Roman architecture continued the legacy left by
the earlier architects of the Greek world.
Romans were also great innovators and they
quickly adopted new construction techniques, used
new materials, and uniquely combined existing
techniques with creative design to produce a whole
range of new architectural structures.
Although the Romans have burrowed much of the
Greek style, they have used their knowledge in
constructions to improve the arch and vault for the
ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION
The use of vaults and arches, together with a sound
knowledge of building materials, enabled them to
achieve unprecedented successes in the construction
of imposing structures for public use. Example
- the Colosseum
- the Pantheon
The Roman Architectural Revolution, also known as
the Concrete Revolution.
Roman architects continued to follow the guidelines
established by the classical orders the Greeks had
first shaped: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.
The Romans used many materials to create
everything from masonry pastes to walls and
Tile covered concrete quickly supplanted marble as
the primary building material, and more daring
buildings soon followed, with great pillars
supporting broad arches and domes rather than
dense lines of columns suspending flat architraves.
Romans were the first ones who created the first
brick and used concrete at such large scale
The materials they used is as follow
- Pozzolanic Concrete
ARCHITECTURAL BUILDINGS TYPES
The Romans focused on the following features
The arches were modified greatly by the Romans so
that they could carry large amount of weights
It was usually build by stones, brick or concrete
ROOFS AND FLOORS
The floor board laid over cross beams that rested
upon supports from the surrounding walls.
Wooden floors were often covered with mortar so
that floors could be tiled
Roofs were made of wooden trusses supported by
walls then covered by tiles
Columns were very important in ancient Roman
It was mostly used for structural and decorative
They were made in sections and then stack on top of
They were made from wood, stone and mortar
Roman roads were vital to the maintenance and
development of the Roman state.
They provided efficient means for the overland
movement of armies, officials and civilians, and the
inland carriage of official communications and trade
At the peak of Rome's development, no fewer than
29 great military highways radiated from the capital,
and the Late Empire's 113 provinces were
interconnected by 372 great road links
The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts in
order to bring water from distant sources into their
cities and towns, supplying public baths, latrines,
fountains and private households.
Waste water was removed by complex sewage
systems and released into nearby bodies of water,
keeping the towns clean and free from effluent.
Aqueducts also provided water for mining
operations, milling, farms and gardens.
Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the
first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges
were built with stone and had the arch as the basic
structure. Most utilized concrete as well, which the
Romans were the first to use for bridges.
AGORA AND FORUM
Forum is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the
ruins of several important ancient government buildings
at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient
city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as
the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.
Agora was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The
literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or
"assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic,
spiritual and political life of the city. The Ancient Agora
of Athens was the best-known example.
Amphitheatre used for gladiator competitions and
other public events
Capacity of 87,000 people
Created by stone masonry and cut stones
Contains arches, columns, podiums and arcades
this circular building is constructed with a grand
porch three rows of columns and a dome with a
centered oculus to the sky
The pantheon dome is still considered one of the
largest unreinforced dome in the world
Roman architecture, then, has provided us with
magnificent structures that have, quite literally, stood the
test of time. By combining a wide range of materials with
daring designs, the Romans were able to push the
boundaries of physics and turn architecture into an art
The result was that architecture became an imperial tool
to demonstrate to the world that Rome was culturally
superior because only she had the wealth, skills, and
audacity to produce such edifices. Even more
significantly, the Roman use of concrete, brick, and
arches twinned with building designs like the
amphitheatre and basilica would immeasurably influence
all following western architecture right up to the present