Committing to Quality in Education: Arts at the Core


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Committing to Quality in Education: Arts at the Core

  1. 1. Committing to Quality in Education: Arts at the Core A Guidebook and Planning Tool
  2. 2. P r o j E C t S tA f f ADVISory CoMMIt tEE CrItICAL rE ADErS Julie Adrianopoli Dean Auriemma Neil Codell Director of Policy and Strategic Initiatives Director of Curriculum & Instruction, Homewood- Superintendent, Illinois Arts Alliance flossmoor High School (flossmoor) Niles township High School District 219 Guidebook Project Director (Skokie) Lead Editor Libby Lai-Bun Chiu Arts & foreign Language Specialist, Marica Cullen Ra Joy ISBE/IAC Partnership, Illinois Arts Council Director of Curriculum and Instruction, Executive Director (Chicago) Illinois State Board of Education Illinois Arts Alliance (Springfield) Tammie Herrejon Lara Pruitt Drama teacher/Director, Dr. Amber Harper Educational Consultant Lake Zurich Middle School South Superintendent, Guidebook Project Manager (Lake Zurich) Leepertown C.C.S.D. #175 Lead Writer (Leepertown) Richard Murphy fine Arts Chair, Andrea Keck University High School/University of Illinois, Education Consultant (Urbana-Champaign) (Scottsdale, AZ) Sharon S. Reed Amy Rasmussen Director of fine Arts, Executive Director, Peoria Public Schools Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education (Peoria) (Chicago) Carlyn Shank David Roche Director of Audience Development and Director, office of Arts Education, Communications, Sangamon Auditorium, Chicago Public Schools University of Illinois at Springfield (Chicago) (Springfield) Terry Scrogum Nancy Stemper Executive Director, Executive Director, Illinois Arts Council Carbondale Community Arts (Carbondale) Sarah Solotaroff (Chicago) Charles Thomas Arts Development Supervisor, Susy Watts Chicago Public Schools office of Arts Education Arts and Learning Consultant/Instructor (Chicago) for Visual Arts Education, Pacific Lutheran University Joanna Vena (tumwater, WA) (Washington State) Director of School Partnerships, Center for Community Arts Partnerships at Cynthia Weiss Columbia College Chicago Associate Director of School (Chicago) Partnerships/Project AIM, Center for Community Arts Partnerships, Columbia College Chicago (Chicago) fUNDING for tHIS GUIDEBook WA S G E N E r o U S Ly P r o V I D E D By D E S I G N S E r V I C E S D o N At E D By Jehan Abon Abigail Friedman Sarah McKemie Graphic Designer Illustrator Photographer
  3. 3. Introduction ................................................................................................... 11 About the Illinois Arts Alliance About Illinois Creates Using the Guidebook A Quality Education for Every Child ................................................................. 14 Administrative Leadership .............................................................................. 18 Curriculum and Assessment .......................................................................... 23 Instructional and Professional Development .................................................... 28 Collaboration and Partnership......................................................................... 33 Accountability ................................................................................................ 38 Planning for Effective Arts Education ............................................................... 41 A Call to Action .............................................................................................. 49 Contents
  4. 4. Developing the Guidebook Education in the arts is recognized at both the state and federal level as components of what a child should know and be able to do. The Illinois School Code includes the teaching of art as a fundamental learning area, requiring that resources be identified, objectives and assessments be created, and results reported to the public. there are also state standards in the arts that direct schools in how to provide the arts as a part of a child’s complete education. Still, many schools and districts do not provide even minimum levels of the arts for their children, putting them at a great disadvantage to many of their peers. to assist schools and districts with strengthening and building high quality arts education programs (dance, drama, music, visual arts), the Illlinois Arts Alliance (IAA) launched a statewide effort to create a guidebook and planning tool that provides guidance and assistance based on ideas and input from practitioners thoughout the state. this guidebook represents ideas and input from practitioners throughout Illinois. from surveys to focus groups to interviews and research, themes were developed that spoke to common experience of teachers, artists, administrators and arts partners. While specific ideas for practice and quotes from the field are highlighted, the remaining content was developed from input across multiple sources including: » 8 focus group sessions held with educators, school administrators and arts education stakeholders throughout the state. » An online survey that was distributed from November 15 – December 15, 2007, through the Illinois Arts Aliiance’s Illinois Creates network. the survey resulted in 730 responses and 315 completed surveys. » An analysis of proposals and reports from Illinois school districts that received funding from the Illinois State Board of Education Arts and foreign Language grant program. » Interviews with school and district personnel doing innovative arts education. In addition to this data collection, the authors reviewed models, research and support tools from across the country. An advisory committee of leaders in arts education also helped to guide the book’s development. A final draft was read by ten critical readers for final feedback and edits. the arts are fundamental components of education. the IAA recognizes that implementing arts education in today’s education environment can be challenging, and is pleased to offer this guidebook to all education stakeholders as a tool to effectively address the role of arts education for each child in Illinois, as well as to become a catalyst for reforming arts education in Illinois public schools.
  5. 5. Committing to Quality in Education: Arts at the Core A Guidebook and Planning Tool
  6. 6. Introduction About the About Illinois Arts Alliance Illinois Creates In 1982, a small group of artists Illinois Arts Alliance’s programs Since the launch of Illinois Creates, and arts administrators joined and services focus on research, IAA has met with many key forces to combat the possible education, and leadership education leaders and legislators, elimination of funding for the development for arts organizations collaborated with the Illinois arts by the state of Illinois. from and communities. In addition, one State Board of Education and our early advocacy the Illinois of our signature programs, Illinois the Illinois Arts Council to identify Arts Alliance (IAA) was born. Creates, focuses on establishing and promote new resources and today, IAA is the premier multi- comprehensive arts education in opportunities for arts education, disciplinary arts advocacy and every Illinois public school. and worked to elevate awareness service organization, working to about the importance of arts promote the value of the arts to In the spring of 2005, Illinois education in schools, districts and all residents of Illinois. through Creates commissioned the first communities statewide. statewide advocacy, research, statewide survey of principals and leadership development, IAA and superintendents to assess Now, thanks to the generous advances widespread support the status of arts education in support of the Lloyd A. fry of the arts and arts education, Illinois and to better understand foundation and the Chicago enhances the health of the arts the challenges in delivering Community trust and the and cultural sector, and fosters arts instruction in Illinois public Illinois Arts Council, IAA has a climate in which the broadest schools. the research uncovered developed Committing to Quality spectrum of artistic expression broad disparities in the levels of in Education: Arts at the Core, a can flourish. arts education offered in schools Guidebook and Planning Tool that throughout the state. A full offers encouragement, inspiration, report and other arts education and support to education and arts resources can be found at www. education stakeholders. 11
  7. 7. The Status of Arts Using the Guidebook An overwhelming 88% of Education in Illinois voters say they believe that schools can and should Public Schools this Guidebook is first and foremost a guide and planning tool incorporate 21st century that can assist stakeholders in building or strengthening arts skills into their curriculum. While 93% of Illinois principals and superintendents believe education in their school or district. It is also a call to action for Voters Attitudes toward 21st Century Skills, 2007 that the arts are an essential all members of the school community. from superintendent part of quality education, research conducted by the to parent, educator to teaching artist, each has a role and Illinois Arts Alliance in 2005 responsibility: to ensure that each child in Illinois receives the found: education to which they are entitled. » 20% of principals surveyed report having no arts Committing to Quality in Education: Arts at the Core offers program in their school. guidance appropriate for rural, suburban and urban communities » 28% of superintendents while addressing the needs of the elementary, middle school and report that of the four arts disciplines—dance, music, high school levels. In this Guidebook you will find an explanation theater, visual arts—none of policies, practices and systems that support success in arts were considered part of the core curriculum in education; ideas for effective practice from schools and school their district. districts across the state; and worksheets to help stakeholders » One in ten superintendents set action agendas that work toward implementing a high quality report having no full- or arts education program. part-time certified arts teachers, in any discipline, It is not necessary for the reader to read the Guidebook from anywhere in their district. 23% of principals also front to back. While each section provides new and different report employing no full- indicators, ideas and advice, the Guidebook is written so that or part-time certified arts teachers. each section can stand alone. » 11% of school districts in Illinois require no arts instruction in any grade. » 80% of high school principals report that students in their schools are not required to take a single course in the arts in order to graduate. Arts at the Core: Every School, Every Student (2005) 12
  8. 8. SeCTION 1 SeCTION 4 SeCTION 7 A Quality Education for Instruction and Professional Planning for Effective Arts Every Child, is written for Development, are important Education, explains how those who need a greater pieces to consider for using the elements of high understanding of how the arts administration, faculty and staff. quality education as a guide, can support the goals that through attention to delivery districts and schools can—and schools are already working methods and developing the should—engage in planning for toward, while also addressing the capacity of all members of the the future. Effective planning need for each child to receive an teaching community, schools can requires a committed team of education that develops his/her meet the needs of students in representatives from school full potential. this section can be multiple ways. and community. Beginning by helpful for advocacy efforts, or assessing current arts education SeCTION 5 for reminding any reader why arts programming, worksheets and Collaboration and specific steps can provide education is so important to our Partnership, will help those guidelines for creating arts children and our schools. who work with and within schools education policy that will support SeCTION 2 to find ideas for developing high quality education for all Administrative Leadership, resources that provide greater students. describes the critical role that educational opportunities for leaders of districts and schools the children. Arts partners, SeCTION 8 play in supporting the arts and businesses, parents, community A Call to Action, defines action arts education across the state. organizations—all can work steps for various stakeholders. Leaders can review this section to together with schools to improve Each member of the school develop their capacity to use the arts education. community—from school board arts in educating their students. member to citizen—has a critical SeCTION 6 Advocates can also use this role in determining the successful Accountability, will assist role of arts education. material to find specific ways to planning groups—at all levels—in support administrative leadership finding ways to communicate in serving their students’ needs. arts programming to parents and SeCTION 3 community. through accounting Curriculum and Assessment, for success and development, is a tool for all members of the schools and districts can show arts teaching workforce, as the importance of the arts in well as for non-arts teachers, student achievement and school administrators and parents/ improvement. community. It defines areas of a high quality arts education program, including ways that programs can develop through greater clarity in implementation. All districts can improve their programming through continued attention to these critical elements. Introduction 13
  9. 9. A Quality Education for Every Child the goal of a public education Because of 21st Century others are the most critical More than 80 percent of is to create fully educated requirements and demands, skills for students to develop. voters think education in citizens; to develop students’ education must look very these aptitudes will make them “the basics” is not enough to self-concept, their ability to different than it has in the past. strong contributors to our future fire the imagination and the think independently, to care for Memorization of material has workforce—clearly connecting to creative, innovative thinking themselves and others and to become less important, while their success as adults. young people will need to feel that they are valuable; to help effective use and understanding prosper in the 21st century every child develop into an adult of multiple methods of It is the responsibility of anyone economy, according to a who is a resourceful and critical communication has become involved in public education to new national poll. thinker that can identify problems critical. Schools must develop seriously consider how to meet Imagine Nation Survey, and create original solutions. each student’s ability to the needs of each and every a national poll released by understand and communicate child. While it is clear that there Lake Research Partners, January 2008 the 21st Century requires both independently and co- are financial limitations affecting increasingly different talents operatively. they need to what is possible, decisions about and capabilities, built on encourage learners’ individual how to use available resources innovation, communication and talents while attending to diverse must be driven by what is best for 66 percent of voters say the understanding of diverse needs. Curriculum and instruction the students. they believe that students perspectives. the development should provide connections need more than just the of new technologies and the Illinois children deserve an between the classroom and the basics of reading, writing, cultural diversity of our students educational experience that rest of the world. math and science. Schools will continue to change the gives them a solid foundation also need to incorporate a classrooms in our schools. Schools need to develop each for success in the future. broader range of skills into Students need to develop child’s capacity to collaborate, Schools must provide equitable, core academic content. the abilities to apply, analyze, to create positive self-images, to developmental arts education opportunities for every child in Beyond the Three R’s: synthesize and evaluate take turns, to speak passionately, Voters’ Attitudes toward situations and data across and to listen actively. these skills order to ensure that they receive 21st Century Skills, 2007 the comprehensive education initiated by Partnership for 21st multiple contexts. We must are critical to their development Century Skills consider how best to meet into successful adults. Creative they are entitled to. these realities with educational thinking, effective communication solutions. and the ability to work with 14 Section 1
  10. 10. IDEAs for EffECtIvE “We want our kids to be good Quality in Education: PrACtICE readers and good at math. Staying with just that is not Arts at the Core enough for our children. they need to be better than for children, school isn’t only preparation for life, it is life. Schools and Culturally school leaders must encourage students to reach for their passion, that. that’s where the arts engage them in the process of their own learning, and find ways to Relevant come in.” celebrate and connect to their greatest promise. the arts are about Curriculum Frances Garcia, Principal, connection, to our inner-selves, the larger world, other cultures as well McKinley Park School, Chicago Public Schools as our own. these critical needs are an important way that the arts can “the Mckinley Park Elementary serve the development of children who are successful adults. School mission is to facilitate the development of responsible, the profound impact of arts education on children and youth follows sensitive, and compassionate “you get to the core of them throughout their lives. Arts education rewards children by helping individuals that understand who people’s emotion in the arts. them reach practical goals such as academic achievement and career they are and realize the endless you become more sensitive, success. Arts education also enriches our youth with social, cultural and limits for success. this can a kinder gentler person. emotional benefits. only be accomplished through they encourage reflection an artistic and culturally rich and deep, inner-moments of Addressing Life Skills for approach to education. Even peace.” Developmental the 21st Century with the challenges that exist Needs Neil Codell, Superintendent, in the Chicago Public School Creativity and innovation will be District 219 system, we have been able to the arts provide clear pathways among the most prized skills in to the difficult task of reaching accomplish a balance among the future workforce. Each child the whole child. they include the arts and culture (the science needs to develop his/her abilities “We often underestimate the of the soul) and the basic concrete experiences that to think creatively, to develop value of having a climate subjects (the science of the address students’ developmental ways to work collaboratively to where young people believe brain). needs, from teaching a young solve problems. the arts provide that their dreams will be child to cut and skip, to helping avenues to develop these abilities supported. When children Mckinley Park’s student young adults develop the ability as well as to improve both verbal are sent the message that population is over 97% to think abstractly and perform and non-verbal communication. the arts are not as important Hispanic. our goal is to create professionally. as other things, we’re doing a culturally relevant curriculum. Relevant a great disservice to the one example was the building Social and Curriculum children and the community.” of a gigantic, 20 x 32 foot, Emotional Development the creation of artifacts requires replica of the city of Mexico- Elizabeth Lewin, Former Superintendent, investment in the production tenochtitlan— pride of the Pre- Carbondale Elementary District the inherent connection of the of work to be shared, giving Hispanic Mexican civilization. arts to emotion and collaborative it immediate relevance and the quality of this project was process directly addresses the connections to others. the arts significant enough to have it social and emotional needs of allow us to celebrate the diversity displayed at the field Museum students. the arts provide safe of our student population while of Natural History. Along with places to express ideas while connecting students to their this large-scale model, we have developing pride through the personal cultural history. prepared our students in the accomplishment of authentic art of Pre-Hispanic dancing work that is shared with an and rituals. Parents, staff and audience. Without the arts we administration all take part in lose the ability to bring beauty, the art-making alongside the imagination and emotion into our students, including the entire schools. educational community of Mckinley Park.” Frances Garcia, Principal, McKinley Park Elementary, Chicago Public Schools A Quality Education for Every Child 15
  11. 11. IDEAs for EffECtIvE PrACtICE The Arts Enhance “Everyone I know will tell you that they have seen changes High Quality School Practice in achievement—it’s attitude and engagement. Since our Using the Arts Arts instruction has the ability to address concerns across the district Strings program became and school. Improving attendance, increasing student engagement, to Differentiate developing critical thinking skills and helping students to understand required at the 2nd and 3rd Instruction the value of discipline in their academic efforts—all are proven results of grade levels, there has never been a teacher that has not student work in the arts. gone out of his/her way to teachers at Mahomet-Seymour there are four arts disciplines under the direction of both state and talk about how much better High School are encouraged federal education: music, visual art, dance and drama. Each art form the students are behaving in to use the arts in content develops a different aspect of a student’s mind and allows for different their classes.” classes to differentiate student learning. the arts can students to show their various strengths. Artistic practice provides Nancy Stemper, schools with the tools needed to meet the challenge of providing high Carbondale Community Arts provide opportunities for all types of learners to engage in quality experiences for all children. content and demonstrate their knowledge while deepening Student Engagement Opportunities to Utilize “In the arts we teach to in School and Learning Higher-Order Thinking Skills their content and arts learning. mastery, if students come the arts create clear pathways the arts are about representing in not knowing what they Visual Art teacher, Stephanie to student engagement through ideas through another language, should, then we go back Lee explains one example, “I the production of authentic requiring critical thought and teach the skills that they proposed the 3-D Postcard work products. the process of to translate an idea into a don’t know. In traditional assignment in jewelry class developing creative work creates specific discipline. the arts curriculum we miss the and a student approached active involvement in learning offer the opportunity to show concept of mastery. In a me asking if her content and pride in accomplishment. that problems have multiple leadership position, we could revolve around a book solutions—calling for analysis are trying to share how art they were reading for AP Development of Student and synthesis of ideas. instruction can influence English. It worked out really Skill From Introductory achievement across the well, she was able to meet all to Basic to Mastery Revision and spectrum.” requirements for both art and Testing of Ideas Dr. Herschel Hannah, English.” A Mahomet-Seymour the nature of the artistic process Deputy Superintendent, student, comments in her results in the creation of work High quality arts education Peoria Public Schools artist statement, “In the book products. these products engages students in developing [frankenstein by Mary Shelley] require skill to be completed, ability through multiple drafts. he is referred to as monster and evidence of ability is clearly through repetition, drafting and “the test scores are good and nothing else. the words demonstrated. As skills are rehearsal, students learn the in our school. We think that above his head symbolize the developed, work improves. value of working to improve the the arts allow our children to prejudice that lingers. the font Students progress through a success of a project. the process take a sense of achievement of the silver title make it appear clear sequence of developing of testing ideas and revising first into their classrooms. they out-of-the-ordinary. I burnt ability in their pursuit of success attempts develops discipline and are more expansive thinkers his copper lips and hair to an in the arts. responsibility for results. in their classroom work and off-black. His face is bent to when they take the tests. It’s show his abnormal features. Application of Skills not necessarily the product, In Hollywood they make him to Solving Real Problems but the path the child has appear green with bolts coming to take in making an arts the application of skills to solving out of his head. Mary Shelley product. the persistence real problems is the most widely did not intend for him to look and the discipline causes used method of instruction in that way.” the child to expand the way high-quality arts classrooms. Interview with Stephanie Lee, Visual they achieve and perceive. Students develop greater ability Art Teacher at Mahomet-Seymour they are more resourceful.” High School and understanding as they utilize ever-expanding abilities to Paulette Aronson, Art Teacher, observable effect. Anna Elementary 16 Section 1
  12. 12. “the arts are the connection. Differentiated Learning— Connecting Ideas When you have something Addressing the Needs Across Content Areas that is abstract—you have of All Populations the arts can provide multiple the translation of an idea across to create meaning. It gives ways to present information to different forms of expression a connection—hands on. students who learn in different requires greater understanding Second language learners ways. of content areas. Students who and middle-schoolers made are not typically successful in astronomical success. When » Dance can provide ways for academic study may benefit you come at it from so many kinesthetic learners to use greatly from the use of the arts. different angles it makes it movement. more significant.” » Drama can give verbal » Drama can help students learners a way to demonstrate enact scientific processes and JB Culbertson, Title 1 Director and knowledge. visualize abstract scientific Superintendent for concepts. » the visual arts can provide Summer School, Peoria Public Schools concrete demonstration of » Mathematical concepts may abstract concepts for visual become clear through the learners. use of dance movements that john Wilson, executive » Music can assist with demonstrate shape, line, and director of the National memorization and the angles. Education Association, said demonstration of patterns for » Historic events can come to requirements of the No Child auditory learners. life through the creation of Left Behind (NCLB) Act that » All students can develop visual arts products. schools meet standardized greater depth of understanding » Music can provide concrete testing benchmarks have through experiencing content representation of abstract created an “instructional in multiple ways. literary ideas such as mood straitjacket” for teachers or tone. who want to teach creativity. Hands-On Learning » together, all four art forms can Narrowing the curriculum provide connections between the arts inherently involve content and understanding. to limit access to the arts hands-on learning, providing in school especially hurts the opportunity for students to Parent and Community disadvantaged children who engage more than their minds in Involvement may get such exposure the process of making sense of nowhere else. Parents and community can the world. Press Release about the Imagine become involved in schools Nation survey and its implication through their involvement in the for national education policy released by Keep Arts in School, exhibition or performances of January 24, 2008. finished work created by students studying the arts. Investment in school life can also be enhanced through the invitation of parents and community as audiences for regular celebrations of artistic accomplishment. A Quality Education for Every Child 17
  13. 13. Administrative Leadership Section Summary School boards, superintendents and principals have the critical role of transforming our current educational system. their words and their deeds show their values, and their values, in turn, set priorities. In districts and schools where administration establishes a clear role for the arts, the path to quality education is laid and student success follows. In focus groups across the state, administrators, teachers and community arts advocates, agreed that administrative leadership is the strongest link to quality arts education programming. In districts where school boards and superintendents demonstrate value for the arts, quality arts education flourishes. In schools where principals provide leadership and support for the arts, the arts become a showcase for high student achievement. teachers of the arts, as well as non-arts or general classroom teachers, need to know that their work is valued and that their students’ accomplishments are understood and celebrated by the school. they need leadership that works in collaboration with them to create a vision for arts education; then actively acquire resources to develop the vision into reality. Arts teachers must also be developed as leaders through direct work on school-wide planning and implementation initiatives. When districts and schools tackle problems, the arts must be engaged as potential solutions. Administrators need to posses an understanding of what the arts can do in order to best serve their students. 18 Section 2
  14. 14. IDEAs for EffECtIvE How Do Effective District and School Administrators Support PrACtICE the Arts? Demonstrate That the Arts Are Valued as Employ the Arts as Solutions to District-Wide Consider How Standards Can Be Met in All Four Art Providing a a Core Academic Program Concerns Forms, Across All Grade Levels Clear Vision It is the responsibility of the power of the arts in the Illinois State Board of When leadership makes delivery education administrators to addressing broader issues should Education identifies standards of arts education a priority, adhere to Illinois School Code, not be underestimated. Districts for four art forms: music, dance, partners and individuals often which specifies that arts are a can develop innovative solutions visual arts and drama. Every develop innovative solutions core learning area and must be to problems through the use of student in every grade deserves that provide resources for given priority allocation of time, the arts. research has shown the opportunity to discover how schools. the superintendent staff and resources. School that the arts can have a strong these art forms can help him/her of the Carbondale Elementary boards and superintendents must impact on student engagement, develop into productive adults. District made it clear that she clearly speak to the value of arts attendance, parent involvement, was interested in developing the instruction as part of a high- resource development and It is up to administration to set potential of her students through quality education in their district. student achievement in non-arts the minimum standard for all the development of instrumental Investment in the following content areas. schools, while also creating goals music for primary students. opportunities demonstrates to reach beyond the basic level Her vision created community administrative value of the arts: Districts can take full advantage provided. to have the greatest engagement in developing a of these possibilities by including impact, instruction should be » Arts events need to be program that would require the arts in all conversations sequential, developmental and attended and discussed students at the elementary across education policy. If there is student achievement should by all members of district level to learn how to play the not a district fine arts coordinator, be measured. Where multiple administration, just as sports violin. In partnership with the it is important to identify someone schools engage the education and academic success are local arts agency, Carbondale to serve this role, both to ensure of children across grades k–12, celebrated and shared. Community Arts, and violin the quality of arts education there must be communication » Needs assessments should instruction from staff at Southern programming and to collaborate about curriculum alignment in be conducted annually to help Illinois University, the thomas in district-wide problem solving. the arts. district leaders understand Strings Program became a reality. which areas need support such Currently all second and third Provide a Clear Vision: as scheduling, equipment, grade students in District 95 are A Place for Schools, Parents materials and professional and Community to Engage required to learn how to hear, development. hold and play the violin. “When I » Presentations by members of Arts education manifests itself communicated my desire to see the arts teaching faculty should in many different ways. there is the program come back—people be encouraged to ensure that no one right way, rather there are that shared my vision said, ‘She high levels of administration many paths to success. through would support it if we did it.’ ” continue to understand and the development of a planning Elizabeth Lewin, address how the arts can process that invites all members Former Superintendent, Carbondale Elementary District contribute to student success of the school community, across the curriculum. districts can create structures » teachers of the arts must that facilitate the investment of be included on planning parents, businesses, universities/ committees, as the arts can colleges and arts partners. often create unique solutions Districts that set policy in the to challenging issues. arts for all schools provide a strong base for the creation of sustainable arts education. for a list of documented research on the benefits of arts education go to Administrative Leadership 19
  15. 15. IDEAs for EffECtIvE How Can School Principals Maximize the PrACtICE “the most effective building Potential of the Arts? principals see students in all types of activities and it teachers, parents and community members all consistently report is crucial for the credibiliy of Committing that the principal has the ability to overcome gaps and weaknesses in district leadership, as well as the potential to undo the most carefully principals to attend events to All Four designed district plans. Building leadership at the school level sets the including sports and arts. All students will know you Art Forms tone for what is important, and creates structures that support effective instruction—from resource allocation to professional development of care about them because you choose to come and staff. Under the direction of 2008 see them perform and Superintendent of the year, participate. Whether or not Issues such as scheduling and funding can prove to be barriers for some Blondean Davis, Matteson the principal realizes it, his/ or windows of opportunity for others. through an investment in their own District 162 has renewed its her attendance at events professional development, principals can provide a stable base for arts commitment to increase its is noticed by and modeled education that develops these important understandings: investment in the fine arts by the rest of the staff. the program because they believe » Define rigorous content in each art form which develops student arts endure forever and can it is an important element in the capacity in specific ways be celebrated for a lifetime. development of well-rounded » Connect arts content to non-arts content and build student Grounding students in students. understanding the arts is a great way to » Use arts projects and responses to differentiate the learning process prepare students to become through engagement in a specific » Use arts responses as performance-based evidence of learning life-long learners.” planning process, the district › for example; writing a play with historical context, creating a sought to create policy and a sculpture to show mood or theme in a novel, crafting a piece of Chuck Hoots, Managing Principal for Secondary long term plan for teaching all music to show mathematical patterns, choreographing a dance to Education, District 186, four art forms. Beginning with an explain scientific concepts Springfield High School, Springfield Public Schools understanding of what the arts » Utilize arts teachers as providers of rigorous content rather than can do, a planning team sought providers of preparation periods resources and developed the » Share arts achievement with families and community ability to meet state standards. » Provide professional development in the arts for all staff Planning for the future, the music and art staff has increased from As well as developing their expertise in the arts, principals must connect 14 to 18. for fy06 and fy07 with those who teach the arts in their schools to understand the value, modern dance and drama will be potential and needs of arts education in their buildings. then they can offered in all schools. begin to envision a plan. their vision can explore how the arts can address school-wide concerns, and determine the best methods to Matteson District 162 provide a comprehensive arts education for all students. ISBE Arts and Foreign Language grant proposal, 2006 20 Section 2
  16. 16. Why Do Arts Teachers Need To Be School “from my leadership seat, the Director of fine Arts, Leaders? my focus has been on While administrative leadership can provide support and resources, collaborating with the other arts teachers must step up to the role of school leader. High quality academic departments to arts education programs are most often the result of passionate arts infuse the arts in all of the educators who light the fires of students, parents, community, other district initiatives. We have teachers and administrators. Whether district coordinators, fine arts a staff of more than 80 fine chairs or arts teachers—their strength and leadership create the arts specialists. We have necessary energy to propel their arts programs to success. arts partners and alliances with more community arts Successful arts educators across the state are advocates for their organizations than ever programs every day, envisioning connections across the curriculum, and before. these collaborations collaborating with both arts and non-arts teachers. they use student serve to sustain our fine arts work to showcase development in an individual student to parents, and department. We strive for the program to the community. the three r’s of education— rigor, relevance and In many cases, arts teachers become a strong component of effective relationships!” administrative leadership across the school. for example, arts leaders can develop school-wide plans for arts integration, serving as mentors for Sharon Samuels Reed, Director of Fine Arts, classroom teachers who develop innovative practice. they can work as Peoria Public Schools liaisons to business or arts partners, collaborating to develop work that unites the school with its community. they can also lead professional development or speak at school board or district meetings to provide understanding and direction for arts education decision making. When arts educators become school-wide leaders they create new roles that include the arts in all elements of school planning. In many cases where there is a lack of administrative leadership in the arts, some innovative arts teachers have continued to develop effective programming by becoming advocates and resource developers who ensure that their students receive the education they deserve. Administrative Leadership 21
  17. 17. Does Administrative Leadership Meet High Quality Standards? Does Not Meet standards striving to Meet standards Meets standards Exceeds standards too busy to attend arts Makes time to attend all arts reports on student and knows which students performances and events performances and events program progress in all four are “arts leaders” through art forms to parents and attendance at events and Unsure of what the arts Hires qualified arts staff and community discussions with staff can do to support student negotiates partnerships that achievement support students meeting Uses personal connections Articulates a 5-year plan ISBE arts standards with business and community for the arts to parents Sees arts programming as leaders to build arts and community including separate from the rest of the Supports arts programs with programming diversified funding and curriculum discretionary funding opportunities to develop takes advantage of personal further programming. Does not consider arts staff Includes arts teachers on professional development when planning professional all school planning teams, opportunities to understand Has gained personal development and school-wide including professional curriculum in all four arts knowledge and expertise in planning initiatives development and School multiple art forms and uses Improvement Plan (SIP) Holds arts curriculum to the this expertise to support Sees arts classes as fun same standard of rigor and student achievement projects unrelated to the Identifies potential resources review that other disciplines in development of ability and for partnership and funding of the school receive Presents publicly on the understanding the arts value of the arts in a quality Meets regularly with teachers education, prepared to defend Does not encourage Seeks opportunities to see of the arts to provide the allocation of resources in attendance or participation by evidence of student learning support and problem solving the arts school or community at arts in the arts around issues of materials, events and programs equipment, scheduling and Maintains budget lines for Considers the arts as funding staffing, materials, equipment Considers the arts staff as solutions to school-related and professional development preparation teachers so that issues such as attendance, Holds staff accountable for in all four art forms classroom teachers can have parent involvement, student student achievement in the planning time engagement, etc. arts, requiring evidence of Uses data to track, progress and development of measure and report student Does not understand the skills across state standards achievement in the arts to Illinois fine Arts Learning ensure accountability Standards Provides opportunities for students of all abilities to Provides specific collaborative access the arts, including planning time, on a regular opportunities for those gifted basis, for the development and talented in the arts of arts integrated curriculum across the school 22 Section 2
  18. 18. Curriculum and Assessment Section Summary If schools want an arts program that will challenge students and improve achievement, a written curriculum and assessments must be in place, ready to be shared. this curriculum should also be aligned with school and district- wide goals. Districts need to commit time and resources for the development of curriculum and assessments, and then plan to use these documents to build upon their arts education programming. An effective curriculum can demonstrate the rigorous work required of the arts, showcasing projects as evidence of increased ability in critical thought and discipline, while proving to the school community that the arts are important content. A quality curriculum can demonstrate the specific skills being developed by arts projects, including assessments that describe how a skill has been demonstrated or needs improvement. Assessment should not be seen as a separate piece from curriculum. An appropriate curriculum defines assessments that will be used to measure student progress toward meeting goals and objectives. Embedding assessments in curriculum maps allows for dialogue among participants about the development of student ability. Curriculum and Assessment 23
  19. 19. IDEAs for EffECtIvE PrACtICE The Basis of a Quality Education “It is important to make connections across An effective curriculum in any content area defines the scope of what grade levels and schools students should know and be able to do, as well as the sequence in which in a district. the drama High Standards they should learn the material and develop the necessary skills. curriculum at Lake Zurich for Arts Education While curriculum should be broad enough to allow for creative Middleschool is written with our ‘sister school.’ We implementation related to the needs of students in a particular class, it then have several times Curie Metropolitan High School can provide for consistency in a school or district. It is also a clear way for during the year where the arts education begins with the districts and schools to ensure the sequential development of skills and two middle school drama requirement that all students in knowledge from introductory to basic to mastery throughout the span of teachers meet at the high the school take one arts course the k–12 grade levels. school, with the high school in order to graduate. Students in the Performing Arts Department drama teacher, to talk about begin their study by selcting what the kids have learned a “major” from 13 categories and what they will be The Need for Curriculum Helps in the arts. Curie prides itself learning. We also talk about Quality Curriculum Develop Partnerships in its offering of full, sequential who is rEALLy excited curricula in each major. Within the Effective arts programs include Curriculum maps are also and involved in the shows department there are 36 courses curriculum in each of the four important for successful at the middle school level, taught by 25 faculty members. disciplines so that teachers collaborations. Whether internal or and how we can keep them have clear criteria for providing external, partners can understand excited when they enter “one of the very important instruction. In districts where arts where connections are being high school.” elements of a high-quality curriculum is not available, this made and determine teaching Tammie Herrejon, Drama curriculum is inviting is an important initial goal for the plans that align with classroom Teacher/Director, Lake Zurich professionals to visit, perform Middle School South development of quality. In districts goals. Curriculum documents for the students, and talk about where curriculum is established, can help non-arts teachers what it is like to work in the field. it is important to regularly revisit understand specific arts skills A high-quality curriculum also these documents to ensure being taught to their students in research conducted in includes attention to assessment. that they are current with best order to include references to the 2005 found that 20% of Assessment is as important in the practices and new technologies in arts in their teaching, or develop Illinois public schools had arts as it is in any other subject; the field. Curriculum documents their own use of arts strategies to no arts program—resulting it is a tool used to understand should align teaching strategies enhance other content. in thousands of students whether or not the students are and assessments with state External partners can also use receiving no regular learning what and how you want standards while providing curriculum documents to better instruction in the arts. them to learn. Many of our art resources and tools to develop students go on to art schools best practice in teaching. understand goals for student Illinois Creates, Arts at the Core: learning. When used as a planning Every School, Every Student because we start them with a portfolio their first year and they Curriculum can serve as a guide tool between the school and add to it through their time here. for a teacher’s lesson planning, but outside organizations, specific When they leave, they have a can also be a critical document objectives can be targeted as entry fantastic portfolio that they can for district or school-wide points for partnership. Parents can continue to develop.” arts education planning. the also understand student learning development of curriculum helps needs with greater clarity, often Wendy R. Haynes, Director of Performing and Visual to define necessary resources for creating a more collaborative Arts, Curie Metropolitan High School, staffing, professional development, relationship between families and Chicago Public Schools materials and equipment. It can the arts education program. provide a useful communication tool for sharing needs with district or school personnel, while firmly establishing a more sustainable arts education program. 24 Section 3
  20. 20. IDEAs for EffECtIvE National and What Makes Quality Curriculum? PrACtICE State Standards Importantly, curriculum is a written document that is available to Importance of teachers and community and widely used across the district or school. National standards It specifies the concepts, skills, techniques and artistic processes that for Arts Education will be learned by students at each grade level. Curriculum can be used to allocate resources and advocate for programmatic needs as a Documented Developed by the Consortium of National Arts Education well as to guide instruction. Curriculum Associations (under the the best curriculum does not specify that every child do the same guidance of the National School district #1, a k–8 rural activity or project, but that all students in a grade level learn the same Committee for Standards district in raccoon, Illinois, was content. just as in any other academic content area, the content is in the Arts), the National awarded an ISBE Arts and spiraling and builds along a continuum while circling back to reinforce, Standards for Arts Education foreign Language Planning re-teach or re-engage the learner with important concepts. outlines basic arts learning Grant in 2006, followed by an outcomes integral to the While consultants can provide great insight into the development of Implementation Assistance a curriculum, a district’s teachers of the arts are local experts in what Grant in 2007 to help comprehensive k–12 students should know and be able to achieve in the arts. Arts teachers develop curriculum maps education of every American should be a part of curriculum creation and revision so that their with assessments for its arts student. for more information knowledge of the students, school and resources can be reflected in education programs. According go to the kennedy Center a realistic document. the curriculum should also be developed based to the proposal submitted for the ArtsEdge website: on the local population of students and include up-to-date skills grant, attention to developing http://artsedge.kennedy- regarding applicable technology and relevant experiences based on curriculum documents will help to student culture. secure the sustainability of their programming by providing clear Curriculum should define the minimum that each child is responsible community understanding for for learning, and include potential adaptations for special populations. their arts education goals. this Illinois Learning Individuals with disabilities, gifted and talented learners and English curriculum map is only a sample standards for fine Arts language learners should all be included in the curriculum design. of how one district aligned their curriculum and assessment. Developed using the National Many other formats are possible. Connections Across Curriculum Standards for Arts Education, Schools and districts should 1985 State Goals for fine use mapping formats that align Collaborative efforts between teachers, or between teachers and Arts, and various other with what is used to develop external partners, can be more easily developed when working from a national and state resources curriculum in other content areas common set of goals. (under the guidance of and that meet goals for arts the Illinois Alliance for opportunities for integrating curriculum can be showcased in education planning. Arts Education). for more curriculum while defining objectives for teaching of the arts. these Information from the ISBE Arts information go to the Illinois objectives include: Education and Foreign Language State Board of Education grant proposal narrative from the » relating patterns and cycles in science and music. Raccoon School District, 2006 website » Exploring culture and history through the comprehension of selected dance pieces. » Discussing point-of-view in theatre and literature. » Linking geometric study in visual art and math (i.e. symmetry, line and shape). As curriculum develops over time, the integration of common themes can be developed across courses. Creating works of art can also be a valid means of assessing student knowledge in other curricular areas. Curriculum and Assessment 25
  21. 21. IDEAs for EffECtIvE PrACtICE What Is Quality Assessment? “Most crucial in assessment is writing clear targets It is an understatement to say that efforts in the arts can be difficult to shared alike by student assess, but there are certain skills, concepts and techniques that are and teacher, followed by Sample Drama developed over time. Specific and consistent assessment criteria, as a transparent criteria seen in Assessments from part of a curriculum map, create dialogue about common outcomes and varied, creative responses Lake Zurich Middle goals for arts education. by students addressing a School South Assessment criteria are a part of a quality curriculum and should like problem.” Susy Watts, Instructor for 6th grade drama: be based on the state standards and essential skills in an art form. Visual Arts Education, Assessment criteria should be developed for each grade level and Pacific Lutheran University, WA. 1. take a written test on the communicated to the school community. Assessments should include aspects of the stage. multiple opportunities to demonstrate knowledge and ability while 2. Perform a Dionysian play after involving students through meaningful experiences. talking about theatre history. 3. Give the students a scenario Types of Assessment and have them perform the next day, using the improvisational the involvement of students in the assessment process provides for techniques that were taught. higher quality instruction, engaging students in reflection about the work. teachers across the state use rubrics, checklists, self-assessments, peer- 7th grade drama: critique and narrative descriptions as elements of each of these categories: 1. Perform a Musical Pantomime. » formative assessments are conducted as a work is in process, Assess them on whether or not giving feedback to teacher and student about areas of success and they incorporated a beginning, middle and end. Assess them in goals for improvement. these assessments allow teachers to discuss their techniques of pantomime. work with students as a project is developed. 2. Students will create and perform » summative assessments evaluate completed student projects, a fractured fairy tale. they articulating areas for improvement as well as celebrating success. will demonstrate their ability to these assessments are often used to communicate skills or progress to work in a group and achieve a parents or administration. final performance by working » Portfolio assessment allows for a range of assessments to be together. shared with students, parents and administration. Students develop 3. take a written test on stage portfolios across a unit of study, a year, or even an educational career. techniques, stage direction, and Pieces of work with relevant assessment materials can be included in character analysis. portfolios to show development of ability over time. 4. the students are assessed daily on their mini-skits. Quality assessment takes time to develop, and performance assessments take time to conduct. Schools and districts must allocate 8th grade second City, appropriate resources in order to encourage the use of evaluation that Broadway Bound, appropriately assesses student and program growth. Professional Musical theatre: development can be instrumental in the development of tools and 1. Students will be asked to create systems that meet the needs of district, school, teacher and student. a 20 min. variety sketch in a Samples of rubrics and assessments should be shared and discussed group. they will demonstrate across classrooms and schools. their mastery of improvisational skills. 2. take a written test on the development of a character. 3. Perform multiple skits working with several groups. 4. Perform a mini-musical in a group using song and dance. Tammie Herrejon, Drama Teacher/ Director, Lake Zurich Middle School South 26 Section 3