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Papaver somniferum (Opium)

  1. 1. Papaver somniferum L. Latex
  2. 2. Pharmacognostic Features:  Botanical origin: Papaver somniferum L.  Family: Papaveraceae  English Name: Opium  Urdu Name: Afewen  Local Name: Opium poppy, Mawseed  Part Used: Capsules, Flowers, Seeds, Latex.  Chemical Class: Alkaloids
  3. 3. Chemical Constituents: Major chemical constituents are: • Most important chemical constituents are alkaloids (1/5th of total weight of drug) • Principle Alkaloid is Morphine (8-17%) Others are : • Narcotine/Noscapine(1-10%), • Codeine (0.7-5%), • Papaverine(0.5-1.5%), • Thebaine (0.1-2.5%) • Mecoic acid exist in combination with Morphine • Mucilage • Sugar • Salts of Calcium and Magnesium • wax
  4. 4. Heroin  It is the derivative of Morphine and is more potent than morphine  Morphine can cross the blood brain barrier but due to its conjugation it becomes lipid insoluble.  Whereas heroin is lipid soluble and crosses the blood brain barrier easily and act on the limbic system of brain.  The limbic system that is associated with emotions is stimulated and dreamlike sensations (euphoria) are produced.
  5. 5. Uses:  Used to relieve pain  As antitussive (to treat cough)  It is used to treat intestinal stomach spasms and respiratory spasms triggered by asthma attacks  Used as Hypnotic, sedative, Astringent, Antispasmodic.  Treat diarrhea and abdominal cramping  Relax involuntary muscles  Poppy seed oil is used as vehicle for parentrals
  6. 6.  Poppy seeds relieve constipation as the contain a lot of dietary fiber  They relieve mouth ulcers  Poppy seeds help to lower the cholesterol levels, maintain bone health, combat skin infections.
  7. 7. Mechanism of Actions  Morphine: Morphine binds to opioid receptors present on surface of nerve cells and sets off chain of reactions inside the cell and causes cell membrane to be less excitable. This means that the nerve impulses are not generated as the nerve cell becomes sluggish.  It can also dull pain by silencing nerves in spine that carry pain signals.  Also effects in pain processing areas of brain.  Therefore morphine causes analgesia, drowsiness,euphoria, respiratory depression,nausea, depressed cough reflex.
  8. 8.  Distinct effects on GIT include decreased motility and secretion, Increased resting tone and spasm, increased anal sphincter tone, all of which combine to produce constipation  Causes increase in tone of urinary bladder wall thus increasing urinary retention
  9. 9. Codeine  Codeine and its derivatives are used as antitussives  It is also used as decongestants and help relieve stuffy nose.  It is less potent than morphine  It also acts as analgesic to relieve mild to moderate pain. Although codeine has very low affinity for opioid receptors, about 10% of it is converted into morphine and the resulting analgesic effect is due to this conversion.  It suppresses cough by reducing the activity of cough center in brain  Hydrocodone is more effective antitussive than Codeine.
  10. 10. Papaverine  It is direct smooth muscle relaxant independent of muscle innervations.  The musculature of the large blood vessels including coronary, systemic and pulmonary arteries.  The resulting vasodilation has been potentially attributed inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphidiesterases.  This causes increase in intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP by decreases in Calcium ions.
  11. 11. Thebaine  It is not used medicinally  But it is important as substrate in semi-synthesis of other compounds  The plant Papaver bracteatum contains principally Thebaine (3%) with traces of morphine and codeine.
  12. 12. Narcotine  It is devoid of analgesic activity and is having antitussive activity equal to codeine  It also exhibits bronchodilating actions but large doses may stimulate the release of histamine that causes bronchoconstriction.
  13. 13. Dosage  Adults= 0.6mL (4 times a day)  Children= Not recommended
  14. 14. Over Dose  Over Dose may lead to nausea, vomiting, thirst, cold skin, anxiety, blurred vision, hallucinations, depression, lethargy, seizures , respiratory and circulatory spasms, coma and death  A lethal dose can be as low as 300mg  Continual usage may lead to physical and psychological addiction  Opium produces soothing blissful and dream like effects  Effects may last upto 8 hours at almost constant strength.
  15. 15. Management of Over Dose  Opium is not very quickly absorbed.  When a poisonous dose has been swallowed the stomach should be emptied as soon as possible.  Administration of Nitrites and of small doses of Atropine hypodermically maintain cardiac action.(atropine must be used catiously as it enhances the paralysis of heart and spinal cord).  Lethal tendency is combated by strychinine.  Coma is prevented by giving stimulants.
  16. 16. Contraindications and Precautions  Do not take Opium if patient is having: Asthma, Emphysema, Abnormal heart rhythm, Liver problems, Kidney diseases, Seizures, Underactive Thyroid Abnormally Low B.P • Opium will add to effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that make you drowsy or less alert) such as antihistamines, sedatives, barbiturates, medicines used for allergies etc.
  17. 17. Drug Interactions  Some drugs that interact with codeine include anticholinergic drugs, antihistamine drugs certain inhaled anesthetics narcotic antagonist, methyldopa, reserpine.
  18. 18. Side Effects  Constipation  Nausea  Vomiting  Sedation  Shrinking of pupil Some side effects do not need any medical attention .As your body gets used to medicine these side effects disappear Opium is habit forming. If you feel that medicine is not working , do not use more than prescribed dose.
  19. 19. References  www.thehealthsite.com  drugs.forum.com  www.ch.ic.ac.uk  Opium.com  www.medicinenet.com  www.webmd.com  Bioweb.uwlax.edu  www.sciencedirect.com  www.coughjournal.com  www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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