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All roads lead to rome


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A presentation on the rise and fall of the Roman Empire

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All roads lead to rome

  1. 1. An Empire Across Three Continents A Presentation By: Arshdeep Kaur XI- A
  2. 2.  There are innumerable quotes about Rome, which talk of its greatness, undermining its success or simply criticizing it. However, one thing is for sure, no one can ignore it. In this presentation, we shall see how Rome was established and what were the circumstances that led to Rome becoming the greatest empire known to Man, and its drawbacks, which led to its downfall.
  3. 3. According to the founding myth which was widely popularized by being taught in schools in Ancient Rome, Rome was Established on 21st April, 753 BC, by Romulus and Remus. They were born out of wedlock and hence drowned but saved and care for by a she-wolf. Romulus killed Remus in a fight for determining the location of the city they would found and gave his name to the city. Another legend says that Prince Aeneas of Troy lead a group of Trojans by sea to establish a new Troy but the women refused to travel any further and Roma set fire to the ships. Later, the city was named after her.
  4. 4.  The city of Rome grew out of settlements around a ford on the river Tiber. The city was founded by the Latin tribe of Italy, over the Palatine Hill.  The Etruscans established political control over the city around the 7th Century BC.  Except Romulus, all the other kings were elected by the people of Rome and served for life. The Senate had most power over the election of the King.
  5. 5. The Roman King was the Chief Executive, Chief Legislator, Chief Priest and the Chief Judge. Rome was ruled by seven kings, the last of them being Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who was overthrown by Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, who became the first Consuls of Rome and the Roman Republic began in 509 BC. The above picture shows the insignia of Roman Kings: The 12 lictors holding fasces with an axe, the Toga Picta, the diadem and the Curule chair.
  6. 6. The Roman Republic started with the overthrow of monarchy in 509 BC, which was replaced by a government headed my two annually-elected Consuls, which soon developed into a complex system of governance based on Checks and Balances and Separation of Power. During its first two centuries, it expanded rapidly through conquest and alliances. At the end of its third, it included the Italian peninsula, Iberian peninsula, North Africa, Modern France and much of the Eastern Mediterranean. Despite constrains, political power was wielded by Leaders and the era was punctuated by civil wars. The victor in such a Civil War, Octavian declared Rome a Principate, with him as the Princeps.
  7. 7. The Roman Republic was never restored, but neither was it abolished, so the exact date of the transition to the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44 BC, the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Roman Senate’s grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian under the First Settlement and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic. This was followed by the Dominate phase, where the rulers openly displayed imperial power instead of creating an illusion of a Republic. This was followed by the Official Roman Empire ruled by the Julio-Claudian Dynasty.
  8. 8. Though the Roman Republic never really ended, the transition to an autocratic state was completed gradually. Augustus, the first “emperor”, took the position that he had saved the republic. Though Rome was essentially still a Republic, it was him who took all the final decisions, backed by military force. Augustus’ reign lasted for 40 years and was known as the Golden Age in Augustan literature and art. He laid the enduring ideological foundation for the next three centuries of the Roman Empire, known as the Principate ((27 BC–284 AD), the first 200 of which were known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace ( also Roman Accord or Treaty)
  9. 9. The success of Augustus in establishing principles of dynastic succession was limited by his outliving a number of talented potential heirs. The Julio-Claudian Dynasty lasted for 4 more emperors, namely; Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero – before it yielded in 69 AD to the strife-torn Year of the Four Emperors, which was the only disturbance during the Pax Romana, from which Vespasian emerged the victor.
  10. 10. The Flavian dynasty consisted of three kings, namely; Vespasian (69-79 AD), Titus (79-81 AD) and Domitian (81-96 AD). The dynasty, though short, is known for its achievements. They include:  Introduction of Economic Reforms and currency revaluation.  Enactment of a massive Building Program.  Popularization of Gladiatorial Games. It ended in 96 AD, when Domitian was assasinated. He was succeeded by his advisor Marcus Cocceius Nerva, who founded the long-lived Nervan-Antonian Dynasty.
  11. 11. The Nerva-Antonine dynasty consisted of seven emperors who ruled Rome from 96 AD to 192 AD. It was divided into the Nerva-Trajan and Antonine Dynasty on the basis of their shared last names. It gave Rome the Five Good Emperors, namely; Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. Their reign was characterized by benevolence and peace, in contrast to the tyrannical reign of the emperors before them. The dynasty came to an end with the assassination of Commodus by his wrestling partner, which was followed by the Year of the Five Emperors in193 AD, from which Septimius Severus emerged victor, starting the Severus Dynasty
  12. 12. The Severan dynasty was an imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235. The dynasty was founded by the Roman general Septimius Severus. Although Septimius Severus successfully restored peace following the upheaval of the late 2nd century, the dynasty was disturbed by highly unstable family relationships, and constant political turmoil, foreshadowing the imminent Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 AD). It was the last lineage of the Principate founded by Augustus. Aurelian (270-275 AD)re-united the split empire and was the first ruler who demanded to be hailed as master and God. He was the first ruler of the Dominate ( 284-476 AD).
  13. 13. The Crisis ended with the acession of Diocletian ( 284–305) to the throne. But the unity of the Empire was just an illusion. He devised the system of Tetrarchy i.e. The rule of four emperors. It started in 285 AD, when Diocletian installed his general Maximilian as his co-emperor, first as Caesar (Junior Emperor) and then Augustus in 286 AD. In 293, feeling that more focus was needed on military and civic problems, Diocletian, with Maximian's consent, expanded the imperial college by appointing two Caesars (one responsible to each Augustus)- Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. The system broke down after 306 and in the end only two Augusti remained. Constantine defeted Lucius and was the only Augustus in 313AD.
  14. 14.  The Roman Empire began to disintegrate in the late 4th century as invasions overwhelmed the capacity of the Empire to govern. The Western empire ended in 476, when Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate to the Germanic warlord Odoacer.The empire in the East—known today as the Byzantine Empire, ended in 1453 with the death of Constantine XI and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
  15. 15. The language of the Romans was Latin, but was not imposed officially on peoples brought under Roman rule. Romans who received an elite education studied Greek as a literary language, and most men of the governing classes could speak Greek. The Julio-Claudian emperors encouraged high standards of correct Latin. References to interpreters indicate the continuing use of local languages other than Greek and Latin, particularly in Egypt, where Coptic predominated, and in military settings along the Rhine and Danube. Roman jurists also show a concern for local languages such as Punic, Gaulish, and Aramaic. Latin developed locally into branches that became the Romance languages while international use of Greek, was one factor enabling the spread of Christianity
  16. 16. The dominance of the emperor was based on the consolidation of certain powers from several republican offices, including the inviolability of the tribunes of the people and the authority of the censors to manipulate the hierarchy of Roman society. The emperor also made himself the central religious authority as Pontifex Maximus. The soldiers of the Imperial Roman army were professionals who volunteered for a 25-year tour of duty. The three major divisions of the military were:  the garrison at Rome, which includes both the Praetorians and the vigiles who functioned as police and firefighters;  the provincial army, comprising the Roman legions and the auxiliaries provided by the provinces (auxilia);  the navy.  A peace keeping force for Italy called Praetorian Guard.
  17. 17. An annexed territory became a province in a three-step process: making a register of cities, taking a census of the population, and surveying the land. Further government recordkeeping included births and deaths, real estate transactions, taxes, and juridical proceedings. Among these officials were the "Roman governors", as they are called in English: either magistrates elected at Rome or governors. His staff was minimal. He had to make himself accessible to the people he governed. Other officials were appointed as supervisors of government finances
  18. 18. Papyri preserve complex accounting methods that suggest elements of economic rationalism and the Empire was highly monetized. Economic growth, though not comparable to modern economies, was greater than that of most other societies prior to industrialization. The standardization of money throughout the Empire promoted trade and market integration. Rome had no central bank, and regulation of the banking system was minimal. Roman provinces traded among themselves, but trade extended outside the frontiers to regions as far away as China and India. The main commodity was grain. Also traded were olive oil, various foodstuffs, garum (fish sauce), slaves, ore and manufactured metal objects, fibers and textiles, timber, pottery, glassware, marble, papyrus, spices and materia medica, ivory, pearls, and gemstones and wine. Inscriptions record 268 different occupations in the city of Rome.
  19. 19. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome. Even after more than 2,000 years some Roman structures still stand, due in part to sophisticated methods of making cements and concrete. Roman bridges were among the first large and lasting bridges, built from stone with the arch as the basic structure. Most utilized concrete as well. The Romans built many dams for water collection. Insulated glazing (or "double glazing") was used in the construction of public baths. Elite housing in cooler climates might have hypocausts, a form of central heating. The Romans were the first culture to assemble all essential components of the much later steam engine.
  20. 20. In the ancient world, a city was viewed as a place that fostered civilization by being "properly designed, ordered, and adorned”. Augustus undertook a vast building program in Rome, supported public displays of art that expressed the new imperial ideology, and reorganized the city into neighbourhoods administered at the local level. City planning and urban lifestyles had been influenced by the Greeks from an early period. In the city of Rome, most people lived in multi-storey apartment buildings that were often squalid firetraps. Rich families from Rome usually had two or more houses,a townhouse (domus, plural domūs) and at least one luxury home (villa) outside the city. Maintaining an affordable food supply to the city of Rome had become a major political issue in the late Republic, when the state began to provide a grain dole (annona) to citizens who registered for it.
  21. 21. Most apartments in Rome lacked kitchens, though a charcoal brazier could be used for rudimentary cookery. fine dining could be sought only at private dinner parties in well-to- do houses with a chef and trained kitchen staff, or at banquets hosted by social clubs (collegia) Prepared food was sold at pubs and bars, inns, and food stalls. Most people would have consumed at least 70 percent of daily calories in the form of cereals and legumesRoman literature focuses on the dining habits of the upper classes. In a status-conscious society like that of the Romans, clothing and personal adornment gave immediate visual clues about the etiquette of interacting with the wearer. The Toga was the distinctive national garment of the Roman male citizen, but was worn only on formal occasions. The Tunic was the most commonly worn garment. The use of silk increased, and courtiers of the later Empire wore elaborate silk robes
  22. 22. Roman government believed that public recreation was important to keep the subjects happy. The State funded various events. Circus games were preceded by an elaborate parade that ended at the venue. Competitive events were held also in smaller venues such as the amphitheatre. The Romans thought gladiator contests had originated with funeral games and sacrifices in which select captive warriors were forced to fight to expiate the deaths of noble Romans. However, Gladiators were highly skilled and trained fighters, who might be slaves, convicts, or free volunteers. Chariot racing continued into the Byzantine period under imperial sponsorship, but the decline of cities in the 6th and 7th centuries led to its eventual demise. Playing with dice as a form of gambling was disapproved of, but was a popular pastime during the December festival of the Saturnalia with its carnival, norms- overturned atmosphere
  23. 23. People visiting or living in Rome or the cities throughout the Empire would have seen art in a range of styles and media on a daily basis- Public or official. Portraiture, which survives mainly in the medium of sculpture, was the most copious form of imperial art. Portraits during the Augustan period utilize youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Examples of Roman sculpture survive abundantly, though often in damaged or fragmentary condition. Much of what is known of Roman painting is based on the interior decoration of private homes, particularly as preserved at Pompeii and Herculaneum by theeruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. In addition to decorative borders and panels with geometric or vegetative motifs, wall painting depicts scenes from mythology and the theatre, landscapes and gardens, recreation and spectacles, work and everyday life. Mosaics are among the most enduring of Roman decorative arts, and are found on the surfaces of floors and other architectural features such as walls, vaulted ceilings, and columns. Decorative arts for luxury consumers included fine pottery, silver and bronze vessels and implements, and glassware
  24. 24. Estimates of the average literacy rate in the Empire range from 5 to 30 percent or higher, depending in part on the definition of "literacy". The Roman obsession with documents and public inscriptions indicates the high value placed on the written word Illiterate Roman subjects would have someone such as a government scribe read or write their official documents for them. Public art and religious ceremonies were ways to communicate imperial ideology regardless of ability to read. Books were expensive, since each copy had to written out individually on a roll of papyrus (volumen) by scribes . Traditional Roman education was moral and practical. Stories about great men and women, or cautionary tales about individual failures, were meant to instill Roman values
  25. 25. The Romans are known for the great number of deities they honored, a capacity that earned the mockery of early Christian polemicists. As the Romans extended their dominance throughout the Mediterranean world, their policy in general was to absorb the deities and cults of other peoples rather than try to eradicate them.[550] One way that Rome promoted stability among diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion. Inscriptions throughout the Empire record the side-by-side worship of local and Roman deities, including dedications made by Romans to local gods. Christianity emerged in Roman Judea as a Jewish religious sect in the 1st century AD. In the early 4th century,Constantine I became the first emperor to convert to Christianity, launching the era of Christian hegemony. It became the state religion in 391 AD.
  26. 26. Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office. But while Roman women held no direct political power, those from wealthy or powerful families could and did exert influence through private negotiations Exceptional women who left an undeniable mark on history range from the semi-legendary Lucretia and Claudia Quinta, whose stories took on mythic significance; fierce Republican-era women such asCornelia, mother of the Gracchi, and Fulvia, who commanded an army and issued coins bearing her image; women of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, most prominently Livia, who contributed to the formation of Imperial mores; and the empress Helena, a driving force in promoting Christianity. The one major public role reserved solely for women was in the sphere of religion: the priestly office of the Vestals.
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