Art in Tanzania – Umoja Rd Block 2Q, Madale village, P.O. Box 23333 Dar es Salaam,
Web page - Blog - Facebook - Twitter - LinkedIn - YouTube - Pinterest - Instagram – Anti corruption
Art in Tanzania – Umoja Rd Block 2Q, Madale village, P.O. Box 23333 Dar es Salaam,
Web page - Blog - Facebook - Twitter - LinkedIn - YouTube - Pinterest - Instagram – Anti corruption
Climate change affects us all, yet low-income communities face the affects more directly
and intensely. In the coming decades, some countries will be able to defend themselves
by utilizing their wealth to adapt to the extreme conditions that will hit the planet. Others
will not have the same means and will be neither prepared nor able to defend
themselves – this is the case in Tanzania.
I decided to produce this report after understanding the dependency of Tanzanians on
their environment and climatic patterns. The majority of their economy as well as their
daily life depends on their agriculture. After witnessing their negligence toward climate
issues due to a lack of awareness and information, I decided to act. This report has two
aims, the first being to raise awareness. Through the platform of my NGO Art in Tanzania
and the social networks on which it is present. The purpose is to reach out to as many
people as possible in the Tanzanian community so that they realize the reality that is
coming if we continue to live the "business as usual" scenario. By reading this report,
they will (hopefully) be able to understand the importance of acting quickly and strongly.
The second purpose of this report is to attract new initiatives and individuals. Currently
as an intern at Art in Tanzania’s climate change program, I aim to provide context and
background knowledge for future interns and volunteers wishing to work at the
institution. Moreover, as I have realized before and during my stay, it is difficult to
understand what impact and what projects interns and volunteers can get involved in.
p. +358 44 982 82 37
Social Team leader
p. +255 765 1695 88
I. What is climate change and what are its effect on our planet?.............................6
1. Climate change ........................................................................................................... 6
2. But what has caused climate change? ......................................................................... 7
3. What are the main consequences of climate change and the risks to our survival?...... 9
Þ Temperature rise and disruption of the water cycle...................................................................9
Þ Melting ice zones.......................................................................................................................10
Þ Our forests are dying’s...............................................................................................................11
Þ The two climate time bombs.....................................................................................................12
II. Tanzania, a developing country in the midst of an ecological shift......................15
1. Economic and demographic development..................................................................15
Þ General introduction .................................................................................................................16
Þ Demographic development.......................................................................................................17
Þ Environmental politics in Tanzania............................................................................................19
Þ Corruption .................................................................................................................................21
2. Sectors Promoting Economic Development of Tanzania .............................................23
Þ Mining industry..........................................................................................................................25
Þ Financial sector..........................................................................................................................26
Þ Transport sector ........................................................................................................................26
III. The impact of climate change in Tanzania ......................................................27
1. What can be expected................................................................................................27
2. Projections from today to 2100..................................................................................28
Þ Agriculture and Energy sector ...................................................................................................29
Þ Water sector: Lake Victoria case ...............................................................................................35
Þ Health sector .............................................................................................................................37
IV. The response of institutions to Climate Change...............................................38
1. UNEP and UNDP 2016-2021 environmental and development strategy......................38
Þ Forestry, biodiversity and ecosystems ......................................................................................38
Þ Sustainable Land and Watershed management........................................................................39
Þ Climate change adaptation and mitigation ...............................................................................40
Þ Sustainable energy ....................................................................................................................41
Þ Resilience and disaster risk reduction .......................................................................................41
3. Climate Action Network International implication for Tanzania .................................42
Þ Climate Action Network Annual Strategy Session 2020 in Arusha ............................................42
Þ CAN interventions and actual projects......................................................................................43
4. Collaboration between NGOs and Government..........................................................47
5. Combining economic development and environmental responsibility: TWIGA CEMENT
Today, it is difficult not to be aware of the climate issue, as it is the subject of so much
debate, and the subject is echoed on all social networks. To start a business nowadays, it
is almost unthinkable not to include the environment in your business plan. And yet,
there are still many parts of the world where the issue of ecology and climate change is
still unknown or disregarded. This report therefore begins with a simple and accurate
explanation of what climate change is and its impacts. Before relating this to Tanzania, it
is important that you understand the context in which this country is situated, both
economically and demographically. After considering projections announced by the
World Bank and the UN, you will understand the impact of Climate change on a
developing country like Tanzania according to two realistic scenarios. One is optimistic,
the other pessimistic. The last part will tell you about the projects and the vision of
various non-governmental institutions to fight this global issue. I have included the case
of TWIGA Cement Factory, which could be an example to follow to answer the following
How can a promising country like Tanzania, which is at a turning
point in its economic development, become the first sustainable,
developed African country without damaging its environment and
giving up fossil fuels?
I. WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE AND WHAT ARE ITS EFFECT ON OUR
1. Climate change
Before discussing the specific case of Tanzania, it is important to understand the
definition of climate change and the consequences of its impact on our planet. Firstly, it’s
critical to understand the difference between climate and weather. Weather is an
instantaneous and local situation of observable things such as, temperature,
precipitation, wind, and so on. Climate, on the other hand, is a statistical description
based on the averages and variability of these same variables (temperature, wind, etc.)
over long periods of time and on a global scale. For example, the difference between
weather and climate would be the comparison between a student's grade on an exam
versus his or her yearly average.
In this report, I will focus on the effects of climate change on our environment. Since the
beginning of time, the climate has changed naturally with the ice ages. For 11,000 years
now, our planet has been in an interglacial era (average temperature has similarly been
constant over many years, in summer the snow melts and the ice surface slowly shrink
around the globe), i.e., our planet is warming at its own pace. However, climate change is
different, our planet is warming much too fast. Previously, losing 5 degrees would take
thousands of years, nowadays, we have already gained 1 degree in less than a century!
Indeed, our greenhouse effect is completely out of control. The concentration of
"greenhouse gases" (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and
water vapor (H2O), etc.) in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate in
recent years. The higher the level of CO2, the higher the temperature. For simplicity’s
sakes, we will give for the greenhouse’s gases the abbreviation GHG’s. This diagram
shows the natural evolution of the amount of CO2 during the ice ages and interglacials.
The exponential increase in GHGs over the last century is therefore leading to a
completely new climate disturbance that is causing global warming to become more and
more alarming and in need to be controlled.
2. But what has caused climate change?
From the diagram above, it is clear that the human race has a large share of the
responsibility for this phenomenon. Before the 1850s, CO2 in the atmosphere played its
natural role as a greenhouse gas at a relatively stable rate. Since then, human activities
have contributed greatly to its increase, particularly through economic growth as
standard of livings have increased drastically. As wealth rises, humans develop
continuous need to consume, thus increasing their GHG’s impact. This phenomenon
primarily started in Europe, and then progressively spread in all the industrialized
countries. Population growth has actively participated in climate change as we have gone
from 1.2 billion people to 7.7 billion between 1850 and 2019.
Parallel with these two phenomena, several industrial revolutions (steam, electricity,
nuclear power, etc.) were born, transforming more and more natural resources into
energy or materials. Population growth, coupled with growth in GDP per capita, have led
to an upheaval in energy consumption on our planet, and now 80% of the world's energy
comes from fossil fuels or hydrocarbons (oil, gas, coal). Fossil fuels constitute a stock that
was formed over hundreds of millions of years by the slow decomposition of the remains
of living organisms. However, these fossil resources are exploited by humans during
which a very large quantity of carbon that was normally buried underground for millions
of years is suddenly released into the atmosphere in the form of CO₂. Changes in land use
also significantly impact the balance of natural carbon stocks: deforestation, agriculture,
the draining of swamps and of peat bogs for example. The carbon cycle is therefore
strongly impacted by human activities and can no longer regulate itself normally. The
Earth is no longer able to regulate this unnatural flow through its physical and biological
mechanisms. Unfortunately, the situation is only getting worse as human activity
continuously disrupts the carbon cycle, but it is becoming more and more consequential
This diagram shows that we previously needed 130 years to emit 1000Gt (gigatons) of
CO2 equivalent and nowadays we only need 30 years to emit the same amount again. At
this rate, we will only need 20 years to produce another 1000 Gt.
3. What are the main consequences of climate change and the risks to our survival?
The first consequence of climate change is obviously the rise in temperature and the
harmful consequences of heat on biodiversity. But why do we keep hearing that we must
not exceed the "2 degrees more" of the Paris Agreement by 2100?
Þ Temperature rise and disruption of the water cycle
As previously mentioned, our planet temperature has already risen by 1°C in less than a
century and this is already a natural planetary disaster. As the air is warming up and
causing more and more frequent heat waves (in 2003 a heat wave in Europe caused
70,000 deaths in a few weeks), the average temperature of the water is also rising
because it is receiving more energy from the greenhouse effect. This results in the
disruption of many ecosystems. For example, over the last 40 years, the frequency of
mass bleaching of coral reefs, ecosystems which are the home to more than a million
species, has increased fivefold. This bleaching phenomenon synonymous with
physiological and nutritional vulnerability, leads to a high level of coral mortality.
Climate change equally results in the disruption of the water cycle. As with any cycle,
when it functions naturally, the quantity of water on a global scale is stable and
perennial, i.e., approximately 1400 billion km3 of water. Evaporation, condensation,
precipitation, infiltration and runoff are the well-known stages in the water cycle.
Human activities do not directly affect the water cycle because the residence time of
water in the atmosphere is only about 10 days (whereas carbon resides there for about
100 years). Since they are only present in the atmosphere for about 10 days, they hardly
increase the greenhouse effect and therefore global warming. However, global warming
induced by human activities acts directly and disruptively on the water cycle. Indeed, the
storage capacity of water in the atmosphere varies according to its temperature. As the
temperature increases, the storage capacity increases. As the temperature rises,
evaporation is prevalent, and the amount of water stored as water vapor increases. As a
result, rainfall is more abundant and there is an increase in the frequency and intensity of
heavy precipitation events (especially in mid-latitudes and humid tropics). Warmer air
can also contain more water vapor and therefore intensifies extreme phenomena’s such
as cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons. There is no need to recall the human tragedies
caused by hurricanes Sandy (2012), Irma (2017) or Hurricane Harvey (2017).
Þ Melting ice zones
Global warming leads to the melting of ice zones (glaciers, ice caps, ice pack) with
different consequences. Melting glaciers impact freshwater reserves because by melting
too quickly, they no longer fulfil their role as reservoirs that gradually release freshwater
at steady intervals. Freshwater is drinkable and is a vital need for animals and humans on
a daily basis. Today, the demand for water exceeds the quantity available, which is
already a major geopolitical issue in many dry regions of the world. In addition, the
melting of these glaciers releases fresh water which then flows into rivers, seas and
oceans, causing water levels to rise. The melting of the ice sheets, huge areas of ice
resting on land whose height can reach several thousand meters, would be devastating if
they were to melt entirely.
On our planet, there are only two ice sheets:
- The northern part of Greenland, which has exist for 3 million years
- The southern part of Antarctica, which is the largest, and has exist for 30 million years.
Given the thousands of meters of thickness of the ice sheets, their complete melting
would raise the sea level by 7 meters for Greenland, 54 meters for Antarctica,
consequently causing the disappearance of many islands (such as the Maldives) and the
relocation of a large part of the coastal population.
Þ Our forests are dying’s
As we have seen with the carbon cycle, forests today are a very important for
sequestering carbon. As living matter, flora is composed of carbon and thanks to
photosynthesis, it absorbs atmospheric CO₂ to transform it into oxygen. Conversely,
when the forest dies or in the event of deforestation, the decomposition of plants leads
to the emission of CO₂. The same is true when fires ravage forests: combustion releases
into the atmosphere all the CO₂ that was then stored and stabilized.
With climate change, we are witnessing:
a warming of the air and soil temperature, destabilizing ecosystems and
periods of drought and flooding that can deplete soils and kill the biosphere,
a significant increase in fire outbreaks and intensity.
These three phenomena’s, which are consequences of climate change, lead to the
decline of plants. Those that survive will have a poorer capacity to absorb CO₂ and those
that die will decompose releasing CO₂. Thus, the concentration of GHGs in the
atmosphere increases, fueling global warming which in turn feeds the 3 causes listed
above. Between the Australian forests going up in smoke in the summer of 2019, and the
President Bolsonaro's efforts to deforest the Amazon as quickly as possible, we are not
talking about a hypothetical situation. The latter said, in opposition to pressure from
European countries, to act to slow the fires in the Amazon “Brazil owes no debt to the
planet in terms of environmental preservation”, he said during a conference in Santiago
Chile on May 23rd of 2019.
Þ The two climate time bombs
Permafrost refers to ground that is permanently frozen, i.e., at a temperature that has
never been above 0 for at least two years. Permafrost is found on about 20% of the
planet's surface, notably in Greenland, Alaska, Canada and Russia. It is even found in
France, in the Alps.
The huge problem with permafrost is that it contains elements that have been locked in
the ice for thousands of years. To take an image, permafrost is like a huge freezer. If you
leave the freezer door open, your pizza thaws, your ice cream melts and microbes feed
on these organic elements. Similarly, as the permafrost melts, it releases organic matter
which, when subjected to the activity of microbes, produces CO₂ in the presence of
oxygen or methane in an oxygen-free environment. These GHGs would then enter the
atmosphere and accelerate global warming.
The potential for releasing GHGs from permafrost is colossal: we are talking about 1500
Gt, i.e., twice the amount of GHGs already present in the atmosphere. This would triple
the concentration! Just imagine the additional greenhouse effect that would be
generated... In this sense, the melting of a large part of the permafrost constitutes one of
the two "climate bombs" from which it would probably be impossible to recover.
Another important consequence is that permafrost also contains diseases that have been
dormant for hundreds or thousands of years. If the permafrost melts, it could release
them and create major health crises.
For example, in 2016, an Anthrax outbreak
killed several humans and over 2,300
reindeer in Siberia. The disease had
disappeared for more than 75 years in the
It reappeared with the melting of the
permafrost, which kept the corpse of a
reindeer that had died of the disease (and thus
its deadly bacteria) frozen. If Anthrax can be treated with antibiotics, this will not necessarily be
the case for all the other viruses or bacteria that we do not know or do not know how to treat.
The risk of epidemics or outbreaks of disease is very high. The risk of epidemics or pandemics
much worse than Covid 19 is also a very real consequence of climate change.
Another potential 'climate bomb' is methane hydrate. These are methane molecules
trapped in ice. They are found in large quantities:
At the bottom of the oceans, in ocean sediments.
For the moment, this methane is stored in these reservoirs in a stable manner. It’s
difficult to estimate the exact quantities, but we are talking about 10,000 Gt, which is 7
times more than all the GHGs contained in the permafrost, and therefore 21 times more
than all the GHGs currently present in the atmosphere!
Unfortunately, if current warming exceeds the famous 2-degree mark, these molecules
could become unstable. As the permafrost melts or the oceans warm up, methane
hydrate would come into contact with higher temperatures. The unstable probability of
these molecules becomes significant with a 2 degree rise in temperature. In this case, the
molecules can dissociate, and the methane can escape directly into the atmosphere.
Given the titanic volume of methane we are talking about, it is easy to understand the
devastating consequences for global warming and life on Earth.
There are many other devastating effects caused by global warming, such as the
acidification of our oceans, possible causing the disappearance of its aquatic fauna and
flora; modified ocean currents, reducing the capture of CO2; or the Albedo effect, which
is the mechanism of absorption and reflection of light energy that will be less and less
effective because of the ice melting. We therefore understand that it is imperative to act
quickly for our survival and to avoid scenarios such as the melting of the permafrost or
islands like the Maldives which is being buried by the rising waters. As climate scientist
and Nobel Peace Prize winner Jean Jouzel says, "Global warming, as it would be if nothing
is done, is another world.” It is a world were, according to the UN, there will be at least
150 million climate refugees. It is a world where southern Europe would resemble to
Sahara with temperatures approaching 50 degrees in the summer in France. It is a world
where by 2070, 1 billion people will be living in areas where almost every day of the year,
outdoor conditions will be lethal.
But if a country like France would be like the Sahara in the summer, what can a country
like Tanzania, which already experiences temperatures of over 40 degrees from
November to March, expect? What would be the impact of global warming on a
population where more than 80% of the people live only on agriculture and are totally
dependent on the climate?
II. TANZANIA, A DEVELOPING COUNTRY IN THE MIDST OF AN
1. Economic and demographic development
Þ General introduction
Tanzania is lauded as one of the most peaceful and stable countries in Africa. Since its
independence, the country has moved to a multi-party democracy that allows a
separation of powers. Tanzania, being the mainland, has an Island called Zanzibar.
Tanzanian’s economic development largely depends on agriculture. Since the 1990's, the
country has had strong economic growth and was predicted to be one of the fastest-
economic growth in the world. Nevertheless, it is one of the poorest economies in Africa
in terms of per capita incomes, and the overall growth rate is due to the growth of the
tourism sectors (safaris, Zanzibar recreational facilities) and gold mining. Most of the
people that I have met here have been a tour guide for at least one or two years. It is the
case for example of Hadija, who started as a day trip tour guide for Art in Tanzania and
has now become a team leader in social sector projects. Tourism is the second pillar of
the Tanzanian economy as it provides employment to many jobless people. The
development of tourism has led to the improvement of the infrastructures of regions
with tourist accommodations. Tanzania expects about 750000 tourists to arrive in the
country every year according to the United Nations Development Assistance Plan
The main export commodities include gold, tobacco, fish products, coffee, cotton,
diamonds, horticulture and sisal. Tanzania’s main trading partner are China, Switzerland,
South Africa, Kenya and India.
Agave sisalana, known as Sisal, is a plant
native to southern Mexico. It’s very
resistant fiber is widely used for ropes,
fabrics or carpets
The country of Tanzania is mainly composed of two religions: Christianity and Muslim.
Both of these religions live in perfect harmony thanks to Tanzania’s first president, Julius
Nyerere. Each religion is respectful to the other beliefs. The island of Zanzibar is mainly
composed of Muslims representing 96% of its population.
Þ Demographic development
On October 24th, 2020, the Tanzania’s population was estimated at 59 million whereas
on July 1st
, 2015 it was at 52 million. Due to high birth rates in the country, on March
18th, 2021, the total population approached 61,006,138 which represents 0,77 % of the
total world population. In 6 years, Tanzania’s population has seen an increase of 8 million
people whereas during the same period of time the French population has an increase of
less than 1 million. Around 37% of the Tanzania’s population is urban.
Also, 44% constitute the population under the age of 15, 52 % between 15 and 64 and
3.1 % is above 64 years old. Tanzania is built through a variety of cultures and traditions
whereas the country is divided into 120 ethnicities, Sukuma being the largest one
representing 16% of the total population.
Despite aids and grants from the IMF, Tanzania is still dependent on foreign countries
due its serious debt. It has an external debt of about $USD 7.9 billion and the debt
servicing constitutes about 40% of the government expenditures. In order to repay this
debt, the country is forced to qualify for loans from other countries. Adelaide Mkwawa,
ICT and Communications Officer at Climate Action Network Tanzania is preoccupied by
Tanzanian debt “A lot of aids are coming from other countries such as Switzerland, USA,
China but it’s more to have a position in the country then to help. Tanzanians are really
dependent on every domain on foreign aids''.
One of the main concerns in Tanzania is the eradication of poverty. According to the
World Bank data, in 2017, 49.4 % of Tanzania’s population were living under the 1,90$
per day (the price per day in 2011) which is almost half of the population. The absence of
resources to conduct surveys engender difficulties for the World Bank to grasp data
updates. In this same year, the World Bank announced that 76.8 % of Tanzanians were
under the 3.20 $ a day poverty headcount ratio (PPP in 2011) and 91.80 % under the 5.50
$ one’s. As a comparison, France's 5.50$ poverty headcount ratio in 2017 is under the
The development of trade in Tanzania has played a key role in eradicating poverty in the
country since the private sector controls the growth of the national economy. Major
imports include capital goods, intermediate goods and consumer goods with trading
partners such as the USA, China, Norway, UK, Finland, Kenya and Zambia. Trade has led
to the attraction of foreign investors due to its proof of the availability of political stability
and natural gas discoveries. On the other hand, Tanzania is becoming more dependent
on those countries' financial investments.
Þ Environmental politics in Tanzania
Non-Banking financial Institutions and non-governmental organizations play a key role in
the deployment of free education to citizens especially to women in the rural areas so as
to make them aware of what is going on in the economy and the environmental issues.
The Tanzanian government has established environment sections in all his ministers and
a key result of it is the integration of environmental issues into the Medium-term
expenditure framework (MTEF) budgeting. This money should help NGOs working for the
climate to play a major role. Nevertheless, Adelaide Mkwawa has never seen those
governments funds when she was at the United National Appeal Tribunal (UNAT) or at
the Climate action Network (CAN) where she currently works nowadays. Same conclusion
for Hadija, Team leader at Art in Tanzania, non-governmental organization who promotes
volunteer and intern projects in the field of: climate change, education, social work,
medical and health practices, social media, arts and music, sports and HIV/AIDS
awareness. “For my experiences, I've never heard if there were any funds from the
government to Art in Tanzania which can help on environmental projects. Maybe the
government planned to provide funds to NGOs, but the fund didn't reach Art in Tanzania
yet. It's my hope that if there are some funds for NGOs, then Art in Tanzania will be
among those NGOs to be considered”, Hadija said.
The biggest problem regarding environmental policies is the lack of information and
communication. The government doesn’t provide any information about the strategies
nor about any concretes actions he put in place. Most of the research I've done guided
me to environmental information provided by other countries or institutions (U.S Agency
for international development, United Nations Environment Program, Netherland’s
government, etc.) or from the last government environment data updates, which was in
2013. For more recent information, it’s necessary to talk directly with a government
employee, but as you can imagine, it’s even harder than to see a cheetah in a safari.
According to Adelaide Mkwawa, even the Parliamentarian Assembly for Implementation
of Sustainable Development Goals (Parliaments Assembly) has given information and
strategies on how to implement the SDG’s in the government budget. That’s where the
UNAT helps come to a limit. After this, the government takes responsibility for the
project. “That’s why there is a lack of information and monitoring. Really hard to find the
progress because the government hides a lot of info” said Adelaide.
The African Union estimates that corruption around Africa represents 50$ billions of
losses each year. Lots of changes have been made in all African countries to eradicate
corruption. Legislation has been drafted and anti-corruption authorities have been
formed. However, on the ground, approximately everywhere and especially in Tanzania,
nothing seems to have changed. Corruption is a noneconomic factor which creates a gap
among the Tanzanians’ people. Since 1968, with the creation of the Anti-corruption
commissions in Africa (Bertelsman foundation 2014), Tanzania has tried to combat
corruption. Most of Tanzanian’s presidents ' mandates were standing on the fight against
corruption. In 1995, President Benjamin Mkapa declared “war” to corruption, and he
organized the Presidential commission against corruption to assess the state for
corruption and highlight some recommendations. This led to the adoption of the National
Anti-Corruption strategy and Action plan (NASCAP) in 1999 and to the implementation of
a revised NASCAP from the new president Jakaya Kikwete in 2005. At the end of 2014, a
new report was made with a new anti-corruption strategy. All that information proves
that, at the end of 2015, corruption had risen compared to 2005 and was less
transparent than ever. Despite the government’s efforts, Tanzania continues to suffer
badly from rampant corruption at all levels. Good governance is essential for the
reduction of poverty and controlling corruption in the country. Tanzania faces both grand
and petty corruption due to weak government laws in different agencies. Most of the
foreign investors have stated that corruption in areas like taxation, custom service and
procurement, create a difficult environment for them to do business in the country, due
to the high demand for bribery.
The diagram above shows us the corruption rate level from low (=1) to high (=6).
Tanzanians is parts of the countries that observe the highest rate of corruption. In a
comparison, the USA and France are not even listed in the World Bank dataset because
their respectful rate is under 1. Cape Verde and Bhutan are the two countries who faced
the highest corruption with a 4.5 rate.
New president Magafuli, like his predecessors, has made the fight against corruption a
point of honor of his mandates. Nicknamed “the Bulldozer” because of its style of
leadership earned himself credibility for its fight against corruption. He rebuilt lost trusts
with foreigners’ donors and with his population by firing publics officials that was
incompetent and corrupt. In November and December 2016, six senior officials in the
Tanzania Revenue Authority were fired and pushed away.
Unfortunately, president Magafuli was fighting alone in this battle and against top
officials, influential leaders and wealthy powerful people.
Despite the efforts and the hope Magafuli was bringing to Tanzanian’s people, corruption
is still one of the main problems in Tanzania. As a personal example, I was able to see and
experience this drama of corruption through my trip by car between the city of Arusha
and the city of Moshi. In only 3 hours, we were stopped no less than 9 times without any
reason, and we had to pay between 1000 and 4000 schillings each time. This represents
between 50 cents and 2 euros. Sometimes the bill is more expensive, sometimes they let
you pass, it's really random. With 91,8 % of the population living with less than 5.5 US$
per day and 48,9% under the 1.9US$, corruption is a disaster.
Unfortunately, President Magafuli passed away on this Wednesday, 17 of March 2021 at
the age of 61 years old. For instance, vice-president, Samia Suhulu Hassan was sworn in
as a president and became the first East African country's female president. Because of
Magafuli 21 days of mourning, President Hassan didn’t expose yet her strategy to avoid
2. Sectors Promoting Economic Development of Tanzania
As the main economic activity of Tanzania, agriculture contributes to 26% of the GDP and
employes about 75% of the labor force. Agriculture, being the key sector of the economy,
assists in poverty reduction especially in the rural areas where most people cannot afford
"I'm telling government officers who are lazy
and negligent to be prepared. They were
tolerated for a long time. This is the end,"
to buy food nor have any food security. Not only does agriculture provide employment
opportunities but also provides 95% of the food to the people. During the 1990s,
agriculture was mainly controlled by the government but after the liberalization of the
economy, many people engaged freely in this activity. Some areas receive enough rainfall
throughout the year making it easy for cultivation while other areas are prone to tsetse
flies which badly affect the production of crops.
The lack of access to the banking sector makes it difficult for farmers to obtain loans so as
to carry out their production since only 9% have access to financial services and only 4%
are able to obtain loans. Small holder farmers have low education and knowledge
resulting in poor quality of crops. This causes the crops to fetch low prices in the markets.
Tanzania depends on export of cash crops which increases revenue. Since the 20th
century, the main exported commodity is coffee and each year 30 to 40,000 metric tons
are being produced where by 30% is Robusta and 70% is Arabica. But none of this coffee
is consumed by Tanzanian people, as they prefer cheaper and low-quality coffee. About
$115 million is generated from coffee exportations. Coffee consumption is at 7% of its
total production in the national output (Gupta & Bose, 2019).
According to UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization),
only 24% only out of the 44 million hectares of land have been utilized for the cultivation
of crops. Moreover, the existence of water resources, favorable climatic conditions and
fertile lands have led to a decrease in poverty condition.
Challenges facing the agriculture sector include:
High rainfall dependency and low irrigation process
Lack of agricultural knowledge and low level of technology such as use of
Lack of financial access so as to obtain farm inputs, such as chemical
fertilizers and pesticides
Low quality of agricultural produce resulting in crops fetching low market
Lack of storage facilities and poor infrastructure in the rural areas making
it difficult to transport commodities to be processed and sold
Too faced these challenges, the government created the Tanzania Agriculture
Development Bank. This bank was established in 2015 in order to ensure the
implementation of agricultural policies and strategies guiding the performance of the
sector in general. Agriculture is also the first sector badly affected by climate change.
Without help and innovations in the next 20 years, Tanzania will probably face a decrease
of 80% of its actual production, which will plunge the country into deep poverty.
Þ Mining industry
Mining is one of the fastest growing sectors in the Tanzanian economy. In 2013 it
contributed to about 3.3% of the country’s GDP, largely changing the economic growth of
Tanzania. The country is endowed with various mineral resources such as gold,
diamonds, gemstones, nickel, coal, tanzanite and uranium. Natural gas exploration of
about 55 trillion cubic feet has been discovered, helping to supply electricity in the
country. UK, India, China, USA, South Africa, Kenya, Netherlands, Oman, Canada and
Germany are the main investors in the Tanzanian mining sector. Like in many countries
around the globe, the mining sector demonstrates multiple challenges for climate change
such as health security and illegal practices. Here are some examples of the impacts of
the Mining Sector in Tanzania:
• Silica dust affecting the miners as well as tuberculosis disease
• Existence of illegal mining in the country creating risk to the workers
• Previous Minister of Mining and Energy resource was found guilty after
conducting frauds deals and supplying gold to some firms
• Child labor employed in mines
There was a serious case on the 17th of April 2015, where 19 people were killed after the
collapse of an illegal mine near the Bulyanhulu Gold mine in the Kahama district. Many
children were rescued from the same collapse. Most of the developed countries involved
in the Tanzanian mining sector, already know these problems but the economic interest
is too high to politically be involved in the reduction of those challenges.
Þ Financial sector
Rural areas in Tanzania do not have access to the banking sector because people do not
own valuable assets which would support loan extensions. There is also the lack of
education on how banks operate. Most of the rural population have a day-to-day life,
only using indeed cash and have no use of credit cards. Even people with a reasonable
income mainly use cash. Indeed, if you have a flow even low of cash entering your bank
account, then institutions know that you are running a business and then lots of fees
appear. That’s why most people use cash in their daily lives and apart from tourist’s
facilities, credit cards are not accepted.
Þ Transport sector
Transport is very important in any economy in order to facilitate smooth trade. Tanzanian
roads are maintained under the management of an agency called TANROADS “Tanzanian
Roads” which has been able to improve the national roads. Road safety still remains a
major problem due to poor maintenance of vehicles, overloading, flooding and poor
driving. Tanzania is planning to import about 138 Chinese modern buses into Dar es
Salaam. This is due to the support provided by the government through the improvement
of the marine transports by modernizing ports and
increase spending on infrastructure. The port
currently collects over TZS 40 billion per month
which represents almost 18 million euros.
III. THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN TANZANIA
1. What can be expected
Tanzania is a coastal country in East Africa which shares the Victoria Lake border with
Uganda and Kenya. Given that the vast majority of the population’s livelihoods are
dependent on the agriculture sector (80 % of the population) which is highly sensitive to
climate change, Tanzania is considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change.
Climate change impacts are already taking a significant toll on the livelihoods and
wellbeing of Tanzanians, including:
Rising of severe droughts frequency and its associated water scarcity issues, slow down in
the food production chain, economics and poverty reductions gains, reduced quantity
and quality of the water in Victoria Lake, including an increase in contaminants which
impact the purity of the water and have the potential to harm health, reduced surface-
water flows and aquifer (see diagrams below) that recharge during drought periods, as
well as groundwater depletion through aquifer
Furthermore, we can anticipate the intrusion of
saline into aquifers (diagram) in low-lying
coastal areas, as well as on a more global scale,
impacts from coastal flooding.
Climate projections for Tanzania include
increased periods of prolonged drought, more
erratic rainfall patterns (leading to extreme
flooding) and a rise of sea-levels, all of which
may exacerbate the mentioned pressures on
water resources in this already water stressed country. If Tanzania’s low capacity for
climate resilience is not addressed, this will likely have a profound impact on public
health, stifling future development in urban and rural settings alike.
2. Projections from today to 2100
In this section, I'm going to illustrate what transformation we can expect in different
sectors in Tanzania such as energy, agriculture, water and health.
Before going into technical information, it’s important to understand how those sectors
will be impacted. In most of the diagrams, there will be two baselines: RCP 2.6 and RCP
The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) is a greenhouse gas concentration
(not emission) trajectory adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change
(IPCC). They described different climate futures depending on the volume of GHG’s
emitted in the years to come. Founded by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
and the United Nations Environmental program (UNEP), IPCC’s role is to provide
objective with scientific information to understand the risk of human induced climate
change and drafted recommendations to act in consequence.
IPCC has foreseen many different scenarios such as RCP 1.9, RCP 2.6, RCP 3.4, RCP 4.5,
RCP 6, RCP 7 and RCP 8.5. In the following analysis of Tanzania climate change future, we
are going to focus only on RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5.
RCP 2.6 requires that CO2 will start decreasing by 2020 and go to zero by 2100. Methane
emissions (CH4) are going half the CH4 level of 2020 and Sulphur dioxide declined to
approximately 10% of those of 1980-1990. In simple words we will be able to respect
Paris Agreement and likely to keep global temperature warming rise under the 2*C by
2100. We will have to face new environmental conditions, that are still close to the
actuals one’s, but our daily life will remain comfortable.
RCP 8.5 as you can imagine is another story. It’s the worst climate change scenario with a
very high baseline emissions scenario. Experts see it as the “business as usual” scenario.
RCP 8.5 scenario assumes that by 2100 there will be between 9.6 billion and 12.3 billion
people. Assuming that the collapse of fertility will occur in the entire world without
considering Africa. For example, Nigeria's population will rise from 175 million nowadays
to 1.5 billion by 2100. Almost all the fossil energies will be consumed, and we can expect
that southern Europe will be the new Sahara. Most of the people on the planet will be
leaving in extreme conditions. A scenario where giving birth in 2100, would be
condemning your children to a hopeless life.
Let’s then focus on the impact of those scenarios on Tanzania through those sectors.
Most of the following diagrams in this section are being taken from the Climate Change
Knowledge Portal of the World Bank group.
Þ Agriculture and Energy sector
Precipitation: extreme events
As warmer air has a higher capacity to carry moisture in form of water vapor, future
climate raises the likelihood of strong rainfall events, towards the extremes. In many
places around the world, the maximum expected amount of rainfall in a 10-year period is
projected to increase, which can lead to flooding.
Nowadays, Tanzania is issued to this seasonal temperature and climate variation. Rainfall
period starts in December and ends at the beginning of April. Then, the easter season
arrives with comfortable temperatures, consequently causing the arrival of millions of
What would be the projection of this monthly precipitation in RCP 2.6 and 8.5 scenarios?
Compared to historical data, between 2080-2099, Tanzania will face variation around
75mm maximum (January, November) of its precipitation which will reinforce floods in
coastal regions and in the Victoria Lake region. In other terms, the rainfall season will be
each year more intense, but Tanzania will have time to adapt to those new conditions.
New innovations will engender better management in the agricultural and the energy
sectors. On the left, monthly precipitation projections for 2020-2039. On the right,
In the case of RCP 8.5, monthly precipitation will drastically increase leading to a maximum
precipitation level difference of around 150mm in January. On the left monthly precipitation
projections for 2020-2039. On the right, monthly precipitation projections for 2080-2099. In the
RCP 8.5 scenario.
In both cases, precipitation concentration will increase, which will intensify future floods,
yet not with the same intensity. Indeed, in the diagram above, RCP 8.5 scenario
demonstrates the impact of “business as usual” attitude towards Tanzania climate. It is
clear that if we were to find ourselves in the situation of the diagram on the right,
business will not be as usual. Power production will be largely affected. For example, the
transportation lines for fuel could be interrupted by local flood for days or even weeks, or
the networks distribution could be disturbed by excessive rainfall and flooding.
Agriculture will be hit critically with farm crops always swept by floods which will drive
Tanzania into a deeper poverty.
Drought: extreme events
Both power demand and production are tied to water availability. Obviously, this is most
directly the case in hydropower systems. Although, dry conditions might also come along
with higher temperatures, thus heightened cooling needs and an increase in demand for
water pumping, particularly in regions of intense agriculture.
On the production side, water is required for cooling the power plants. If there is not
enough water, then cooling is restricted, thus production might need to be slowed down.
In some places, there are regulations preventing power plants from causing an increase
in the temperature of returned water above specific thresholds, which are dangerous for
local fish and plants. These thresholds are more quickly reached if stream flows are low
during dry conditions. In a few regions, too much moisture can also be an issue as water
might need to be removed.
Concerning agriculture, drought can disrupt its demand and production because the
exposition of soils to high temperatures and the scarcity of water can result in the
infertility of soil.
In the RCP 2.6 scenario, temperature will rise for 2.5 degrees with extreme variation.
Normally it will stay around the 1 degree rising prediction. The temperature will still
promote comfortable living. Both energy and agricultural sectors will remain possible
thanks to technical innovation.
In the RCP 8.5 scenario, temperature will rise from 3 degrees to maximum 6 degrees! It
will drastically change Tanzanians habits in terms of energy supply. Disruption of
operation and distribution will become a major problem because of the rising demand of
growing population and evolving power needs. In the same case, demand for agriculture
will rise but production will decrease because of soil infertility. With 80% of the
population living on agriculture, feeding Tanzania’s population will be a huge challenge.
Moreover, the breeding of goats and cows will face a lack of grasslands and associated
difficulties sustaining livestock.
To sum up, in the case of the RCP 2.6 scenario, environmental conditions will increase
progressively, leaving time to find innovations and new management methods to keep
demand and production at a sustainable level. That also means, that the Tanzanian
society will have to take a responsible pathway for its environment by focusing on green
energies and avoiding fossils energies.
In the case of the RCP 8.5 scenario, environmental conditions will increase drastically
without leaving time for the farmers and energy companies to adapt their methods. Both
sectors will be submerged by those changes. Agriculture will face long drought periods
making soils incapable of growing any crops, and then will follow long term rainfall
causing incessant floods where here also, the farmers will not have the time for transition
and crops will be drown and washed away. Electricity will face high demand for cooling,
hence conditions for living workers in both extreme periods will be inhumane. Finally,
supply, production and distribution in flood periods will be difficult because of poor road
Þ Water sector: Lake Victoria case
Africa’s Victoria Lake is the largest tropical lake and source of the Nile River. Climate
changes will affect Lake Victoria’s levels of evaporation, temperature, rainfall and solar
energy. According to Emily Beverly, assistant professor of sedimentary geology at Baylor
University, the Lake Victoria “could have no outlet to the White Nil in at least ten years”.
Which means that every major port will be land closed and Kenya could lose access to
the lake in a maximum of 400 years. More than 40 million people are living on the Lake
Victoria basin and this result will badly affect their economy. Tanzania depends on the
lake's freshwater because it provides 1 million tons of fish annually. Tanzania’s fishing
industry will decrease highly, and all northern regions would be directly affected by this
Even with an increase of the precipitations in Tanzania (monthly precipitation diagram
2080-2099), in the RCP 8.5 scenario, temperatures will be so high that the lake will dry
out too quickly for it to fill up.
The diagram shows the drought impact in the Victoria Lake where more than half of the
Tanzanian lake area will be affected.
Moreover, with the rise of temperature, the demand for drinkable water will equally rise.
Global warming will cause the ice on Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru to melt irreversibly.
Neither of these sources will be able to provide drinking water to the districts around
Mont Meru (Arumeru, Arusha, Karatu, Monduli, Ngorongoro) and those around the
Kilimanjaro (Hai, Moshi rural, Moshi urban, Mwanga, Rombo, Same) who are completely
dependent on them, representing more than 3 million people.
Finally, the rise of sea levels will constrain a majority of Zanzibar’s population to
immigrate to the mainland.
Þ Health sector
Most economic sectors will be affected by climate change (agriculture, energy, fishing,
etc.) and the impact on those sectors will result in many adverse effects on the human
health of the Tanzanian population. With 80% of the population living on local
agriculture, most of them won't be able to feed themself and starvation will be become
through years, common. Because of this malnutrition, many will be inclined to face
communicable or non-communicable diseases. According to the World Bank data, 54%
cause of death in Tanzania were by communicable diseases, maternal, prenatal and
Malaria is still also a major issue in Tanzania. In 2018, the incidence of Malaria was 124
per 1000 which represents 7.4 million people at risk. The rise of tropical temperature and
floods will increase the mosquito’s population and therefore the risks of obtaining yellow
fever, malaria, Zika virus, chikungunya and many others.
Finally, according to the RCP 8.5 scenario, poverty will increase consequently, and the
population won’t be able to face massive floods. 49% of the population living under the
1.90$ per day, with houses on the ground and only a sheet of metal as roof, we can easily
imagine the catastrophe.
In conclusion, if Tanzania takes the pathway of green energies which means avoiding
both coal and oil, the two major used fossils energies, and if a massive environmental
sensibilization campaign is implemented by the government, then Tanzania could likely
be faces the RCP 2.6 scenario. As always, the biggest drivers of gas emissions are the
public and private sector and there are the ones who have to give the example.
Otherwise, the country will face, in the worst-case, the RCP 8.5 scenario. As seen before,
these scenarios will be a disaster for a country in development such as Tanzania which
faces extreme events and unbearable conditions of life.
IV. THE RESPONSE OF INSTITUTIONS TO CLIMATE CHANGE
1. UNEP and UNDP 2016-2021 environmental and development strategy
Through a country programme, UNEP (United Nation Environmental program) and UNDP
(United Nation Development program) proposes a strategy to counteract climate change
issues while improving the Tanzanian economic development. Based on a theory of
change where better governance and better placed investment could decrease at the
same time as poverty and environmental degradation. In the same way,
the goal is to enhance the participation in economic, environmental and
governmental issues of women, youth and disabled individuals. To
anchor sustainable development, UNEP wants to implement sustainable
interactions with all institutions such as both private and public partners. In partnership
with those institutions as well as the government, UNEP will be able to achieve
sustainable development projects. Those projects will mainly focus on environment,
natural resources, climate change governance, energy access and disaster risk
Þ Forestry, biodiversity and ecosystems
The forestry sector is leveraged with the agriculture of the Tanzanian developmental
economy representing 90% of the country's energy resources and ½ of his supplies in
construction materials. Because of the high dependency on agriculture and the rapid
population growth, pressure on the environment and natural resources have largely
increased in the last few years. Deforestation, it’s becoming one of Tanzania's major
UNEP is taking action to improve institutional and regulatory frameworks for
safeguarding protected areas and preserving biodiversity. To fight against deforestation
and deteriorating environmental quality, the institution is focusing on many
mainstreaming environmental concerns into development plans
Facilitating environmental laws and regulations
Scaling up community-based environmental protections initiatives
As well, to protect natural resources and avoid ecosystem degradation, UNEP actively
improving conservation of forest biodiversity, ecosystems
support efforts to combat poaching and illegal wildlife trade
Scaling up sustainable land management practices
Supporting community based-forest management initiatives
Promoting conservation agriculture
Finally, UNEP is highly supporting and promoting the REDD+ program. This program
creates a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, by offering
incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from
forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable
development. Developing countries would receive results-based payments for results-
based actions. REDD+ goes beyond simply deforestation and forest degradation and
includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement
of forest carbon stocks.
Þ Sustainable Land and Watershed management
According to the UNEP, the Tanzania’s land faces many challenges because of its fast
development expansion and its demographic growth. Those challenges are the following:
unplanned human settlements
encroachment into forest areas
inappropriate farming and livestock management practices
unregulated mining activities
poor inter-sectoral cooperation
weak stakeholder linkages
poorly planned and uncoordinated action
To fight against those challenges, UNEP and UNDP (United nation
development program) will take example in the Sustainable land
management (SLM) program implemented in other
Countries that have been successful. The lack of financial resources and
adequate capacity in Tanzania remains a key barrier to this program. Both
institutions will mainly focus on building institutional capacity and
strengthening coordination between stakeholders, implementing practical
SLM interventions to land degradation in forest, rangelands and arable land. Finally, they
will promote watershed (hydraulic pool) management interventions to show
environmental challenges to the Tanzanian community.
Þ Climate change adaptation and mitigation
As a result of climate change manifestation, Tanzania will face a rise in extreme events as
droughts, floods, the rise of sea level, dwindling water sources as well as impacts in the
agricultural sector, energy sector and health sector. UNDP’s plan proposed support by
promoting the implementation of sustainable strategies through high capacity building
initiatives and the establishment of proper institutional, policy and financial frameworks
in collaboration with all key stakeholders, including the private sector. At the local level,
implementing small scale climate change adaptation projects to create livelihood
opportunities in particular in the agricultural sector as population depends on rain-fed
agriculture as a source of livelihoods income and consumption.
For example, promote and help the IITA (international Institute of Tropical Agriculture) in
their work with farmers to get agricultural expertise’s. Debate sessions are organized to
discuss essential topics such as “What crop can I grow with this irregular rainfall
season?”. The final goal is to help those farmers to have sustainable agriculture.
Moreover, UNDP’s want to focus mainly on the implementation of COP21 Paris
Agreement outcomes, under the United Nation Framework on climate Change. They will
focus on supporting the government in order to create a framework for the
implementation of INDC’S (Intended National Determined Contribution) which will be
leading to greenhouse gas emissions reduction.
Þ Sustainable energy
To tackle the development of the fossil industry and transit to sustainable energy,
UNDP’s implemented the SE4ALL (Sustainable energy for all) program to be achieved by
2030 in Tanzania. This program focuses on three targets:
- Ensuring universal access to modern energy
- Doubling the rate of improvement in energy efficiency
- Doubling the share of renewable energy in global energy mix
The institution was able to mobilize significant political support before RIO+20 and
continued to provide coordination and technical assistance around those three targets.
Thanks to UNDP, sustainable energy access for all in Tanzania is moving fast. By
coordinating the implementation of the SE4ALL initiative, an Action Agenda and an
investment prospectus has been created. It brings to poorer communities, appropriate,
reliable and affordable energy technologies. This can be possible mainly by improving
policy and regulatory framework, improving institutional framework and human capacity,
strengthening the M&E (Monitoring and evaluation) framework as well as generate
Þ Resilience and disaster risk reduction
Resilience is the ability of the system, community and society to resist, to accommodate
against hazards. Over 70% of all-natural disasters are hydro-meteorological and the
major disasters have included droughts, floods and epidemic diseases. All of them,
affecting humans and wildlife.
As an example, let’s take the “El Niño phenomenon” that occurred in Tanzania in 2011. It
causes massive floods which wash away crop farms and damage transport infrastructure,
such as roads and railways. As well as destroying houses making people homeless. It also
increased diseases. We’ve seen the impact of an RCP 8.5 scenario; phenomenon like “El
Niño '' will occurred increasingly frequently.
As a response, UNDP’s proposal is to strengthen the institutional framework of
meteorological institutions, including the establishment of a 24/7 Emergency center for
climatic disaster management. Improve weather and climate forecasting infrastructure
throughout the procurement of the installation of highly sophisticated hydro-met
technologies to improve collection of the hydro-met data.
Also, they want to improve analysis, interpretation and customization of data in order to
provide relevant information to groups including farmers, urban and rural dwellers and
aviation. Finally, the development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) to improve
coordination in dealing with disasters between the relevant institutions.
2. Climate Action Network International implication for Tanzania
Moreover, than the United Nations institutions, other NGOs stand out for their
innovative projects and their response to the global warming threat. It’s the case of
Climate Action Network (CAN) International, very active in Tanzania.
Þ Climate Action Network Annual Strategy Session 2020 in Arusha
In February 2020, CAN organized the Annual strategy session about Climate change in
Arusha. This event, which brought together several major climate actors, was an
opportunity to discuss two major topics: “What does it mean for society/funders to build
power in this climate emergency?” and “What are they doing to respond to the crisis and
what do they believe is CAN’S role?”.
Through many debates and workshops all these actors agreed on the priority areas
where investment is needed in terms of funding, human energy and collaborative
strength. Centering climate impacts and people to ensure governments act with urgency
as well as exposing and undermining the fossil fuel industry, are the two priorities CAN
and other NGOs should focus on.
Major events are going to take place in the next five years depending on the pandemic
situation. These gatherings involving actors from all over the world (government, NGOs,
the private and public sector industry) will be an opportunity to put these two issues on
the table on a larger scale in order to take urgent action for our planet.
Þ CAN interventions and actual projects
In the meantime, while awaiting those gatherings, CAN already started its fight for the
climate by working on diverse projects and implementing solutions for the Tanzanian
community. Here is the major one’s:
Water Purification & Biogas Plant (TAHUDE Foundation) is an initiative to build
low carbon and resilient communities by providing access to clean drinking water
Climate-Smart Agriculture (ACT) is a community-led action agricultural initiative,
which provides training to farmers on climate smart agriculture techniques such
African COP 27
RIO + 30
IPCC Reports ARG
Court's decision on
ambitions NDCs in
COP review (+30)
USA election 2024
as water conservation (bases/pots technique), short harvesting period,
intercropping and mulching materials.
Climate-Smart Coffee Farming by Solidaridad is also a community-led initiative
which provides training to coffee farmers on climate-smart coffee farming
practices such as developing pest resistant methods, water harvesting/
conservation, short harvesting cycle crops, nursery practices, intercropping and
shade coffee management.
Water for Livestock (Oikos) is part of the ECOBOMA initiative which is a project to
build the adaptive capacity of the vulnerable Tanzanian community to cope with
the adverse effects of climate change and reduce poverty in rural areas.
Tree Planting & Forest Conservation (Arumeru District Government)
Media Training Bootcamp: a practical skills session to build the capacity and
strengthen the member’s ability to be spokespersons and to deliver powerful
messages for press conferences and interviews.
Leadership & Diversity and Building a Grassroots-Driven Network Bootcamp: the
objective of this session is to build members’ knowledge and understanding of
how to link policies with people and navigate power and privilege to facilitate
diverse inclusion and create safe, engaging spaces for grassroots leadership and
organizing across CAN.
Developing Funding Proposals Bootcamp: the purpose of this session is to provide
members with concrete ideas and shared thinking on good and effective
fundraising. The bootcamp facilitated discussions on key elements of fundraising,
a good elevator pitch and how to approach funders and keep the communication
Fossil Fuels Non-Proliferation Treaty Bootcamp: this session provided members
with a background and overview of the Nonproliferation Treaty for Fossil Fuels
Initiative. This initiative uses the experience and outcomes of the Non-
Proliferation Treaty on Nuclear as a basis and is trying to adapt this to dealing
with fossil fuels. The session explored a set of high leverage strategies that this
initiative could galvanize around such as the phase-out of fossil fuels and shifting
narratives on fossil fuels, strengthening local action to stand against fossil fuel
expansion, and encourage international cooperation to stop fossil fuel
proliferation through a Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty.
After the announcement of all these projects, we can better understand the involvement
and dedication of the institution to change the habits of the Tanzanian community to
provide them with a more promising future than RCP 8.5. However, there is one last
project that particularly caught my attention, and which demonstrates the long-term
impact vision that the institution is trying to establish. This Can project is the climate and
livelihood center in Bagamoyo. The purpose of this green village is to link scientists to the
communities to provide new initiatives. Many activities are organized going from cultural
events to environmental workshops. Everybody is welcome whatever their work sector
(fisherman’s, students, small-scales farmers,
etc.). The center provides knowledge through
training and teaching, the possibility to implement
the improvements directly on the site and most of
it, the center tried to provide this networking to
have a bigger impact and reach more communities
They organized three workshops in December 2019 to raise awareness and inform the
participants on renewable energies (RE) and the necessity of transitioning to clean and
affordable energy. 124 participants were representatives of women groups, local
governments authorities and civil society organizations.
Because the baseline study was focused on their own villages, people were highly
interested. The survey showed that 92% of the households were not capable of paying
the highly initial cost of renewable energy. But the community saving groups might
present an opportunity for decentralized energy. 42% were unaware of the potential of
RE, only solar was common and most of them (91% of the survey) use charcoal and
firewood for cooking
Because of deforestation, people have difficulties to do firewood (take three hours to
collect) and their only alternative is charcoal. Many of the village’s council stated that
they did not include RE into their agenda due to the lack of understanding and support
from government and non-governmental stakeholders.
Participants were really curious and interested about identifying achievable and long-
term solutions. With the help of CAN in Tanzania, they establish and initiate RE clubs in
primary and secondary schools that allow children to be innovative and creative. Finally,
those workshops promote awareness about RE. Shumina Rashidi, the councilor of the
Bagamoyo District and a businesswoman, for example told the CAN team: “In the
workshop I learnt that cooking with gas is very cost effective – especially because I am
living in Bagamoyo town, where it is available everywhere. I am going to use gas for
cooking – not only for my health, but also to protect the environment. “
The important point is to understand that those people have no idea of what’s climate
change, why we said that the globe is becoming warmer and why we should care about
fossil fuel. That’s why it’s essential to sensitize and inform them before taking actions or
implementing projects where they don’t understand the environment purpose.
3. Collaboration between NGOs and Government
During our interview, Adelaide Mkwawa said “you know there is a huge friction between
NGOs and the government. If NGOs tell the truth and the government disapproves, they
can remove your NGO license”. NGOs have to be very clever not to come into conflict
with the lack of investment and impact of the government while at the same time making
them understand the importance of acting quickly and strongly.
For Adelaide, which had also worked for the UNAT (United Nation international justice
system), NGOs had implemented lots of projects in response to the SDGs. Most of them
have being undertaken by the Parliament Group sustainable development to enter those
propositions and projects in the government budget. But at the moment, where those
projects and propositions are in the hands of the government then it’s really hard to find
their progress because of the lack of information and the lack of knowledge to
communicate by the government. Communication between institutions is really poor
because of a lack of resources and the inordinate amount of time that elapses between
the transmission of the first information and its evolution. For Adelaide, this is one of the
biggest issues and that’s why projects in Tanzania take so much time. In her opinion, the
creation of a communication sector that’s effective will facilitate this collaboration
between the government and NGOs.
Investment for Climate change is all about communication and collaboration. Even for
the private and public sector. A close collaboration between institutions on their new
methods and techniques to afford sustainable development is a key point to move
forward. Some institutions in Tanzania have excellent ideas to fight against this global
warming while in the meantime ensuring the economic development of the country. This
is the case of TWIGA CEMENT INDUSTRY.
4. Combining economic development and environmental responsibility:
TWIGA CEMENT example
Tanzania Portland Cement Company Limited (TPCC) also called TWIGA Cement is a
cement-manufacturing company. Member of the Heidelberg group and listed in the Dar
es Salaam stock exchange, is the largest cement manufacturer and reports a company
total asset of 322 billion TSH (141 million US$).
The challenge for TWIGA is colossal. On the one hand it is one of the biggest employers in
the region, employing hundreds (more than 300 in 2019) of people. These jobs are quite
simply indispensable for people's survival from a human and community point of view.
Moreover, it is one of the main responsible for the development of the region, where
cement has enabled the construction of
many buildings and most of the houses.
However, on the other hand, it is one of the
biggest emitters of greenhouse gases and is
at the origin of many environmental
challenges in particular is production: Soil
erosion, soil health, topography,
deforestation, pollution of waterways,
health and safety of workers and
We had the chance to visit it and we realized some important facts during this day. First
of all, there is a military base in the company's own premises which testify an economic
state interest and a volunty to secure the factory. Secondly, most of the workers pass
have also a Chinese translation which testify an economic interest from China.
The largest drivers of climate change are large corporations and industrial factories. Since
TWIGA belongs to this category they are holding themselves responsible to reduce their
negative impact on the environment. And actually, despite all prejudices I had on this
type of company, I was quite surprised.
TWIGA Cement counter their negative action by giving to nature what they had stolen
from her. They founded about ten years ago the Nursery project to tackle their
environmental impact. In order to collect these precious stones for the creation of
cement, TWIGA has to dig for hundreds of meters, destroying the surrounding nature.
When the digging space is exhausted, they fill it with soil and sand and replant some fast-
growing tree species on top. These trees allow the soil to be re-fertilized, thus restoring
the basic natural conditions. Once the fertilization has been completed, the fast-growing
wood is cut for consumption and various new species are then planted permanently. It’s
at this point that the nursery project appears.
The goal of the nursery is to mitigate damage being done to the surrounding
environment, improve the health and wellbeing of underserved groups in the
community, such as school children and prisoners by providing free shade trees. The
nursery improves air quality and the environment at large through carbon sequestration.
In the nursery they have quite a lot of species going to the Averrhoa bilimbi (culinary
interest and the leaves serve as a paste on itches, swelling, rheumatism, mumps or skin
eruption) to the moringa oleifera (Its young pods and leaves are used as vegetables. The
seeds are also used to purify water, as a detergent, or as a medicinal plant.) and even
A barren plot of land in close proximity to the cement production has been transformed
into a lush haven for biodiverse plant species and crucial pollinator species. Many of the
trees grown there have medicinal benefits or are fruit bearing. To achieve their goal
TWIGA has undertaken this project and educates the community by engaging with
volunteers and hosting students to teach them how to maintain gardens and plant trees.
They are also introducing the concept of sustainability to many local youths and giving
them the tools to raise their own trees in needed areas. They are spreading the culture of
sustainability and changing the mindsets of the young generations.
However, there are still some challenges to achieve such the six volunteers in the nursery
compared to the hundreds of people employed in the factory. Despite all the efforts
made, we can still understand where the priority is.
TWIGA Cement could be a great example to follow for many drivers around Tanzania and
ever further. Everybody needs cement, unfortunately in Tanzania, wood is the main
construction material and the transition for sustainable tools that avoid deforestation
and greenhouse gases are not readily available today. The carbon sequestration provided
by those hectares of nursery, permit for TWIGA to achieve its goal of developing Dar es
Salaam district while at the same time reducing its negative impact.
Investing in R&D for green energy could be the next step for TWIGA cement to achieve
their goal of being a zero-carbon emission company.
Because at the end, compared to developed countries such as European ones or the
United States, African countries and especially Tanzania have only small responsibility in
the global warming issue. Tanzanian people because of low incomes mostly consume
daily needs. Most of them don’t travel out of their countries because plane tickets are
too expensive, and their water consummation is ridiculously low compared to a country
like Germany or France. When you drive through Tanzania you don't see any herds with
thousands of animals, in other words no intensive farming and all their agriculture is
natural, i.e., without the use of pesticides. Still Tanzania and African countries will be the
most affected by climate changes in the next decades.
As I said, Tanzania is a small greenhouse gases emission driver. Nevertheless, if the major
drivers of those greenhouse gases which are mainly fossils industries take the example of
TWIGA Cement and invest in R&D for clean energy, Tanzania could become an example
of sustainable development for all African countries.
Through my internship at the Art in Tanzania institution, I had the chance to participate in
many debates classes whose aim was to learn English while debating on sensitive
subjects such as religion, waste management or Covid 19. I was very surprised by the
open-mindedness and the stance that Tanzanians can take on such subjects. Unlike our
European countries where discussions often turn into a confrontation of two ideals
rather than the understanding and acceptance of a difference. This is why after more
than two months of living together and sharing their traditions, I am convinced that the
Tanzanian community has a key role to play in their climate issue. The government and
the various institutions that want to work towards a more responsible and sustainable
economy can rely on the collective strength and openness to change of its people.
Tanzania can become a pioneer in the development of a green and responsible economy.
To do so, its community needs to be informed and heard. The government and
institutions need to invest heavily in intelligent campaigns to raise awareness of the
benefits of the environment and the importance of caring for it. As we have seen with
the example of the workshops held in the Bagamoyo Knowledge Centre, the participants
are more than interested in green energy as it can improve their daily lives, their
economy and their biodiversity. The Tanzanian community is willing to listen and act for
the good of their country, if it will improve their life. The next generations have a major
role in this awareness, and it is through the youth that these innovations will be born. Of
course, nothing worth doing is easy and such a transition will not happen overnight.
Allied Business Academies, Case Reports: 2020 Vol: 26 Issue: 1. A case study on Economic
Development in Tanzania, Vishwas Gupta, Lovely professional University.
Art in Tanzania (2016). Climate change participant program, Robbie interview.
CAN (25-29 February 2020), Annual strategy session report Arusha, Tanzania. Building
Power and Action in a climate emergency.
CAN article (December 15, 2019), Clean and affordable energy, Project activity.
Enthusiasm For transitioning to clean and affordable Energy in Bagamoyo.
CPCT, The Cleaner Production Center of Tanzania (December 2007). Tanzania 10 Year
National Programme on Sustainable Consumption and Production
Detlef P. van Vuuren & Jae Edmonds & Mikiko Kainuma & Keywan Riahi & Allison
Thomson & Kathy Hibbard & George C. Hurtt & Tom Kram & Volker Krey & Jean-Francois
Lamarque & Toshihiko Masui & Malte Meinshausen & Nebojsa Nakicenovic & Steven J.
Smith & Steven K. Rose, (August 5th
, 2011). Paper giving an overview of the development
process and main characteristics of the Representative concentration’s pathways RCP 2.6
Fred Muvunyi Article (May 12, 2016), Tanzania’s Magufuli leads fight against corruption.
Le Web pédagogique website, Groenland Inlandsis image.
U4 Expert answer report (March 7, 2014), Tanzania overview of corruption and anti-
Executive Board of the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations
Population Fund and the United Nations Office for Project Services (November 27, 2015),
country programme document or United Republic of Tanzania 2016-2021.
UNDP 5 years strategy paper 2016-2021, Environmental sustainability, climate change
and resilience pillar.
UNEP website, article about Tanzania national transport policy.
UNEP website. Article about the special program on strengthening institutional capacity
for sound management and capacity of waste.
Time for the planet (October 2020), scientific report for the planet. Private source that
can be shared on this report. For examination, please make a request.
Wikipedia website, Representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6; RCP 8.5)
World Health Organization website, Tanzania climate change documents provided by the
World health Organization, Tanzanian governments and the department for international
Worldometers website, gives timely information on Tanzania’s population and growth
World Bank Climate change portal website, gives Tanzania climate change projection
between 2020 and 2100.