Work on asthma


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Work on asthma

  1. 1. Name: cyko shgu Topic : Asthma Submited to: chemist Asthma
  2. 2. Overview  Asthma – What is it?  Classification of asthma  Symptoms of asthma  Causes  What substances trigger asthma?  Can asthma be cured?  What YOU can do if you have asthma
  3. 3. Asthma – What is It?  Asthma is a chronic lung disease that obstructs airflow  The obstruction is reversible  It involves difficulty in breathing due to – Inflammation (swelling) – Mucus in the airways – Tightening of muscles around the airways
  4. 4. Classification  Asthma is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms: – Brittle asthma – Asthma attack – Status asthmaticus – Exercise induced – Occupational
  5. 5. Brittle asthma  Brittle asthma is a term used to describe two types of asthma, distinguishable by recurrent, severe attacks.  Type 1 brittle asthma refers to disease with wide peak flow variability, despite intense medication.  Type 2 brittle asthma describes background well- controlled asthma, with sudden severe exacerbations.
  6. 6. Asthma attack  An acute asthma exacerbation is commonly referred to as an asthma attack.  The classic symptoms are shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness.  While these are the primary symptoms of asthma, some people present primarily with coughing, and in severe cases, air motion may be significantly impaired such that no wheezing is heard.
  7. 7. Asthma attack  Signs which occur during an asthma attack include the use of accessory muscles of respiration.  there may be a paradoxical pulse (a pulse that is weaker during inhalation and stronger during exhalation), and over-inflation of the chest.   Blue color of the skin and nails may occur from lack of oxygen.
  8. 8. Status asthmaticus  Status asthmaticus is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments of bronchodilators and steroids.   Nonselective beta blockers (such as Timolol) have caused fatal status asthmaticus.
  9. 9. Exercise induced  Here appears to be a relatively high incidence of asthma in sports such as cycling, mountain biking, and long- distance running, and a relatively lower incidence in weightlifting and diving.  It is unclear how much of these disparities are from the effects of training in the sport.
  10. 10. Occupational  Asthma as a result of (or worsened by) workplace exposures is a commonly reported occupational respiratory disease.  Animal proteins, enzymes, flour, natural rubber latex, and certain reactive chemicals are commonly associated with work-related asthma.  When recognized, these hazards can be mitigated, dropping the risk of disease.
  11. 11. Symptoms
  12. 12. Symptoms of asthma Common symptoms of asthma include: Coughing Wheezing, a whistling sound Shortness of breath Chest tightness Sneezing & runny nose Itchy and inflamed eyes
  13. 13. Symptoms of asthma  Symptoms are often worse at night or in the early morning, or in response to exercise or cold air.  Some people with asthma only rarely experience symptoms, usually in response to triggers, whereas other may have marked persistent airflow obstruction.
  14. 14. Causes
  15. 15. Causes (Environmental factors) Asthma is mainly caused by environmental factors. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy and after delivery is associated with a greater risk of asthma-like symptoms, wheezing, and respiratory infections during childhood.
  16. 16. Causes (Environmental factors)  Low air quality, from traffic pollution or high ozone levels, has been repeatedly associated with increased asthma morbidity.  Recent studies show a relationship between exposure to air pollutants (e.g. from traffic) and childhood asthma.
  17. 17. Causes (Environmental factors)  The occurrence of the disease and exacerbation of childhood asthma are affected by outdoor air pollutants.
  18. 18. Causes (Genetic factors)  Over 100 genes have been associated with asthma.    But studies indicates that all these genes are not associated with asthma under every condition  Some genetic variants may only cause asthma when they are combined with specific environmental exposures, and otherwise may not be risk factors for asthma
  19. 19. What substances trigger asthma? Type of Substance Examples Air pollutants, including dusts, smoke, mists & fumes Diesel exhaust; tobacco smoke; mineral, rock, coal, & wood dusts; gases; fumes & vapors from aerosol agents, chemicals, cleaning materials, solvents, paints, welding & from heating & cooling metals quickly Pollens, mites & molds Trees, flowers, weeds, hay, plants Animal dander Birds, cats, dogs Medications Aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs Foods Egg, wheat, nuts
  20. 20. Can asthma be cured?  Asthma can be controlled (but not cured) by: – Avoiding triggers or reducing exposure to triggers – Using medication to control symptoms  Medications - generally two types are used – Controller or long-term drugs • Taken to prevent excess production of mucus & to reduce the inflammation and constriction of airway muscles – Rescue or quick-relief drugs • Taken to relax muscles around the airways to improve breathing
  21. 21. Poorly controlled asthma leads to: Increased visits to – Doctor, Urgent Care Clinic or Hospital  Hospitalizations  Limitations in daily activities  Lower quality of life
  22. 22. What YOU can do if you have asthma?  Identify and minimize contact with your asthma trigger(s)  Understand and take asthma medications as prescribed  Recognize early signs that your asthma is getting worse
  23. 23. Enjoy life