How Africa should approach her Sustainable Development  <ul><li>By Arrey Mbongaya Ivo (left) </li></ul><ul><li>African Cen...
Road to Sustainable Development <ul><li>1987 United Nations Bruntland Report considered the term as “ 'development which m...
Road to Sustainable Development <ul><li>United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the Convention on Biologic...
Road to Sustainable Development <ul><li>Agenda 21 advocated for  information, integration, and participation as corner sto...
Defining Sustainable development <ul><li>While admitting the wide usage of “sustainable development” in almost all fields,...
How should Africa Go? <ul><li>Before discussing specifics, it is likely that any meaningful intervention for sustainable d...
How Should Africa Go continues…  <ul><li>Socially motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic and targeting Global and Regional ...
A diagrammatic representation of key Ingredients for African Sustainable Development.  ©2010 Arrey Mbongaya Ivo. All right...
Pro-poor <ul><li>Many mistake poor people as inactive and lazy and willing to benefit always from charity. This is wrong (...
Pro-poor continues… <ul><li>One area to enable pro-poor interventions for African Sustainable Development is by exploiting...
People-based and Interest-based <ul><li>Long term thinking and research on Sub-populations and needs will enable African g...
Long term good and Eco-friendly devices  <ul><li>Generally long term thinking demands recognition that countries’ resource...
Long term good and Eco-friendly devices continues… <ul><li>Eco-friendly is a term that speaks for itself. When interventio...
Socially Motivated and Entrepreneurial Devices..  <ul><li>Socially motivated devices can be economic or entrepreneurial. T...
Socially Motivated and Entrepreneurial Devices.. <ul><li>Access to micro-credits for the poor and vulnerable in order to b...
Strategic Research, Planning and Management <ul><li>Strategic research takes time and resources to find out best tools and...
Strategic Research, Planning and Management Continues… <ul><li>The inference from strategic research, planning and managem...
Proven Unbiased Research and Planning (PURP) <ul><li>This refers to research that has been objectively reviewed to be free...
Technological approaches and Global and Regional Standards <ul><li>Africa must link various sectors of her economies in or...
Technological approaches and Global and Regional Standards Continues <ul><li>It leads to uneven access to health care, uti...
Local Ownership of Basic Services… <ul><li>Africa must own the creation and delivery of basic services as logically she is...
Possible Difficulties on the road to African Sustainable Development <ul><li>The definition of sustainable Development rem...
Possible Difficulties on the road to African Sustainable Development…. <ul><li>Another issue is having a right balance bet...
Conclusion <ul><li>Africa needs rights-based, inclusive, participatory, pro-poor, eco-friendly, strategic, economic and in...
Bibliography <ul><li>United Nations. 1987. &quot;Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development.&quot;  Gen...
Bibliography <ul><li>Adams, W.M. (2006).  &quot;The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in t...
©2010 African Centre for Community and Development. All rights reserved. <ul><li>African Centre for Community and Developm...
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How africa should approach her sustainable development.ppt by arrey mbongaya ivo

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An Arrey Mbongaya Ivo presentation on best approaches to African Sustainable Development

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How africa should approach her sustainable development.ppt by arrey mbongaya ivo

  1. 1. How Africa should approach her Sustainable Development <ul><li>By Arrey Mbongaya Ivo (left) </li></ul><ul><li>African Centre for Community and Development </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.africancentreforCommunity.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://community.eldis.org/falcazo </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  2. 2. Road to Sustainable Development <ul><li>1987 United Nations Bruntland Report considered the term as “ 'development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations 2005 World Summit Outcome Document considered &quot;interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars&quot; of sustainable development as economic development, social development, and environmental protection </li></ul>
  3. 3. Road to Sustainable Development <ul><li>United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the Convention on Biological Diversity added a cultural dimension to sustainable development. </li></ul><ul><li>The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO, 2001) propounds &quot;...cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature”; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Road to Sustainable Development <ul><li>Agenda 21 advocated for information, integration, and participation as corner stones to achieving development that could guarantee resources now and in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Worth noting is the fact that Green development has been advocated to be part of the definition of Sustainable Development as much as it has been opposed as being too environmentally focused while neglecting the social, economic and cultural dimensions of Sustainable Development. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Defining Sustainable development <ul><li>While admitting the wide usage of “sustainable development” in almost all fields, for the purpose and the context of this presentation I have accepted the Wikipedia definition. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations. The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that &quot;meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development can thus today be expressed as the development device that integrates long term economic development, social development, environmental protection and cultural protection as key pillars of design, delivery and management. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How should Africa Go? <ul><li>Before discussing specifics, it is likely that any meaningful intervention for sustainable development in Africa should be: </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-poor </li></ul><ul><li>People-based </li></ul><ul><li>Interest based </li></ul><ul><li>For the long term good </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Should Africa Go continues… <ul><li>Socially motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic and targeting Global and Regional Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Have alternative long term strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Must be based on proven unbiased Research and Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Right based and Just </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded by fair-based partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building </li></ul><ul><li>Technologically geared </li></ul><ul><li>Own basic services like education, health care, transportation, basic utilities and security </li></ul>
  8. 8. A diagrammatic representation of key Ingredients for African Sustainable Development. ©2010 Arrey Mbongaya Ivo. All rights Reserved. Local Ownership of Basic services Technological Based on just Research & Planning Strategic with Global/Regional Standards Right based And Just Socially motivated People-based Entrepreneurial Eco-friendly Interest-based Long term Good African Sustainable Development
  9. 9. Pro-poor <ul><li>Many mistake poor people as inactive and lazy and willing to benefit always from charity. This is wrong (De Haan and Zoomers 2005) as they are active partakers in development and economies. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-poor African devices must seek to integrate poor efforts into national economies by investing in services that facilitate movement from poverty into a vibrant middle class and a prosperous wealthy class there on. These services include education, tax breaks for small and medium businesses, subsidizing agriculture and fisheries, health care, provision of basic utilities, training in ICTs and enabling justice and security for all. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the resources of the poor and of the state to develop and empower the poor is helpful as it will add value to the economy and increase spending in the long run. Both factors are vital for economic Growth. Recent vibrant middle classes have been noted in China, India, Brazil and Russia. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pro-poor continues… <ul><li>One area to enable pro-poor interventions for African Sustainable Development is by exploiting African natural resources in an accountable manner and for the benefit of the people who own them and the governments that manage them. </li></ul><ul><li>This is important as Africa has huge reserves of uranium, cobalt, diamonds, oil and other rare minerals yet many of the owning areas like Nigeria (Niger Delta) and Sudan (Darfur/Southern Sudan) are in conflicts and local people have not really benefited from these resources. Many Countries have no transparent institutions that monitor exploitation and management of resources leading to embezzlement of mineral resources by corrupt oligarchies and poor methods of drilling etc. A similar scenario exists in the wood exploitation and fisheries industries that no transparent popular devices exist to ensure that resource sales trickle down to the poor or that exploiters add value to products. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral deals must thus be transparent and target the needs of poor sub-populations to lead to African Sustainable Development. </li></ul>
  11. 11. People-based and Interest-based <ul><li>Long term thinking and research on Sub-populations and needs will enable African governments and entrepreneurs to design their business and partnerships based on peoples’ needs. This is vital as foreign countries, companies and trans-national corporations have strategic interests and goals that in many ways conflict with the interests of resource rich sub-populations in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically there are clauses that can guarantee this in Africa. They include accountable participatory and inclusive governments that have a democratic orientation as well as the respect of minority rights and cultural diversity. The latter will enable poor resource areas to be treated in dignity and not only exploited by irresponsible stakeholders. Mutually beneficial deals must replace today’s one-sided , unaccountable and exploitative minerals’ agents. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Long term good and Eco-friendly devices <ul><li>Generally long term thinking demands recognition that countries’ resources must be exploited for present and future needs. This translates as having tools to manage waste and ensure maximum investments from resources into long term services provision in order to develop a healthy skill base to compete now and in the future globally. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term good devices question drilling methods of oil, harvesting methods of timber, trading rules and negotiations, impact of financial partnerships, environmental packages on conservation etc to ensure that the over all interest of African governments and peoples should be the focus of these instruments. This incidentally may boost up pro-poor tools as poverty reduction and transition into wealth is vital to African Sustainable Development. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Long term good and Eco-friendly devices continues… <ul><li>Eco-friendly is a term that speaks for itself. When interventions consider and ensure preserving biodiversity and cultural diversity now and for the future, they impact on natural resource management and community participation or benefits from tools. This installs a spirit to create real benefits for the poor and not the stipends they now benefit. However there must be elaborate planning, political will and transparent institutions to analyze partnerships and businesses for African Sustainable Development. </li></ul><ul><li>An Eco-friendly intervention will for example not allow a log of timber to be bought 10 or 20 times lower than what it will be sold out of Africa or allow Timber companies to lobby as conserving biodiversity when they don’t carry out replanting of over-exploited timber. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Socially Motivated and Entrepreneurial Devices.. <ul><li>Socially motivated devices can be economic or entrepreneurial. This approach must be encouraged in Africa as it is a transforming entity with very huge poor sub-populations still. Exclusively market devices may lead to very widening gaps between the poor and the rich if it is not moderated by social motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Social motivation therefore calls for interactive, collective and individual tools, inclusiveness of regional sub-population needs irrespective whether peoples’ participation are voluntary or involuntary in the design and implementation projects for sustainable development in Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>This can only work in a more fairer context where all tribes and cultures will be fairly treated politically, economically and socially. It demands good governance as its fuel. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Socially Motivated and Entrepreneurial Devices.. <ul><li>Access to micro-credits for the poor and vulnerable in order to boost small and medium size enterprises and permit transitions into the formal economies </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidizing and modernizing small scale agriculture/fisheries to be competitive and industrial. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialisation and the adding of value to primary products like wood, cocoa, oil, fish etc in Africa before export. More exports will better foreign revenue acquisition and lead to favourable balance of payment. It will create employment and increase spending within emergent middle classes vital for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and image branding Africa as a veritable partner for business and not the cradle of unsustainable wars will increase cash flows and investments into Africa. This will be best with good governance and reform of financial institutions into more business and accountable systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Education on business strategies across sub-populations is vital. Business universities and capacity building training on relevant development based subjects must be accessible in African institutions in order to build a skill base necessary for sustainable development and growth. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strategic Research, Planning and Management <ul><li>Strategic research takes time and resources to find out best tools and policies for Africa while ensuring the tools also reflect the interests of African people and the protection of resources now and in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic planning ensures that strategic research is modelled into possible positive long term devices that will assuage needs now and also provide for future needs. Strategic planning translates into effective implementation and evaluation devices that are pro-African, pro-poor, people-based, entrepreneurial, eco-friendly, technologically geared, socially motivated, participatory and fair. It leads to strategic management device for Africa </li></ul><ul><li>A strategic management device is not only long term thinking and planning but having the capacities to compete globally and to adapt to changes in technologies or population pressures. It means having ICTs and financial institutions and regulatory bodies that can match the strategies coming from out of Africa. It means making Africa heard in the politico-economic Global Economy and having elaborate collaborative devices to arrive there. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strategic Research, Planning and Management Continues… <ul><li>The inference from strategic research, planning and management is that Africa must be prepared to resist shocks and stresses now and in the future. It also intimates that present instruments like MDGs or conservation approaches that have not greatly worked or are being extended give reason to question the research, planning, implementation used hence the strategic content of the devices so far. </li></ul><ul><li>This is not to say MDGs have not worked in some few places but it only reiterates the need to understand if conflicts in resource rich areas are too accidental to be coincidences or whether success is relative to economic interests of certain stakeholders or whether the research, planning and delivery was originally sick in the first place. Were these tools strategic? </li></ul><ul><li>Real Strategic Research, planning and Management of African development is thus vital for sustainable development. Real tools give new ways to fight in crises and do not totally crumble. That has been the case during the Global Economic Downturn as America and European nations seem to have unique tools to respond despite the tasks. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Proven Unbiased Research and Planning (PURP) <ul><li>This refers to research that has been objectively reviewed to be free of the meddling or interests of donor countries, business groups, powerful nations and non-governmental organizations, investors etc that seek to empower their institutions or succeed in their own strategic devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically aid –dependent economies seem to lack such objective reviews or are pressured not to have hence the reason why the new notion of “dead aid” seems to be gaining grounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Proven unbiased Research and Planning can only work if Africa develops institutions within and outside government that are credible and accepted to work for the interests of Africa. It calls for more independent parliaments, civil society, scholars, universities and research institutions, freedom of expression and democracy, good governance and the embedding of technologies for maximum use towards African Sustainable Development. Africa must learn from advanced economies while maintaining her cultural and regional integrity. So has been the case of many Asian countries. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Technological approaches and Global and Regional Standards <ul><li>Africa must link various sectors of her economies in order to get a broader and more rapid picture of how it functions. As of now there are so many divides. </li></ul><ul><li>There are mobile-divides in the phone sector between the rich and poor, the rural and urban entrepreneurs etc. Other divides are found in transportation where rural and urban areas are cut off hence preventing smooth flow of goods and services to and from regions. Infrastructural divides lead to uneven development, discontent and strife between sub-populations. It instigates conflict supporters from within and outside. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Technological approaches and Global and Regional Standards Continues <ul><li>It leads to uneven access to health care, utilities, education or even sustainable development within countries hence the need to empower communities by introducing access and affordability of all technologies at all levels as a right for Africans and not a privilege. African governments must recognize Global Standards in the provision and use of these devices while understanding the Regional standards and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>African Regional Standards in the use of ICTs are low hence it should be the strategic interests of governments to improve on access and to negotiate on better service partnerships with providers than what prevails today marked by slow internet services, expensive phone services with limited applications etc </li></ul><ul><li>Also technologies are in themselves innovative and mastering them puts countries in levels that they can understand and compete with forces coming with more advanced strategies from outside. A little example is seen in African countries that have yet to go out of analogue TV while Europe enjoys 3 D today. While global standards cannot be the same every where efforts must be done to make sure they are fairly the same. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Local Ownership of Basic Services… <ul><li>Africa must own the creation and delivery of basic services as logically she is closest to her peoples and she is also the nearest to benefit if her sub-populations have access to these services. </li></ul><ul><li>Without this ownership instruments towards these vital services will be designed from outside hence mediated by the politics and economics of the providers. To understand this point two pictures can be painted: </li></ul><ul><li>If Africa owned health care how much will it save from not being wholly dependent on foreign health products? </li></ul><ul><li>If Africa owned her security provision how much will it save from not spending on military services from outside? </li></ul><ul><li>While it can hardly own these factors today, it is suggested that Africa improves on their ownership to have en enabling secure environment for her strategic sustainable development. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Possible Difficulties on the road to African Sustainable Development <ul><li>The definition of sustainable Development remains diverse and users of the concept have added corporate sustainability to its meaning. The latter does not always guarantee efficient use of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Another issue comes from a question of who actually benefits from sustainable development? Is it countries that depleted their environment already and are enjoying the goods of industrialisation or poor remote countries?. “Does Africa benefit as much as it conserves her resources?” is another question raised. </li></ul><ul><li>Also embedded poverty affects transition into sustainable development in Africa. Governments spend too much on poverty while neglecting modernization. Many countries are also indebted from loans and spend their GDP paying loans instead of investing on strategies for sustainable development and strategic management of Africa, her peoples and her resources. This has raised issues on whether aid is still a lynch pin or a tool for development. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Possible Difficulties on the road to African Sustainable Development…. <ul><li>Another issue is having a right balance between the need for Africa to develop sustainably and current emergencies like poverty, malnutrition, drought and the fallouts of climate change or between the business strategies of western countries, emergent countries and the plights of African peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Many technologies remain expensive and unaffordable hence defying suggestions about the vulgarization of technologies to meet Africa’s future needs today. If technologies are expensive embedding becomes slow and uneven hence affecting future use and encouraging continual dependencies in Africa not technological independence advocated by sustainable development. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the lack of political will, corruption, transparent institutions and lack of access to basic services like education, health care, basic utilities or even security affect negatively an enabling environment for African Sustainable Development. This scenario must be overturned for change and success. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Africa needs rights-based, inclusive, participatory, pro-poor, eco-friendly, strategic, economic and interest-based approaches to sustainable development. </li></ul><ul><li>These approaches can only work in a highly technological, innovative, transparent, politically and economically motivated environment or sub-environments in Africa. This is possible when biological diversity and cultural diversity are put in focus in development interventions and when Africa understands the interests of other stakeholders within and outside Africa towards her sustainable development. Knowing can only be possible in an educated and healthy society where there is the guarantee of rights and access to benefits that flow from resources. This setting needs good governance for fuel. It needs understanding the agendas of all stakeholders including donors, investors, conservators, countries, international Non-Governmental Organizations, foreign and regional governments are understood based on unbiased strategic research, strategic planning , implementation and evaluation of devices aimed at African Sustainable Development. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Bibliography <ul><li>United Nations. 1987. &quot;Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development.&quot; General Assembly Resolution 42/187, 11 December 1987. Retrieved: 2007-04-12 </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, Charles ; Rees, Gareth (1998). Economic Development, 2nd edition . Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN   0333722280 . </li></ul><ul><li>Stivers, R. 1976. The Sustainable Society: Ethics and Economic Growth. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Daly, H. E. 1973. Towards a Steady State Economy. San Francisco: Freeman. Daly, H. E. 1991. Steady-State Economics (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Island Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Ott, K. (2003). &quot;The Case for Strong Sustainability.&quot; In: Ott, K. & P. Thapa (eds.) (2003). Greifswald’s Environmental Ethics. Greifswald: Steinbecker Verlag Ulrich Rose. ISBN 3931483320 . Retrieved on: 2009-02-16. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bibliography <ul><li>Adams, W.M. (2006). &quot;The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century.&quot; Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 29–31 January 2006. Retrieved on: 2009-02-16. </li></ul><ul><li>UCN. 2006. The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century. Report of the IUCN Renowned Thinkers Meeting, 29–31 January 2006 http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>2005 World Summit Outcome Document , World Health Organization , 15 September 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Will Allen. 2007. &quot;Learning for Sustainability: Sustainable Development.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Arrey.I.M. 2010 “Key Elements of Strategic Management.” http://community.eldis.org/.59dda754 </li></ul><ul><li>Arrey I.M. 2010 “An Arrey Mbongaya Ivo film on Good Governance.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDuTbPgyh-0 </li></ul><ul><li>Arrey I.M. 2010 AN ARREY MBONGAYA IVO CHAT WITH A GAMBIAN MINISTER PART 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_IGBnvKGEk </li></ul>
  27. 27. ©2010 African Centre for Community and Development. All rights reserved. <ul><li>African Centre for Community and Development </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.africancentreforcommunity.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/user/AfricanCentreforCom </li></ul>

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