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Clearing the Confusion: Life Safety, Fire and Smoke Barriers

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Marsha Whitt shared her knowledge on uses and requirements of smoke partitions, fire barriers and smoke barriers.

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Clearing the Confusion: Life Safety, Fire and Smoke Barriers

  1. 1. NOVEMBER 20, 2014 Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers
  2. 2. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 2 COURSE TITLE CLEARING THE CONFUSION PURPOSE: To provide the attendees with a clear and concise summary of the uses and requirements for smoke partitions, fire barriers, and smoke barriers, as well as basic fire door / frame and hardware requirements.
  3. 3. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 3 Introduction Smoke Partitions - Defined, Illustrated & their Utilization Fire Barriers – Defined, Illustrated, & their Utilization Smoke Barriers – Defined, Illustrated & their Utilization Fire Door, Frame, and Hardware – Defined, Illustrated & their Utilization Conclusion Question / Answer Session AGENDA COURSE OUTLINE
  4. 4. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 4 Marsha Whitt RID, AAHID, EDAC Principal, Regional VP, Southwest Region Project Manager, Project Planner & Construction Administrator Marsha and Shane have an extensive working history spanning over the past 20 years. Their project experience encompasses many types of healthcare facilities ranging from small Clinical Suites to Greenfield Hospitals in excess of a million square feet. PRESENTERS Shane Williams AIA, ACHA, NCARB, LGB Principal, Practice Area Leader - Design Project Executive, Project Designer & Project Planner
  5. 5. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 5 FIRM PROFILE Array Architects is a 30-year old healthcare-only design firm with a nation-wide presence. Array offers a full complement of knowledge-based services founded in a Lean process led approach including planning, architecture, interior design, and advisory services in all types of healthcare facilities.
  6. 6. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 6 SOUTHWEST REGION Having a local presence provides strategic partnerships and ensures we are available whenever needed. Marsha Whitt, AAHID, EDAC, NCIDQ Principal, Regional VP, Southwest Region 1910 Pacific Avenue Suite 11100 Dallas, TX 75201 o 214-939-7565 (x1602) c 817-925-9983 FIRM LOCAL PRESENCE
  7. 7. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 7 LIFE SAFETY DRAWINGS
  8. 8. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 8 SMOKE PARTITIONS, FIRE BARRIERS, SMOKE BARRIERS AS SHOWN IN ARCHITECTURAL PLAN – PARTITION TYPES SHEET
  9. 9. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 9 SMOKE PARTITIONS, FIRE BARRIERS, SMOKE BARRIERS AS SHOWN IN ARCHITECTURAL PLAN – GRAPHIC DESIGNATION
  10. 10. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 10 DEFINITION* / ILLUSTRATED: A smoke partition is a continuous membrane designed to form a barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. (A smoke partition should be thought of as a barrier that reasonably limits, but does not necessarily prevent, smoke transfer). 710.4 Continuity Smoke partitions shall extend from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof deck above or to the underside of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke. SMOKE PARTITIONS
  11. 11. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 11 PURPOSE / USES: Corridor Walls in Group I-2 SMOKE PARTITIONS
  12. 12. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 12 DEFINITION*: A fire barrier is a vertical or horizontal assembly that is fire-resistance rated and is designed to restrict the spread of fire, confine it to limited areas, and/or afford safe passage for protected egress. The code specifies the fire-resistance ratings of these barriers in hours (ie., 1/2 hour, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours). Fire barriers can help restrict the passage of smoke; however, they do not necessarily make an effective smoke barrier. Just because a wall is fire rated does not mean it will automatically resist smoke. FIRE BARRIERS
  13. 13. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 13 ILLUSTRATED: FIRE BARRIERS
  14. 14. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 14 PURPOSE: Separating Occupancies Isolating Hazardous Areas Creating a Horizontal Exit Enclosing an Exit Creating a Shaft FIRE BARRIERS
  15. 15. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 15 PURPOSE: Separating Occupancies Isolating Hazardous Areas Creating a Horizontal Exit Enclosing an Exit Creating a Shaft FIRE BARRIERS
  16. 16. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 16 PURPOSE: Separating Occupancies Isolating Hazardous Areas Creating a Horizontal Exit Enclosing an Exit Creating a Shaft FIRE BARRIERS
  17. 17. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 17 PURPOSE: Separating Occupancies Isolating Hazardous Areas Creating a Horizontal Exit Enclosing an Exit Creating a Shaft FIRE BARRIERS
  18. 18. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 18 PURPOSE: Separating Occupancies Isolating Hazardous Areas Creating a Horizontal Exit Enclosing an Exit Creating a Shaft FIRE BARRIERS
  19. 19. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 19 DEFINITION* / ILLUSTRATED: Smoke barriers are a prevention system designed to restrict the movement of smoke and fire gases. A smoke barrier can either consist of a wall assembly or a full enclosure. (The full enclosure consists of walls, ceilings, and floor assemblies that create a continuous smokeproof compartment). *Per the NFPA 1 Fire Code Handbook, 2012 Edition SMOKE BARRIERS
  20. 20. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 20 PURPOSE / USES: Wall Assemblies: a wall used as a smoke barrier must be continuous from outside wall to outside wall and from floor slab to floor slab. It is used mostly in Institutional occupancies between areas of refuge. Vertical Shafts: Vertical shaft enclosures for stairs, elevators, and waste and linen chutes must be smokeproof. Vestibule: any vestibule used adjacent to a smokeproof stairwell or elevator hoistway, between the shaft and the exterior exit door, must also be smokeproof. SMOKE BARRIERS
  21. 21. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 21 PURPOSE / USES: Wall Assemblies: a wall used as a smoke barrier must be continuous from outside wall to outside wall and from floor slab to floor slab. It is used mostly in Institutional occupancies between areas of refuge. Vertical Shafts: Vertical shaft enclosures for stairs, elevators, and waste and linen chutes must be smokeproof. Vestibule: any vestibule used adjacent to a smokeproof stairwell or elevator hoistway, between the shaft and the exterior exit door, must also be smokeproof. SMOKE BARRIERS
  22. 22. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 22 PURPOSE / USES: Allow open treatment plan without corridor doors, and latching. Inpatient Sleeping Suite more than 1,000 square feet require two exits remote from each other. Non Sleeping Suite more than 2,500 square feet require two exits remote from each other. 100’ to exit from suite and 200’ to an exit. 50’ if there is an intervening room. SUITES
  23. 23. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 23 COMPARISON CHART FIRE BARRIER SMOKE BARRIER SMOKE PARTITION Shall have 1/2 to 3 hour fire resistant construction – enclosures for shafts, exit access stairways, exit access ramps, interior exit ramps, exit passageway walls, isolating hazardous areas, and separating occupancies Shall be one hour fire resistant construction (with the exception of some atrium separation walls) – wall assemblies, vertical shafts, and vestibules; constructed in the same manner as the equivalent fire barriers Does not need to be one hour fire resistant construction – corridor walls in I-2 occupancies (IBC only) Smoke Barriers form compartments (areas of refuge); can be comprised of both walls & ceiling/floor assemblies Smoke Partitions form corridors Shall be continuous to the floor / roof deck above Shall be continuous from outside wall to outside wall; must continue to the floor / roof deck above Shall extend from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof deck above; can stop at a ceiling that limits the transfer of smoke Fire protection rated dampers are required in ducts that penetrate fire barriers with a fire resistance greater than one hour Requires smoke (not fire/smoke) dampers for ducted and unducted openings, unless the ducted opening only serves one smoke compartment Only requires smoke dampers for unducted air transfer openings Do not necessarily make an effective smoke barrier Restricts the movement of smoke Limits the transfer of smoke (are not as substantial as smoke barriers)
  24. 24. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 24 DEFINITION* / KEY INFO: FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY 3.3.50 - Any combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 5.2.1 – Fire door assemblies shall be inspected and tested not less than annually, and a written record shall be signed and kept for inspection by the AHJ. 703.2 - Fire door assemblies shall not be modified.
  25. 25. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 25 ANNUAL INSPECTION: FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY 5.2.4.2 – As a minimum, the following items shall be verified: No open holes or breaks exist in surface Glazing, vision light frames & glazing beads are intact The door, frame, hinges, hardware & noncombustible threshold are secured, aligned, and in working order No parts are missing or broken The self-closing devise is operational If a coordinator is installed, the inactive leaf closes before active leaf. Latching hardware operates & secures the door when it is in the closed position Auxiliary hardware items that interfere or prohibit operation are not installed No parts are missing or broken No field modifications to the door have been performed Gasketing and edge seals are inspected
  26. 26. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 26 DEFINED* / KEY INFO: FIRE DOORS 3.3.49 - The door component of a fire door assembly. 4.1.1 – Fire doors shall be classified by designating a required fire protection rating expressed in hours or fractions thereof. 703.2 – Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. 703.2.3 – Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and latch automatically. The door closer shall exert enough force to close & latch the door from any partially open position. 9.3 – Clearances at the lintel, jambs, & meeting stiles shall not exceed 1/8 inch.
  27. 27. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 27 DEFINED* / KEY INFORMATION: FIRE DOOR FRAMES 3.3.51 - A component forming the perimeter of an opening in a fire door assembly that is supplied welded or knocked down and anchored to the surrounding structure. All fire-rated door assemblies must have a frame that is labeled as a fire- rated frame. Unlike fire-rated doors, there are no specific hourly ratings called out on a basic fire door frame as they are rated for 3 hours. If the frame is rated for something less than 3 hours, then the frame labeling must specifically state the rated hours.
  28. 28. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 28 COMPONENTS / KEY INFO: Hinges Latching Devices Fire Exit Hardware Closing Devices Hold Open Devices Note: Fire door assemblies are rated; fire hardware is listed. FIRE DOOR HARDWARE
  29. 29. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 29 COMPONENTS / KEY INFO: Hinges - a labeled fire door must be hung on steel bearing-type hinges or spring hinges; (6.4.3.1.1.2 - where spring hinges are used, at least two shall be provided) - Bearing type knuckles on hinges provide smooth operation and minimize wear throughout the lifetime of the opening FIRE DOOR HARDWARE
  30. 30. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 30 COMPONENTS / KEY INFO: Latching Devices 3.3.84 – A spring-loaded latch bolt or a gravity-operated steel bar that, after release by physical action, returns to its operating position and automatically engages the strike plate when it is returned to the closed position. -Every swinging fire door must have a labeled automatic latching device to engage the strike -The minimum latch bolt length is indicated on the fire door label FIRE DOOR HARDWARE
  31. 31. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 31 COMPONENTS / KEY INFO: Fire Exit Hardware 3.3.55 – Labeled devices for swinging fire doors installed to facilitate safe egress of persons and generally consisting of a crossbar & various types of latch mechanisms that cannot hold the latch in a retracted locked position. -Exit devices may only be used on doors that are specifically labeled “Fire Door To Be Used with Fire Exit Hardware.” (Door must be properly reinforced for fire exit devices). - Exit devices have size and hourly rating restrictions, and must be properly labeled and identified as fire exit hardware. FIRE DOOR HARDWARE
  32. 32. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 32 COMPONENTS / KEY INFO: Closing Devices 3.3.26 – A means of closing a door from the partially or fully opened position. -Must be properly sized -Either spring hinges or a listed door closer is required 8.4.1.1 – Doors shall be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices to ensure that they shall close or be closed at the time of a fire. FIRE DOOR HARDWARE
  33. 33. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 33 COMPONENTS / KEY INFO: Hold Open Devices -Electromagnetic release devices will close quickly enough to prevent the passage of toxic gases and smoke -Devices are activated by electronic detectors that sense smoke and/or the products of combustion. FIRE DOOR HARDWARE
  34. 34. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 34 Summary In Healthcare, we defend in place. Patients are typically not ambulatory. They can be placed on ventilators and other equipment that hinders quick movement of beds. This also places caregivers at risk. Care must be taken in ensuring that healthcare facilities meet life safety standards. CONCLUSION
  35. 35. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 35 International Building Code, 2009 Edition International Fire Code, 2009 Edition NFPA 80, 2013 Edition NFPA 1 Fire Code Handbook, 2012 Edition SDI Technical Data Series – SDI 118-1 REFERENCES
  36. 36. Oklahoma Association of Healthcare Engineers November 20, 2014 * Page 36 QUESTIONS ANSWERS

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