Can edible Frogs help? Author: Arrey Mbongaya Ivo African Centre for Community and Development  http://youtube.com/user/Af...
Introduction <ul><li>There are over 6000 known amphibian species including frogs and tadpoles. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of t...
Some Edible European and American Frogs <ul><li>The  Edible Frog  ( Pelophylax  kl.  esculentus )is a name for a common Eu...
Pictures of some Edible Frogs
Some Edible African Frogs include: <ul><li>African Tiger Frog  Hoplobatrachus occipitalis  the most frequently eaten speci...
Some Edible African Frogs Include <ul><li>The largest frog  Conraua goliath . An adult can reach lengths of one foot from ...
Pictures of Some Edible African Frog species including the Goliath and Hairy Frogs
Why Frogs can help poor and vulnerable peoples… <ul><li>Firstly most poor people in Africa have limited access to proteins...
Why Frogs can help poor and vulnerable peoples… <ul><li>Frogs are fast breeders and lay millions of eggs. Their reproducti...
Why Frogs can help poor and vulnerable peoples… <ul><li>Most vulnerable countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily impact...
Some statistics on Frogs in Africa… <ul><li>According to Traffic “ In Burkina Faso, almost all frogs collected were consum...
Some statistics on edible Frogs can be accessed on the links to documents below: <ul><li>On Indonesia:  http://eprints.jcu...
Some Issues to Consider <ul><li>Firstly like any other species it will be vital to consider whether rate of exploitation o...
Conclusion <ul><li>Edible frogs have a huge potential to be alternatives to inaccessible proteins among the vulnerable sub...
References <ul><li>Herrmann, H.-W., W. Böhme, P.A. Herrmann, M. Plath, A. Schmitz, and M. Solbach. 2005. African biodivers...
About the Author <ul><li>Arrey Mbongaya Ivo (left) </li></ul><ul><li>Director of African Centre for Community and Developm...
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Can Edible Frogs Help By Arrey Mbongaya Ivo

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Here, Arrey Mbongaya Ivo of African Centre for Community (hhtp://www.africancentreforcommunity.com) concentrates on the potentials of using edible frogs to increase access to proteins and improve food security in Cameroon and developing countries.

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Can Edible Frogs Help By Arrey Mbongaya Ivo

  1. 1. Can edible Frogs help? Author: Arrey Mbongaya Ivo African Centre for Community and Development http://youtube.com/user/AfricanCentreforCom http://www.africancentreforcommunity.com http://community.eldis.org/falcazo Copyrights2010 African Centre for Community and Development. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>There are over 6000 known amphibian species including frogs and tadpoles. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these species are found worldwide and are native to areas like Europe and Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Known species are also widely used as pets and are eaten by many people in countries like France as frog legs and in many African countries including Cameroon and Nigeria. </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation focuses on the potential benefits of using edible frogs to improve access to proteins among the poor and vulnerable and guarantee food security in countries with embedded poverty in Africa. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some Edible European and American Frogs <ul><li>The Edible Frog ( Pelophylax kl. esculentus )is a name for a common European frog, also known as the common water frog or green frog (however, this latter term is also used for the North American species Lithobates clamitans ). It is used for food, particularly in France for the delicacy frogs' legs. Females are between 5 to 9 cm long, males between 6 to 11 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>Pelophylax esculentus is the fertile hybrid of the Pool Frog ( Pelophylax lessonae ) and the Marsh Frog ( Pelophylax ridibundus ), hence the addition of the &quot;kl.&quot; (for or ) in the species name </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pictures of some Edible Frogs
  5. 5. Some Edible African Frogs include: <ul><li>African Tiger Frog Hoplobatrachus occipitalis the most frequently eaten species. </li></ul><ul><li>The Edible Bullfrog (Pyxicephalus edulis) is a species of frog in the Ranidae ... Burkina Faso , Central African Republic , Chad </li></ul><ul><li>Hairy Frog, Trichobatrachus robustus eaten in Cameroon </li></ul>
  6. 6. Some Edible African Frogs Include <ul><li>The largest frog Conraua goliath . An adult can reach lengths of one foot from snout to butt. This species, as well as its slightly smaller cousin, Conraua robusta , are eaten in many places in southern and western Cameroon (Lawson 1993; Herrmann et al. 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>The Fulbe of Mt. Manengouba catch Kassina maculata in the grass surrounding the mountain’s crater lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people in southwestern Cameroon have been reported to eat tadpoles of the genus Leptodactylodon </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pictures of Some Edible African Frog species including the Goliath and Hairy Frogs
  8. 8. Why Frogs can help poor and vulnerable peoples… <ul><li>Firstly most poor people in Africa have limited access to proteins vital to improve resilience to shocks and stresses imposed by diseases like HIV/AIDS, Malaria etc. Farming frogs in a huge scale will supplement their deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Frog farming can create employment and can generate incomes to individuals and communities especially as many advanced economies like France and China consume frogs as delicacies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why Frogs can help poor and vulnerable peoples… <ul><li>Frogs are fast breeders and lay millions of eggs. Their reproductive biology permits them to be farmed in huge quantities. Worth noting is the fact that tadpoles have been said to be very palatable among some communities in South Western Cameroon. </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs farming can divert dependence on threatened forest animals like apes in countries like Cameroon. This will better conservation and reduce drive towards palm monocultures for red oil. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why Frogs can help poor and vulnerable peoples… <ul><li>Most vulnerable countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily impacted by the negative incidences of climate change like irregular rains, flash floods, droughts, low yields etc. They need alternative food productions to achieve food security. </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs have medicinal value. They are used as traditional medicine in many African and Asian communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs can be sold as pets in many countries in the West. The Goliath frogs have been known to cost as much as $US 3000 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Some statistics on Frogs in Africa… <ul><li>According to Traffic “ In Burkina Faso, almost all frogs collected were consumed locally, with the African Tiger Frog Hoplobatrachus occipitalis the most frequently eaten species. Frogs are usually sold to market traders who fry the specimens before sale. Villagers in the Ganzourgou region also eat toads, which are first skinned, beheaded, washed then dried to avoid the toxic skin secretions. In Benin and Nigeria, frogs are transported to south-west of Nigeria for sale. Thirty-two traders between them handled around 2.7 million frogs per year, most originating from the northern savannah regions of Nigeria and from neighboring Benin, Chad and Niger. In Malanville, Benin, frogs are collected exclusively for the Nigerian market. There, many fishermen have recently switched to catching frogs, not because of higher profits, but because frogs can be sold in batches, providing a lump sum of income—around USD20 per sack. Increasing numbers of collectors from Nigeria are visiting the area to collect frogs. The authors accompanied a 30-strong team who between them caught around 450,000 (450 full sacks) of frogs during a two-month stay in Malanville”. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Some statistics on edible Frogs can be accessed on the links to documents below: <ul><li>On Indonesia: http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/1118/1/01front.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>On Madagascar: http://tropicalconservationscience.mongabay.com/content/v2/09-03-23_jenkins_et_al_25-33.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>On the fatty mineral composition and market value of frogs: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a779341062 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some Issues to Consider <ul><li>Firstly like any other species it will be vital to consider whether rate of exploitation or the availability of particular species tally. Over-exploitation may lead to extinction and a loss of livelihoods dependent on frog species for wellbeing. </li></ul><ul><li>More over, farming frogs with high external inputs might lead to intoxication of farmers and families, mutate species and affect water systems if farming is on natural ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides keeping and selling frogs should be looked in a holistic way. Micro and macro socio-economic considerations must be studied to establish frogs as a viable weapon for poverty alleviation and improving wellbeing among vulnerable communities </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>Edible frogs have a huge potential to be alternatives to inaccessible proteins among the vulnerable sub-populations. They are palatable and rich in vitamins. </li></ul><ul><li>They have an increasing market value which makes them a source of income for poor households affected by diseases like HIV/AIDS etc </li></ul><ul><li>They are widely consumed in Sub-Saharan Africa embedded in poverty (Hall and Midgley, 2004) hence can be a viable tool for food security in the region </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Herrmann, H.-W., W. Böhme, P.A. Herrmann, M. Plath, A. Schmitz, and M. Solbach. 2005. African biodiversity hotspots: the amphibians of Mt. Nlonako, Cameroon. Salamandra 41: 61-81. </li></ul><ul><li>Lawson, D.P. 1993. The reptiles and amphibians of the Korup National Park Project, Cameroon. Herpetological Natural History 1: 27-90. </li></ul><ul><li>Pauwels, O.S.G., M.-O. Rödel, and A.K. Toham. 2003. Leptopelis notatus (Anura: Hyperoliidae) in the Massif du Chaillu, Gabon: from ethnic wars to soccer. Hamadryad 27: 271-273. </li></ul>
  16. 16. About the Author <ul><li>Arrey Mbongaya Ivo (left) </li></ul><ul><li>Director of African Centre for Community and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant on Project and Programmes for Development, FDIs, Livelihoods etc </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtube.com/user/AfricanCentreforCom </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.africancentreforcommunity.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://community.eldis.org/falcazo </li></ul><ul><li>Copyrights2010 African Centre for Community and Development. All rights reserved. </li></ul>

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