laura Rangel, Ricardo Gómez
Ingeniería en Biote...
2. Marine functional ingredients and their
sources.
3. Functional foods incorporating marine
ingredients.
4. Marine biotec...
Introduction
Diet & Healt´s
promotion
Chronic
Diseases
Cereals
&
Marine
Foods
RICH IN:
(Casós et al.,2008), (Trottier et a...
functional foods
 nutritional effects
 benefit to one or more functions of the human Organism.
 provides physiological ...
Sources of functional Ingredients
Terrestial
•fruits, vegetables, cereals and
mushrooms
Marine
•fish, sponges, macro- and
...
Genetic research
 The functional ingredients should be
dietary, but not obligatory
nutrient, biologically active
componen...
Nutritional Genomics
HOW NUTRIENTS
AFFECT THE GENE
EXPRESSION
NUTRIGENOMICS
&NUTRIGENETICS
This information supports the t...
Nutraceutical
value
Chitin, chitos
an
Omega-3
oils
Fish protein
Hyd-Lisates
Algas
Constituents
Carotenoids,
Collagen, Ta
u...
 Enhancement of antioxidant activity and immunity stimulation are the most
studied health benefits and have driven consum...
Algae Can be seen as an almos unlimited Source
Many funtional ingredientes
Great taxonomic diversity
Unpleasant off-flavors
successful in bakery and pasta
Omega-3-enriched eggs
In Japan, several foods (soybean
paste, potato...
4. Marine biotechnology
Products
Processes
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
“any technological application that us...
Marine biotechnology
I) Tools involving
biotechnological processes
(bioreactors, fermentations, and
bioprocessing)
II) Too...
4.1. Biotechnological processes
4.1.1. Cell factories
The cultivation of marine organisms, often
designated as cell factor...
4.1.1. Cell factories
4.1.1. Cell factories
4.1.1. Cell factories
4.1.1. Cell factories
4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies
Involving enzyme-
mediated hydrolysis to
produce marine
ingredients are other
approache...
4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies
The enzyme-
mediated
hydrolysis
Membrane
bioreactors
Ultrafiltration
membranes
system
4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies
Marine
extracted
enzymes
Proteases
lipases
Amidases
polysac
charide
 Marine extracted ...
4.2. Molecular biotechnology
4.2.1. Marine metagenomic approach
Furthermore, the knowledge of the marine genome, will allo...
4.2 Molecular biotechnology
4.2.1. Marine metagenomic approach
Metagenomics—the study of
genetic information of an
environ...
4.2.2. Transgenic approach
Genetic
modification
•Optimization of metabolites production with functional
properties has bee...
5. Final considerations
 The real challenge is to overcome the bridge between the findings of new
strains and transgenic ...
Thank´s for your attention
Any questions?
Marine biotechnology advances towards application in new functional
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alimentos funcionales, biotecnología marina, PUFAS

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Marine biotechnology advances towards application in new functional

  1. 1. Marine biotechnology advances towards application in new functional foods. Laura Rangel, Ricardo Gómez Ingeniería en Biotecnología Octavo Cuatrimestre
  2. 2. 2. Marine functional ingredients and their sources. 3. Functional foods incorporating marine ingredients. 4. Marine biotechnology. 4.1. Biotechnological processes . 4.1.1. Cell factories . 4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies . 4.2. Molecular biotechnology . 4.2.1. Marine metagenomic approach. 4.2.2. Transgenic approach. 5. Final considerations.
  3. 3. Introduction Diet & Healt´s promotion Chronic Diseases Cereals & Marine Foods RICH IN: (Casós et al.,2008), (Trottier et al., 2010), (Ameye and Chee, 2006)
  4. 4. functional foods  nutritional effects  benefit to one or more functions of the human Organism.  provides physiological benefits  and reducing the risk of disease functional foods are those foods similar to conventional food in appearance, intended to be consumed as part of a normal diet containing biologically active compounds which offer potential effects
  5. 5. Sources of functional Ingredients Terrestial •fruits, vegetables, cereals and mushrooms Marine •fish, sponges, macro- and microalgae The marine environment is a major reservoir of bioactive compounds that have potential to be applied in several phases of food processing, storage and fortification (Rasmussen and Morrissey, 2007).
  6. 6. Genetic research  The functional ingredients should be dietary, but not obligatory nutrient, biologically active components present in unmodified whole food or added to a food vehicle., which include the nutrigenomics and the nutrigenetics (Shirwaikar et al., 2011). (Anon, 2007) The interest of functional ingredients has been enhanced by the recent advances in genetics namely on nutritional genomics
  7. 7. Nutritional Genomics HOW NUTRIENTS AFFECT THE GENE EXPRESSION NUTRIGENOMICS &NUTRIGENETICS This information supports the thesis that a selected diet according to genome could reduce the genetic risk of suffering certain diseases (Plaza et al., 2008) leading to personalized nutrition”; a preventive approach for optimizing health, delaying diseases or diminish it intensity or severity (Fenech et al., 2011) Studied the interaction between genes and dietary habits and detected that a diet rich in PUFAs resulted in the benefic effect of increasing high density cholesterol (good Cholesterol) which was only observed in individuals that were not carriers of E*4 allele of the APOE gene.
  8. 8. Nutraceutical value Chitin, chitos an Omega-3 oils Fish protein Hyd-Lisates Algas Constituents Carotenoids, Collagen, Ta urine… . (Kadam and Prabhasankar, 2010), examples of such compounds that can be added at different stages, from processing to storage, of the food production process
  9. 9.  Enhancement of antioxidant activity and immunity stimulation are the most studied health benefits and have driven consumers to be more aware that diet can serve both nutrition and health promotion goals. Food products containing marine derived oils rich in: ChitosanChitosin Omega- 3 Fatty acids Are some food products that are being commercialized in several markets around the world including United States, Japan and some countries of Europe (Kadam and Prabhasankar, 2010).
  10. 10. Algae Can be seen as an almos unlimited Source Many funtional ingredientes Great taxonomic diversity
  11. 11. Unpleasant off-flavors successful in bakery and pasta Omega-3-enriched eggs In Japan, several foods (soybean paste, potato chips, and noodles) with added chitosa •Although the antibacterial effect against pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. •Chitosans and chitooligosaccharides • Seaweed wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) •Higher content of fucoxanthin and fucosterol •Spaghetti enriched with long chain omega-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure, antit umoral effect, cardio vascular diseases (Kadam y Prabhasankar, 2010), (Borderías et Diet in Japan, China and Korea, and in the USA as a consequence of the migration phenomenon from east to west, whereas in Europe
  12. 12. 4. Marine biotechnology Products Processes Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”
  13. 13. Marine biotechnology I) Tools involving biotechnological processes (bioreactors, fermentations, and bioprocessing) II) Tools involving genetic/molecular approach and genetic manipulation which could be designated as molecular biotechnology. Will be divided in two subsections
  14. 14. 4.1. Biotechnological processes 4.1.1. Cell factories The cultivation of marine organisms, often designated as cell factories, has been practiced by man for ages macroalgae or seaweeds, and microalgae are: Dunaliella salina, because of its high capacity to accumulate high concentration of carotenoids (Lamers et al., 2008).
  15. 15. 4.1.1. Cell factories
  16. 16. 4.1.1. Cell factories
  17. 17. 4.1.1. Cell factories
  18. 18. 4.1.1. Cell factories
  19. 19. 4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies Involving enzyme- mediated hydrolysis to produce marine ingredients are other approaches to added value use of 30 to 50% by- products resulting every year from 140 million tons of fish and shellfish (Guerard et al., 2010)
  20. 20. 4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies The enzyme- mediated hydrolysis Membrane bioreactors Ultrafiltration membranes system
  21. 21. 4.1.2. Bio-processing technologies Marine extracted enzymes Proteases lipases Amidases polysac charide  Marine extracted enzymes, other valuable products from marine organisms, can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their activity and stability under unusual and extreme reaction conditions (Rasmussen andMorrissey, 2007).
  22. 22. 4.2. Molecular biotechnology 4.2.1. Marine metagenomic approach Furthermore, the knowledge of the marine genome, will allow to screen for new genes and obtain new compounds from marine microbial resources and therefore it is important that more marine microorganisms are studied in genome programs. From the genome information it is possible to know whether an organism has the potential to produce new compounds by secondary metabolic pathways.
  23. 23. 4.2 Molecular biotechnology 4.2.1. Marine metagenomic approach Metagenomics—the study of genetic information of an environmental sample containing uncultured and diverse microbial populations
  24. 24. 4.2.2. Transgenic approach Genetic modification •Optimization of metabolites production with functional properties has been achieved by genetic modification PUFAS •Recombinant production of omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA by E. coli has demonstrated great potential. Algae •Using genetically modified algae (transgenic algae) as bioreactors or cell factories for expression products (such as carotenoids, PUFAs, and enzymes) (Hallman, 2007).
  25. 25. 5. Final considerations  The real challenge is to overcome the bridge between the findings of new strains and transgenic strains and their commercial application to produce food functional ingredients.
  26. 26. Thank´s for your attention Any questions?

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