Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Ethical Use of Human Subjects
in Infectious Disease Research
Arthur O. Anderson MD
Office of Human Use and Ethics
Lecture ...
Few choices in life are:
Ethical, Legal & Moral
Ethical Moral Legal
Responsibility and
Accountability in Research
Involves:
 Ethical Behavior
 Morality and
 Lawfulness
 Guided by:
 Valu...
What Values You Choose
May Influence Ethical Decisions:
Group A
1. Trust
2. Integrity
3. Courage
4. Honesty
5. Duty
6. Jus...
Values: Subjects Expect
Principal Investigators to Be:
Trustworthy
Loyal
Helpful
Friendly
Courteous
Kind
Values: Researchers Hope
Volunteer Subjects to Be:
Obedient
Cheerful
Thrifty
Brave
Clean
Reverent
Decisional Ethics Process:
Identify your intention(s)
Determine actions to achieve intention(s)
What are possible conseque...
Applied Ethics Practices
Organizational ethics:
 Safety, Security, Equitable Compensation, Work Time,
Transparency, etc.
...
Biosafety invented at
Camp Detrick before
bioweapons developed
A.G. Wedum MD - Safety “S” Division - first division to be ...
Nonpathogenic Simulants were used
in Human Studies of Safety Practices
Worker safety tests
were done to test air
purificat...
WWII Human Experimentation
Detrick – Occupational Safety
Immunization*
 Vaccination routine called “special procedures”
i...
Nuremberg War Crimes Trial
By 1947 Andrew Ivy & Leo
Alexander released a list of
ten conditions required for
permissible m...
Nuremberg Code of 1947
1. Voluntary Consent absolutely essential
2. Valid research for good of society – by no other means...
What is Voluntary Consent?
• This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to
give consent; should be so ...
Wilson Memorandum of 1953
The Nuremberg Code* was incorporated into the Wilson
Memorandum to the Secretaries of the Army, ...
USAMU ‘56 / USAMRIID ‘69 was established to develop the means to
diagnose, treat and prevent diseases caused by biological...
USAMU - USAMRIID
The station hospital was built in 1957. It was linked via walkways to
support laboratories (vir, bact, cl...
CD-22 & Operation Whitecoat
were designed to determine:
Human vulnerability in realistic BW scenarios,
i.e. outdoor aeroso...
COL W.D. Tigertt USAMU
Community Consultation
October 1954 Colonel
Tigertt contacted Dr.
Theodore R. Flaiz of
Seventh Day ...
Operation Whitecoat served as a
model of the ethical use of human
subjects in research. The three
step process of informed...
Aerosol Efficacy Studies at 8 Ball
Q-fever and Tularemia were approved for these studies
because safety criteria were met ...
1955 Whitecoat: Aerosol Human
Study in Realistic BW Scenario
Outdoor Q-fever Study - Dugway
Merlin Neff described being in...
Experimental Risks Minimized by
Availability of Effective Treatment
"They knew that they were going to inhale a certain
nu...
Ethical Accomplishments of
CD-22 & Operation Whitecoat
Effectively Used Nuremberg Code Principles
in creating USAMU and in...
Medical Accomplishments:
Operation Whitecoat
Licensed vaccines were developed, including
yellow fever, hepatitis, and plag...
RVF Vaccine caused Peace to
break out in the middle east
Therefore, a little
known benefit that
Operation Whitecoat
Volunt...
 Kefauver-Harris
Drug Amendments
passed in 1962 to
ensure drug efficacy
and greater drug
safety. For the first
time, manu...
1962 Amendments to the
FD&C Act requiring proof
of efficacy of drugs and
vaccines created a moral
dilemma:
Risk killing su...
USPHS Tuskegee Syphilis Study
Led To New Regulations:
National Research Act of 1974 requiring new
regulations for protecti...
Common Rule Principles 1979
BENEFICENCE JUSTICE
RESPECT FOR PERSONS
Privacy & Confidentiality
Protection of subjects
(espe...
USAMRIID Research Influenced by
News Events and World Affairs
“Cold War” imperatives continued until 1989, and the fall of...
Ethical Dichotomy Intrinsic to
National Biodefense Program:
Emergency circumstances may affect outcomes of ethical
analyse...
Ethical Analysis vs Rules & Laws
HHS Common Rule Regulates Research
 based on Ethical Principles but applied as
Rules
FDA...
Project BioShield
CDC, HHS & DoD may use HHS Project BioShield as
specified in the following legislation:
 Passed: H.R. 2...
USAMRIID Research on Medical
Countermeasures against Ebola
An update of the current situation
Why the current outbreak got...
Since the discovery of Ebola in 1976 until December 2013:
 23 outbreaks
 2388 human cases and 1590 deaths
As of 12 March...
Barkedu is a very tightknit
community. (from NPR report)
If a neighbor gets sick, you
help him/her. If a highly
respected ...
Why did the current outbreak got
so big so quickly?
This was the first Ebola outbreak in West Africa:
 Lack of local know...
Epidemiological
(human case data)
Direct contact with
bodily fluids
Respiratory
droplets
Blood/re-used
needles
Animal Expe...
Ebola virus is transmitted by
touch or body fluid droplets
Ebola Viral Antigen in NHP Lip
(L), Trachea (M) and Bowel (R).
...
How do we stop the virus from
spreading?
How do we stop spread of Ebola?
Bleach and other anti-infectives, steam
sterilization, incineration of waste
Quickly Ident...
Anti-EBOV Therapeutic Portfolio Development
3 Synthetic Abs
Polymerase Inhib.
Polymerase Inhib.
Small interfering RNA
Anti...
Anti-EBOV Vaccine Portfolio Development
Conclusions
Ebola virus is extremely infectious & spreads
rapidly through personal contact and fluids
Fast multifaceted re...
USAMRIID
Over the past 60 years since the start of Operation Whitecoat, the U.S.
Army Medical Research Institute of Infect...
USAMRIID Ebola Info Online
USAMRIID Targets Ebola, Other Infectious Diseases
 http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.asp...
Arthur O. Anderson MD
Director, Office of Human Use and Ethics
US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
PR 15-149 (+) Ethical Use of Human Subjects in Infectious Disease Research - Ebola Outbreak
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

PR 15-149 (+) Ethical Use of Human Subjects in Infectious Disease Research - Ebola Outbreak

522 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

PR 15-149 (+) Ethical Use of Human Subjects in Infectious Disease Research - Ebola Outbreak

  1. 1. Ethical Use of Human Subjects in Infectious Disease Research Arthur O. Anderson MD Office of Human Use and Ethics Lecture for BCLT & BHBLS March 18, 2015 This presentation represents the views of the author. The information or content presented does not represent the official position or policy of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, the U.S. Army Medical Department, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. PR 15-149 (+)
  2. 2. Few choices in life are: Ethical, Legal & Moral Ethical Moral Legal
  3. 3. Responsibility and Accountability in Research Involves:  Ethical Behavior  Morality and  Lawfulness  Guided by:  Values , Principles and Beliefs
  4. 4. What Values You Choose May Influence Ethical Decisions: Group A 1. Trust 2. Integrity 3. Courage 4. Honesty 5. Duty 6. Justice 7. Honor Group B 1. Loyalty 2. Duty 3. Respect 4. Selfless-service 5. Honor 6. Integrity 7. Personal Courage
  5. 5. Values: Subjects Expect Principal Investigators to Be: Trustworthy Loyal Helpful Friendly Courteous Kind
  6. 6. Values: Researchers Hope Volunteer Subjects to Be: Obedient Cheerful Thrifty Brave Clean Reverent
  7. 7. Decisional Ethics Process: Identify your intention(s) Determine actions to achieve intention(s) What are possible consequences of the intention or of taking specific actions Determine which intentions/actions give greatest benefits and result in least harms The context, cultural values and limits to available choices effect final determination
  8. 8. Applied Ethics Practices Organizational ethics:  Safety, Security, Equitable Compensation, Work Time, Transparency, etc. Research ethics is individualistic:  Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Distributive Justice Clinical ethics is individualistic:  Do no harm, Beneficence, Duty to Care, Evidence Based Public Health ethics is societal not individualistic:  "Public health ethics involves a systematic process to clarify, prioritize and justify possible course of public health action based on ethical principles, values and beliefs of stakeholders, and scientific and other information” (from Powers and Faden 2006)  Public Health actions are both prudential and humanitarian Principle of least infringement, respects and protects individual & society/community needs, interests, rights and liberties. Individual rights and welfare may be subordinate to those of the population if the individual’s actions endanger others. (Harm Principle)
  9. 9. Biosafety invented at Camp Detrick before bioweapons developed A.G. Wedum MD - Safety “S” Division - first division to be activated in 1943 Organizational Ethics:
  10. 10. Nonpathogenic Simulants were used in Human Studies of Safety Practices Worker safety tests were done to test air purification systems such as mechanical and electrostatic filters, air incinerators and washers (barrier) Environmental Safety by control of Ambient Air Pressures was developed and tested at Detrick (isolation) Masks and biohazard suits were developed and tested at Detrick
  11. 11. WWII Human Experimentation Detrick – Occupational Safety Immunization*  Vaccination routine called “special procedures” instituted by Biological Protection Branch of S Division  Primary Objective was to protect workers  Secondary Objectives: Determine most efficacious immunization methods Determine effectiveness of available preparations No existing vaccines for some agents Only experimental vaccines available for others * Ltr (S), CO CD to Post Surgeon CD, 22 Jan 44, Sub: Immunization. SPCYF 400.12. In Hq CD (720.3) * Sp Rpt 15, Immunological Protection of Personnel Against B.W. Agents (Oct 46), p.2
  12. 12. Nuremberg War Crimes Trial By 1947 Andrew Ivy & Leo Alexander released a list of ten conditions required for permissible medical experiments in healthy subjects became the Nuremberg Code. The Code became the standard for ethical research with humans 23 Nazi Doctors were convicted of Murder at The Nuremberg Trials
  13. 13. Nuremberg Code of 1947 1. Voluntary Consent absolutely essential 2. Valid research for good of society – by no other means 3. Human studies preceded by knowledge survey & research with animal models to identify potential risks and benefits 4. Avoid unnecessary physical and mental suffering & injury 5. Prohibits research with apriori risk of death or disabling injury 6. Degree of risk never to exceed benefit or humanitarian value 7. Prepare to minimize risk of injury, disability or death 8. Investigator must have credentials appropriate to study 9. Subjects must have freedom to withdraw 10. Scientist may terminate study to reduce serious risk
  14. 14. What is Voluntary Consent? • This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. • This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject there should be made known to him: the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment. • The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.
  15. 15. Wilson Memorandum of 1953 The Nuremberg Code* was incorporated into the Wilson Memorandum to the Secretaries of the Army, Navy and Air Force dated 26 February 1953 * Use of its principles was promoted BEFORE any human research related to biological warfare defense were officially planned or conducted Army Directive CS-385 issued 30 June 1953 added consent in writing, additional safeguards, a prototype aerosol study and instructions for compensating subjects for injuries resulting from participation in research AR70-25 was Nuremberg Code Based from 1962-1990
  16. 16. USAMU ‘56 / USAMRIID ‘69 was established to develop the means to diagnose, treat and prevent diseases caused by biological warfare agents. Approval of the cs-385 directive for ethical operation, plans for organization of the institute, preparation of CD-22 protocols and the Dugway study preceded by 3-6 months the creation of USAMU. The US Army Medical Unit at Fort Detrick
  17. 17. USAMU - USAMRIID The station hospital was built in 1957. It was linked via walkways to support laboratories (vir, bact, clin lab, etc) and USAMU. The 8-ball is at upper left and the BL-4 suite called ”black moriah” is at upper right. These wooden buildings resemble what may be found in Africa as care stations. They were safe and secure because of disinfectant sprays and partitioned space, i.e. hot, warm & cold
  18. 18. CD-22 & Operation Whitecoat were designed to determine: Human vulnerability in realistic BW scenarios, i.e. outdoor aerosol delivery to human subjects Effective prevention and treatment of BW casualties. Determination of minimal infective doses. Effectiveness of vaccines and drugs. Serological responses to infections, and. Clinical effects of various doses of infectious agents.
  19. 19. COL W.D. Tigertt USAMU Community Consultation October 1954 Colonel Tigertt contacted Dr. Theodore R. Flaiz of Seventh Day Adventist General Conference about seeking 1A-O SDA volunteer subjects. General Conference of SDA Church approved recruitment of drafted SDA volunteer subjects into Operation Whitecoat
  20. 20. Operation Whitecoat served as a model of the ethical use of human subjects in research. The three step process of informed consent - by which research subjects become familiar with the purpose of a study in order to understand the risks and potential benefits involved before agreeing to participate - was successfully implemented from the program’s inception. The soldiers were not required to participate in any of the studies, only to be present for briefings by principal investigators seeking volunteers. Two more steps occurred before subjects were asked to consent. About 20 percent of the men did not participate in any studies during their tenure at Fort Detrick.
  21. 21. Aerosol Efficacy Studies at 8 Ball Q-fever and Tularemia were approved for these studies because safety criteria were met and cure was assured.
  22. 22. 1955 Whitecoat: Aerosol Human Study in Realistic BW Scenario Outdoor Q-fever Study - Dugway Merlin Neff described being in the study at Dugway. "They put two of us at each station along with several monkeys and guinea pigs and mice and air sampling apparatus,“ This study satisfied the AFMPC and outdoor studies like this were never done again. Dugway Q-fever trial men seemed to have mysteriously disappeared
  23. 23. Experimental Risks Minimized by Availability of Effective Treatment "They knew that they were going to inhale a certain number of organisms, and that as soon as they became ill, they would be treated with appropriate antibiotics," said Dr. Peter Bartelloni, who was involved in the research. The men were assured that no dose of bacteria would be fatal, and effective antibiotics would stop infection immediately after it developed.
  24. 24. Ethical Accomplishments of CD-22 & Operation Whitecoat Effectively Used Nuremberg Code Principles in creating USAMU and in planning studies Created Effective Informed Consent Process Involved “Community” of the SDA Volunteers Local and Extramural Oversight / Monitoring
  25. 25. Medical Accomplishments: Operation Whitecoat Licensed vaccines were developed, including yellow fever, hepatitis, and plague. Investigational New Drug (IND) vaccines were developed, including those for Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), Rift Valley fever, Q fever, and tularemia. Effective systems for biological hazard containment were developed Rift Valley Fever Virus vaccine; used in 1977 outbreak in Egypt, effected 200,000 humans (2,000 deaths) and entire sheep population.
  26. 26. RVF Vaccine caused Peace to break out in the middle east Therefore, a little known benefit that Operation Whitecoat Volunteers provided was to enable peace between Egypt and Israel to “break out” because obtaining RVF Vaccine was an important bargaining chip to both parties. Emissaries from Egypt and Israel requested RVFV as Sadat & Begin met at Camp David. N Meyers - Nature 1986 Jan 9; v319(6049): p91
  27. 27.  Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments passed in 1962 to ensure drug efficacy and greater drug safety. For the first time, manufacturers of drugs are required to show proof to the FDA of the efficacy of their products before they may be approved for marketing. FDA Milestone
  28. 28. 1962 Amendments to the FD&C Act requiring proof of efficacy of drugs and vaccines created a moral dilemma: Risk killing subjects in a valid clinical trial, versus Withholding potentially life saving drugs or vaccines because they lacked substantial evidence of human clinical efficacy. Moral Dilemma: Comply with FDA law vs Intent to Benefit in BW Emergency
  29. 29. USPHS Tuskegee Syphilis Study Led To New Regulations: National Research Act of 1974 requiring new regulations for protection of human subjects  Informed consent requirements  Review of research by IRBs Created the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research 1979: National Commission wrote the “Belmont report” - AKA - ”The Common Rule” NIH uses 45 CFR 46 | DoD uses 32 CFR 219
  30. 30. Common Rule Principles 1979 BENEFICENCE JUSTICE RESPECT FOR PERSONS Privacy & Confidentiality Protection of subjects (especially vulnerable populations) Informed consent Surrogate consent Assent Risk/Benefit Analysis Experimental Design Qualifications of PI Subject selection Inclusion/exclusion Recruitment J. Cooper, Albany Medical Center
  31. 31. USAMRIID Research Influenced by News Events and World Affairs “Cold War” imperatives continued until 1989, and the fall of the Berlin Wall but new threats on the horizon. 1993+ Virology Research Spurred by Emerging Diseases and Global Travel Disease Transmission Risks. 1995 Aum Shinrikyo signaled that Bioterrorism was Emerging, prompting expansion development of Rapid Diagnostics, i.e. PCR & other Advanced Technologies. 1997 Global Disease Surveillance & Response Planning raised concerns about ability to comply with FDA Re: Use of IND/IDE products in pipeline for emergency use. MRVS Program Tested Safety of WRAIR & USAMRIID Vaccines & Drugs Through 2001 Post September 11, 2001 Anthrax Letters and Bioterrorism fears caused U.S. to increase Biodefense infrastructure
  32. 32. Ethical Dichotomy Intrinsic to National Biodefense Program: Emergency circumstances may affect outcomes of ethical analyses by weighting different values, thus favoring mitigating actions over caution Choices: I. Respect the rights and welfare of subjects who participate in research designed to discover, validate and gain FDA marketing approval for products to be used in prevention and treatment of possible bioterrorism casualties. Versus: II. Urgent need to use unapproved products reasonably thought to be beneficial for protection from - or immediate treatment of bioterrorism when there is an emergency and no approved alternatives are available.
  33. 33. Ethical Analysis vs Rules & Laws HHS Common Rule Regulates Research  based on Ethical Principles but applied as Rules FDA Regulates Product  FD&CA Law & FDA regulates development, labeling, marketing and use of drugs, biologics & devices  FDA defines use of product labeled IND / IDE as Research irrespective of intended use Nuremberg Code provides principles that may be applied in Ethical Analyses for Biodefense Research
  34. 34. Project BioShield CDC, HHS & DoD may use HHS Project BioShield as specified in the following legislation:  Passed: H.R. 2122 Project Bioshield Act - July 16 2003  Passed: S. 15 Project BioShield Act - May 19 2004  President Signed : Public Law No: 108-276 July 21 2004  Presented: H.R. 4258 Rapid Pathogen Identification to Delivery of Cures Act - May 3, 2004 These legislative acts may resolve the dilemma associated with the need for widespread use of FDA-unapproved products in for national biodefense or war hazards when it is unethical to do FDA-mandated human clinical efficacy studies. 21 CFR Part 314.600 - .650 Additional legislation may be necessary to further define how these new laws will operate through existing agencies without damaging the fabric of regulation protecting the public from unsafe and ineffective drugs. Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act, section 564 (EUA)
  35. 35. USAMRIID Research on Medical Countermeasures against Ebola An update of the current situation Why the current outbreak got so big so quickly? How is Ebola virus transmitted?  Is the virus transmitted by aerosol?  Droplets of body fluids not Small Particle Aerosol  Contact with Skin & mucus membranes & with contaminated surfaces of objects How do we stop the virus from spreading? Do we have vaccines and therapeutics against Ebola virus? Do we know the reservoir(s) for Ebola virus? Conclusions
  36. 36. Since the discovery of Ebola in 1976 until December 2013:  23 outbreaks  2388 human cases and 1590 deaths As of 12 March 2015, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone & 7 other countries have reported over 24,544 cases and 10,111 deaths → This is the Largest Ebola Virus Disease outbreak ever recorded Ebola Outbreak History Country Year Number of cases Number of deaths Cote d’Ivoire 1994 1 0 Uganda 2012 7 4 Gabon 1994 52 31 DRC 2007 264 187 Uganda 2000 425 224 A few examples of previous EVD outbreaks
  37. 37. Barkedu is a very tightknit community. (from NPR report) If a neighbor gets sick, you help him/her. If a highly respected person gets sick, everyone comes to help. Barkedu’s first Ebola case was Laiye Barwor, a favorite son of the village. When he got sick in early June, the whole town took notice. Unaware of Ebola, his family brought him to traditional healers - he died during the journey. At his funeral, more than 30 people helped wash and prepare his body for burial – (Important to Muslims) All people who touched him came down with Ebola. From that one funeral, Ebola spread like wildfire Barkedu From NY Times Report
  38. 38. Why did the current outbreak got so big so quickly? This was the first Ebola outbreak in West Africa:  Lack of local knowledge of how to avoid Ebola Virus  Lack of HCW experience with care vs contamination  Limited manpower capacity for rapid response High level of exposure in communities  Through household care by family members (droplets)  Traditional burial practices (touching, kissing, washing)  Fear & Panic led to resistance to response measures  Travel of patients / contacts to neighbouring communities spread infection and impacted contact tracing Lack of sufficient commitment of resources to the epidemic in rural areas AND in large cities
  39. 39. Epidemiological (human case data) Direct contact with bodily fluids Respiratory droplets Blood/re-used needles Animal Experimental Methods of Infection • Oral • Conjunctival • Respiratory • Intramuscular • Intraperitoneal • Submucosal How is Ebola virus transmitted?
  40. 40. Ebola virus is transmitted by touch or body fluid droplets Ebola Viral Antigen in NHP Lip (L), Trachea (M) and Bowel (R). In each image the virus is close to or on the epithelial surface.
  41. 41. How do we stop the virus from spreading?
  42. 42. How do we stop spread of Ebola? Bleach and other anti-infectives, steam sterilization, incineration of waste Quickly Identify infected individuals & contacts Liberty Restriction, Isolation / quarantine Use of vaccines and therapeutics Educating the public – engage community Safe, Respectful Burial Practices Enhance health care standard Identifying the source (reservoir)
  43. 43. Anti-EBOV Therapeutic Portfolio Development 3 Synthetic Abs Polymerase Inhib. Polymerase Inhib. Small interfering RNA Antisense PM-oligomers Nucleoside analog
  44. 44. Anti-EBOV Vaccine Portfolio Development
  45. 45. Conclusions Ebola virus is extremely infectious & spreads rapidly through personal contact and fluids Fast multifaceted response needed to contain the epidemic: community engagement, risk education, patient isolation, contact tracing, quarantines Protection of healthcare workers & staff with PPE Public Health Ethics deliberations, community collaboration and epidemic mitigation planning need to occur long BEFORE the next outbreak Protocols for IND Vaccines and Therapeutics must be prepared, reviewed and ready BEFORE needed There will be other outbreaks.
  46. 46. USAMRIID Over the past 60 years since the start of Operation Whitecoat, the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases has grown considerably from what it was as the U.S. Army Medical Unit, yet It continues to conduct basic and applied research on biological threats resulting in medical solutions to protect military service members.  The present building was planned by COL Dan Crozier, and is named in his honor.
  47. 47. USAMRIID Ebola Info Online USAMRIID Targets Ebola, Other Infectious Diseases  http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123530  http://www.dvidshub.net/video/371474/us-military-leads-way-ebola- containment#.VIBZ0WOa9bw  http://www.dvidshub.net/video/371474/us-military-leads-way-ebola- containment#.VIBZ0WOa9bw USAMRIID Has Years of Ebola Drug Expertise  http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123527 USAMRIID Contributes to Vaccine Development Effort  http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123515  http://www.dvidshub.net/video/371229/army-scientists-make-ebola-vaccine- advances#.VIBZOmOa9bw USAMRIID Develops Ebola Diagnostics  http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123498
  48. 48. Arthur O. Anderson MD Director, Office of Human Use and Ethics US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

×