South Asia South Asia consists od India, Pakistan Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Sri Langka, Nepal and Maldives. It is also known as the subcontinent of India. The Himalayas separate South Asia from the rest of the continent. Groups of people with conquests and migrations brought their language and tradition .
Geography of India The cities situated near the Indus Valley are the first civilization emerged. The remains in of cities of Mohenjo- Daro and Harappa was discovered by the archeologists. The indus land was much larger since this emcompassed a huge portion of northwest ancient India (modern day Pakistan).
The Indus River The river is about 1,000 mile long and flows through Kashmir onwards to the plains of Pakistan. When the Indus River overflows, the soil is fertilized ensuring favorable cultivation of land. The presence of fertile soil was essential to the formation of societies and states in early India.
Harappan Civilization Located in the anncient city of Harappa and emerged around 2700 B.C.E Has a population around 40,000 people. The houses were square – shaped and had wide spaces. The use of toilets and bathrooms by early Indians were the first application of sewerage system in the world.
Harappan Civilization They domesticated animals like elephants, sheeps, and goats. They were the first people to plant cotton and weave clothes out of these materials. They have a standard system of weights and measures for grain and gold. Harappan society divided into groups. Harappans established trade
The Aryans The Harappans attained their peakness of great around 2000 B.C.E The Aryans Invasion began in 1500 B.C.E and destroted Harappa. The Aryans used the mountains as routes. The Harappans are unable to overcome the Aryans so they migrated towards the Southern part of India.
Vedic Period The Vedic period is the Aryan way of life from 1500 B.C.E until the 500 B.C.E. The Aryans brought their own language which became known as Sanskrit which is the classical language of Indian literature. The “Vedas” is a collection of books on batlle hyms, sacred rituals, sayins and tales.
Vedic Period The society was divided into noble warriors, priests and ordinary people. The tasks of the warriors are to lead and run everyday affairs of the society. Towards the end of the Vedic period, the priests began to wield more power than the warrior class.The teachings concerning people and God gradually became more important in the society.
Establishment of Empires andKingdoms Their political structure transformed from a simple administration into larger states. They realized the need to collect taxes, organize their perspective tools, and bulid new ciies and roads. Example of the city states are Magadha, Kosala, Kro, and Gandhara.
The Persians A persian force led by Cyrus the Great invaded northwest India. Darius, Cyrus Successor was able to conquer Indus Valley and Punjab. The region of India became part of the Persian empire for nearly two centuries. Persian cities became centers of learning.
Alexander the Great Alexander the Great defeated the combined power of the Persians and the Indians. Alexander and his men are able to cross the Indus River. Alexander reluctantly left India because his troops were already exhausted and most of them have illnesses and misfortunes.
Mauryan Empire Established by Chandragupta Maurya She had an effective but harsh governance who was influenced by kautilya, author of Arthashastra, a book that contains essential ideas on political strategies and effective administration. Ashoka or Asoka is known as the greatest Mauryan leader because he renounced violence and eventually followed the teachings of the Buddha.
Mauryan Empire After Asoka’s death, leaders who succeeded him are unable to effectively control the whole empire. Several city states far from the capital secede from the Empire. During the downfall of the Mauryan Empire, various Indian states clash for supremacy.
Kushana Kingdom India’s northwestern frontier witnessed the arrival of outsiders like the Bactarians, Scythians, and Yuezhi. The Yuezhi extablished the kingdom. Kaniksha, the most renowned Kushana king made commercial activities flourish.
Satavahana Kingdom Located in the southern part of India. The politics and administration was influenced by the Maurya.
Gupta Empire Considered as the classical period of India. Northern India was unified once again. The empire had a well organized government. Knowledge in astronomy, mathematics, surgery, literature, arts, and science flourished. The empire collapsed when the White Huns invaded Northern India.
Gupta Empire Political turmoil was once again experienced while the city states were broken apart. Political disintegration was continued until the establichment of the Mogul Empire by the Muslims in India in the 16th century.
Contributions of the IndianCivilization Urban planning The four great religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. The use of sewage system Knowledge in measurement The decimal system Vedas Taj Mahal in Agra Knowledge in Algebra