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Adaptive wings


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Adaptive or Morphing Wings

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Adaptive wings

  3. 3. FLUIDICS • Fluidics, or fluidic logic, is the use of a fluid to perform analog or digital operations similar to those performed with electronics. • The physical basis of fluidics is pneumatics and hydraulics, based on the theoretical foundation of fluid dynamics. The term fluidics is normally used when devices have no moving parts, so ordinary hydraulic components such as are not considered or referred to as fluidic devices. • Uses • Fluidic injection is being researched for use in aircraftto control direction, in two ways: circulation control and thrust vectoring. In both, larger more complex mechanical parts are replaced by fluidic systems, in which larger forces in fluids are diverted by smaller jets or flows of fluid intermittently, to change the direction of vehicles • In such uses, fluidics is desirable for lower: mass, cost (up to 50% less), drag (up to 15% less during use), inertia(for faster, stronger control response), complexity (mechanically simpler, fewer or no moving parts or surfaces, less maintenance), and radar cross section for stealth. This will likely be used in many unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 6th generation fighter aircraft, and ships
  4. 4. BOEING X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing The X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) development program is a completed research project that was undertaken jointly by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Boeing Phantom Works and NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, where the technology was flight tested on a modified McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. Active Aeroelastic Wing Technology is a technology that integrates wing aerodynamics, controls, and structure to harness and control wing aeroelastic twist at high speeds and dynamic pressures. By using multiple leading and trailing edge controls like "aerodynamic tabs", subtle amounts of aeroelastic twist can be controlled to provide large amounts of wing control power, while minimizing maneuver air loads at high wing strain conditions or aerodynamic drag at low wing strain conditions
  5. 5. General characteristics • Crew: 1 • Wingspan: 38 ft 5 in (11.71 m) • Height: 15 ft 3 in (4.65 m) • Max takeoff weight: 39,000 lb (17,690 kg) • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric F404-GE-400 low-bypass turbofan engines, 16,000 lbf (71 kN) thrust each • Performance • Maximum speed: 1,032 kn; 1,912 km/h (1,188 mph) • Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m) • Avionics The leading edge flap drive system was modified at McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Phantom works) using a new outboard actuation unit developed by Moog. AAW flight control laws were programmed into a research flight control computer modified to include an independently actuated outboard leading edge control surfaces.[
  6. 6. • Design and development • Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) Technology is multidisciplinary in that it integrates air vehicle aerodynamics, active controls, and structural aeroelastic behavior to maximize air vehicle performance • AAW Technology employs wing aeroelastic flexibility for a net benefit through use of multiple leading and trailing edge control surfaces activated by a digital flight control system. • Active controls • F/A-18A (now X-53) Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) flight test, March 2005 • The same problems affect modern aircraft as well, but are engineered to be less noticeable. To start with, improvements in materials and design has greatly improved the stiffness of the wing, reducing the magnitude of the problem.
  7. 7. Adaptive compliant wing • An adaptive compliant wing is a wing which is flexible so that aspects of its shape can be changed in flight.[1][2] • An adaptive compliant wing designed by FlexSys Inc. features a variable-camber trailing edge which can be deflected up to ±10°, so that it acts like a flap-equipped wing, but without the individual segments and gaps typical in a flap system. The wing itself can be twisted up to 1° per foot of span. The wing's shape can be changed at a rate of 30° per second, which is ideal for gust load alleviation. The development of the adaptive compliant wing is being sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. Initially, the wing was tested in a wind tunnel, and then a 50-inch section of wing was flight tested on board the Scaled Composites White Knight research aircraft in a seven-flight, 20-hour program operated from the Mojave Spaceport.[3] Control methods are proposed.[4]