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FARMERS’ TRAINING
Diseases and Insect Pests
ARUN KUMAR
Former Principal Scientist, CAZRI, Jodhpur, India
Diseases 14.1%
Insects 10.2%
Weeds 12.2%
Total av. looses 36.5%
ESTIMATED ANNUAL LOSSES WORLDWIDE
DUE TO DISEASES
Losses a...
• The disease triangle: plant, pathogen and
the environment
Disease
Susceptible Host
Favorableenvironment
Virulent
Pathogen
HEALTHY AND DISEASED PLANT
• A plant is considered healthy if it
functions to the best of its genetic ability
• When a pla...
SYMPTOMS OF PLANT DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGI
Alternaria leaf spot Cercospora leaf spot Powdery mildew
Downy mildew Leaf Blas...
SYMPTOMS OF BACTERIAL DISEASES
Citrus canker by Xanthomonas citri Angular leaf spot of cotton
Lima bean spot
NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY IN PLANTS
Iron deficiency in maize Zinc deficiency in tomato
Types of malformations with a healthy ear head (extreme left)
Infected plant showing asexual sporulation as half-leaf symp...
SPHACELOTHECA- COVERED KERNEL SMUT
 Teliospores of S. sorghi are
seed-borne and germinate
within the seed.
 Seedling pla...
USTILAGO-THE SMUTS
 Plant is systemically
infected, looks normal till
ears appear
 Seeds covered with thin
layer, which ...
ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT
 Most characteristic symptom is brown or dark spots
on older leaves.
 The circular to angular spots...
DISEASE CAUSING AGENTS
Non Infectious diseases
• Diseases caused by low or high
temperature
• Diseases caused by lack or excess soil
water
• Dise...
Bacterial Diseases
• Bacterial galls: In some cases, toxic materials
are produced that cause plant tissues of roots,
stems...
Disease Development
• Infections occur through leaf scars and wounds. These
give rise to small cankers in which the bacter...
Viruses
• Viruses are "submicroscopic" entities that infect
individual host plant cells.
• Viruses are obligate parasites:...
Viral Diseases
• > 400 viruses infect plants; few are
economically important pathogens
• The infection remains forever
• V...
Virus Disease Symptoms
Four types of major
symptoms :
1. Lack of chlorophyll formation
in normally green organs
2. Stuntin...
Plant Pathology: The Practice
• Some plant disease makes the plant
poisonous to humans and animals such
as ergot of rye, p...
FUNGI AS RESOURCEFUNGI AS RESOURCE
 Fungi constitute largely
unexploited resource
 Strains of fungi maintained in
cultur...
FERMENTED FOODSTUFFS / DRINKSFERMENTED FOODSTUFFS / DRINKS
 In Asia many
fermented foodstuffs
and drinks are based
on fun...
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONSBIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
FOOD FOR MANFOOD FOR MAN
 Mushrooms grown in pastures and
fore...
EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
Podaxis pistillaris
Phellorinia inquinansMorchella sp.
Pleurotus sajor-caju
ANTIBIOTIC INDUSTRYANTIBIOTIC INDUSTRY
Antibiotic is a chemical, effective at
very low concentration, produced by
or deriv...
INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS
CHEMICAL
Aspergillus niger Citric and gluconic
acid
Eremothecium ashbyii Vitamins - riboflavin
Aureob...
a). Beauveria
bassiana produces
creamish-white
conidia alternately
on an extending tip
of a conidiophore
b). Metarhizium
a...
Sporulation of Beauveria on green
cockchafer beetle
Metarhizium spores on locust
Beauveria bassiana on leaf
hopper h
Metar...
BIOCONTROL OF PLANT DISEASESBIOCONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES
FUNGUS PLANT DISEASE
Trichoderma
harzianum
Leaf blights, wilts, r...
Trichoderma Colonizing Fungal
Mycelium
BIOFERTILIZER FOR FORESTRY AND ORCHID INDUSTRYBIOFERTILIZER FOR FORESTRY AND ORCHID INDUSTRY
Sclerocystis microcarpa Gigas...
ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT
PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA
Bacterial wilt of egg plant Bacterial canker &
gumming in Prunus sp.
R
S
R
R
Exposed cambium
necrotic, discolored area
USEFUL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
Taxon Function
Agrobacterium
radiobacter
Biological control, Biodegradation
of Atrazine
A. tume...
PLANT PATHOGENSPLANT PATHOGENS
VIRUSESVIRUSES
TULIPOTULIPOMANIAMANIA
SYMPTOMS OF VIRAL DISEASES
MAJOR DISEASE SYMPTOMS ARE
• Leaf yellowing (either of the whole leaf
or in a pattern of stripe...
LEAF CURL OF CHILLI (LCD)
Disease is caused by
Begomovirus (ChiLCuV)
The disease is transmitted
by insect vectors such as
...
GOLDEN YELLOW BEAN MOSAIC OF MOTHBEAN
(Vigna aconitifolia )
There are two types of infections: localized and systemic.
In ...
3. Transmission Through Vectors
(i). Insects: Some insect species are the vector of
plant viruses which can carry/ transmi...
(ii) Nematodes
Five genera of nematodes viz., Xiphinema,
Longidorus, Paralongidorus, Trichodorus
and Paratrichodorus can t...
4. Dodder transmission
Many viruses can be transmitted through dodder
(Cuscuta spp.). Dodder transmission is used in the
l...
• The multicolor effects of
intricate lines and flame-
like streaks on the petals
were vivid and spectacular
and made them...
PLANT PATHOGENSPLANT PATHOGENS
MYCOPLASMA (MLO)MYCOPLASMA (MLO)
SUBJECT EXPERT
Dr. ARUN KUMARDr. ARUN KUMAR
PART-IVPART-IV
• Several hundred important food, vegetable,
and fruit crops; ornamental plants; and
timber and shade trees are affected
•...
• Proliferation of axillary buds/shoots changing
in “witches’ broom” symptoms
• Sterility of flowers
• Abnormal internode ...
Empoasca fabae
INSECT VECTORS OF MLOs
Nephotettix
cincticeps
SESAMUM PHYLLODY
2nd
& 4th
from left healthy
Sesamum Phyllody in severity
Little leaf disease of Eggplant or Brinjal
First reported from India by Thomas and Krishnaswami in 1939
MYCOPLASMA LIKE ORGANISMS
Electron micrographs of cross sections of sieve tubes
showing variations in the size and shape o...
PLANT PATHOGENSPLANT PATHOGENS
Phanerogamic Parasites
SUBJECT EXPERT
Dr. ARUN KUMARDr. ARUN KUMAR
PART- IVPART- IV
LORANTH...
 It is non chlorophyllous, leaf less
parasitic seed plant
 It is yellow, pink or orange in colour
and attached to the ho...
CUSCUTA / DODDER
CUCUTA FLOWERS
FRUITS OF CUSCUTA
SEVERE INFESTATION OF DODDER
OROBANCHE
Lauki-Mula
Striga hermonthica parasitising sorghum crop
THANKS
Farmers' Training- Insect Pest and  Crop Diseases
Farmers' Training- Insect Pest and  Crop Diseases
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Farmers' Training- Insect Pest and Crop Diseases

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This presentation will help subject matter specialists and educated farmers of English knowing areas of the world in managing crop diseases and their insect pests.

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Farmers' Training- Insect Pest and Crop Diseases

  1. 1. FARMERS’ TRAINING Diseases and Insect Pests ARUN KUMAR Former Principal Scientist, CAZRI, Jodhpur, India
  2. 2. Diseases 14.1% Insects 10.2% Weeds 12.2% Total av. looses 36.5% ESTIMATED ANNUAL LOSSES WORLDWIDE DUE TO DISEASES Losses are more in developing world and less in developed world PART I- (A) IMPORTANCE OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
  3. 3. • The disease triangle: plant, pathogen and the environment Disease Susceptible Host Favorableenvironment Virulent Pathogen
  4. 4. HEALTHY AND DISEASED PLANT • A plant is considered healthy if it functions to the best of its genetic ability • When a plant function is interfered by a microorganism or environmental factor the plant becomes diseased • The visible changes are expressed in the form of symptoms or signs in a diseased plant
  5. 5. SYMPTOMS OF PLANT DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGI Alternaria leaf spot Cercospora leaf spot Powdery mildew Downy mildew Leaf Blast Ergot Stem rust
  6. 6. SYMPTOMS OF BACTERIAL DISEASES Citrus canker by Xanthomonas citri Angular leaf spot of cotton Lima bean spot
  7. 7. NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY IN PLANTS Iron deficiency in maize Zinc deficiency in tomato
  8. 8. Types of malformations with a healthy ear head (extreme left) Infected plant showing asexual sporulation as half-leaf symptom. DOWNY MILDEW DISEASE OF PEARL MILLET
  9. 9. SPHACELOTHECA- COVERED KERNEL SMUT  Teliospores of S. sorghi are seed-borne and germinate within the seed.  Seedling plants are infected, but symptoms generally are not apparent until heading.  Smutted ovaries are covered by a thick membrane  Seedling infection by sporidia produced by teleutospores present on seed or in the soil
  10. 10. USTILAGO-THE SMUTS  Plant is systemically infected, looks normal till ears appear  Seeds covered with thin layer, which ruptures to disperse black sooty mass of teleutospores  In case of corn the fungus forms galls on all above- ground parts wheat Corn
  11. 11. ALTERNARIA LEAF SPOT  Most characteristic symptom is brown or dark spots on older leaves.  The circular to angular spots enlarge and soon develop dark, concentric rings or ridges, giving a target-like appearance.  Spotted leaves soon turn yellow, wither, and drop.  Leaf spots are usually covered with dark, velvety spores (conidia). Guar Sesame
  12. 12. DISEASE CAUSING AGENTS
  13. 13. Non Infectious diseases • Diseases caused by low or high temperature • Diseases caused by lack or excess soil water • Diseases caused by lack or excess light • Diseases caused by lack of oxygen • Diseases caused by air pollution • Diseases caused by nutrient deficiencies • Diseases caused by mineral toxicities
  14. 14. Bacterial Diseases • Bacterial galls: In some cases, toxic materials are produced that cause plant tissues of roots, stems or leaves to grow abnormally as in crown gall. • Bacterial leaf spot disease: The bacteria usually enter through leaf stomata. • Symptoms include water-soaking, slimy texture, fishy or rotten odor, confined initially between leaf veins resulting in discrete spots that have straight sides and appear angular.
  15. 15. Disease Development • Infections occur through leaf scars and wounds. These give rise to small cankers in which the bacteria survive the winter. • Rain or water splash, and pruning tools spread the bacterium. • Bacteria overwinter in active cankers, in infected buds, and on the surface of infected and healthy trees and weeds. • The bacterium reproduces best between 21ºC and 25ºC. • Generally disease seems to be more severe after cold winters and prolonged spring rains.
  16. 16. Viruses • Viruses are "submicroscopic" entities that infect individual host plant cells. • Viruses are obligate parasites: They can only replicate themselves within a host's cell. • In the virus infected plant, production of chlorophyll may cease (chlorosis, necrosis) • Cells may either grow and divide rapidly or may grow very slowly and be unable to divide
  17. 17. Viral Diseases • > 400 viruses infect plants; few are economically important pathogens • The infection remains forever • Viruses are transmitted from plant to plant by living factors: insects, mites, fungi and nematodes • Or non-living factors: rubbing, abrasion or other mechanical means (including grafting or other forms of vegetative propagation) • Occasionally transmitted in seed.
  18. 18. Virus Disease Symptoms Four types of major symptoms : 1. Lack of chlorophyll formation in normally green organs 2. Stunting or other growth inhibition 3. Distortions 4. Necrotic areas or lesions
  19. 19. Plant Pathology: The Practice • Some plant disease makes the plant poisonous to humans and animals such as ergot of rye, pearl millet and wheat • Several fungi will make hay poisonous • May contain nematodes which carry virus • Plant disease causes great financial loss from a few % to total crop • The cost of disease control must be less than cost of crop loss
  20. 20. FUNGI AS RESOURCEFUNGI AS RESOURCE  Fungi constitute largely unexploited resource  Strains of fungi maintained in culture collections  In over 200 collections number exceeds 1 lack 70 thousand  Around 7 thousand species are represented Economic Importance of Fungi
  21. 21. FERMENTED FOODSTUFFS / DRINKSFERMENTED FOODSTUFFS / DRINKS  In Asia many fermented foodstuffs and drinks are based on fungi  This include species of Aspergillus, Monascus, Mucor and Rhizopus  Role of certain Penicillium spp. (P. camembertii and P. roquefortii) is important in cheese production
  22. 22. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONSBIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS FOOD FOR MANFOOD FOR MAN  Mushrooms grown in pastures and forests of different geographical regions  No. of species are more than 500  Around 20 spp. are currently exploited commercially (Agaricus, Lentinula, Tricholoma, Volvariella, Pleurotus etc. )
  23. 23. EDIBLE MUSHROOMS Podaxis pistillaris Phellorinia inquinansMorchella sp. Pleurotus sajor-caju
  24. 24. ANTIBIOTIC INDUSTRYANTIBIOTIC INDUSTRY Antibiotic is a chemical, effective at very low concentration, produced by or derived from certain fungi, bacteria, and other organisms, that can destroy or inhibit the growth of other micro- organisms. Antibiotics are widely used in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.
  25. 25. INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS CHEMICAL Aspergillus niger Citric and gluconic acid Eremothecium ashbyii Vitamins - riboflavin Aureobasidium pullulans Polysaccharides- pullulan Rhizomucor pusillus Penicillium roquefortii Aspergillus oryzae Enzymes - Rennin Lipase Protease Trichoderma viride Cellulase FUNGUS
  26. 26. a). Beauveria bassiana produces creamish-white conidia alternately on an extending tip of a conidiophore b). Metarhizium anisopliae produces greenish- conidia in chains from phialides Beauveria bassiana Metarhizium anisopliae
  27. 27. Sporulation of Beauveria on green cockchafer beetle Metarhizium spores on locust Beauveria bassiana on leaf hopper h Metarhizium anisopliae on bug and beetle beetles INSECT BIOCONTROLINSECT BIOCONTROL
  28. 28. BIOCONTROL OF PLANT DISEASESBIOCONTROL OF PLANT DISEASES FUNGUS PLANT DISEASE Trichoderma harzianum Leaf blights, wilts, root rot T. koningii T. pseudokoningii Foot rot, Collar rot Root and Butt rot in tree T. viride Die-back or anthracnose, LCD of Chilli Gliocladium virens Downy Mildew of pearl millet
  29. 29. Trichoderma Colonizing Fungal Mycelium
  30. 30. BIOFERTILIZER FOR FORESTRY AND ORCHID INDUSTRYBIOFERTILIZER FOR FORESTRY AND ORCHID INDUSTRY Sclerocystis microcarpa Gigaspora margaritaGlomus macrocarpum VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM Fungi) 150 species in Zygomycotina Obligate symbiotic association with agricultural,medicinal,shrubs and trees Improve plant growth and nutrient uptake(phosphorus), reduce water stress Produce growth promoters and induce resistance to plants against pathogens Role in organic farming and hardening in plant tissue culture
  31. 31. ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PHYTOPATHOGENIC BACTERIA
  32. 32. Bacterial wilt of egg plant Bacterial canker & gumming in Prunus sp. R S R R Exposed cambium necrotic, discolored area
  33. 33. USEFUL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS Taxon Function Agrobacterium radiobacter Biological control, Biodegradation of Atrazine A. tumefaciens Plasmid vector for plant transformation Erwinia amylovora Source of harpin, an elicitor of disease resistance in plants Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris Xanthan gum, a polysaccharide used in food production, agriculture, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Several plant associated bacteria Restriction endonucleases, enzymes used for specific cutting of DNA in scientific research
  34. 34. PLANT PATHOGENSPLANT PATHOGENS VIRUSESVIRUSES TULIPOTULIPOMANIAMANIA
  35. 35. SYMPTOMS OF VIRAL DISEASES MAJOR DISEASE SYMPTOMS ARE • Leaf yellowing (either of the whole leaf or in a pattern of stripes or blotches) • Leaf distortion (e.g. curling) and/or • Other growth distortions (e.g. stunting of the whole plant, abnormalities in flower or fruit formation)
  36. 36. LEAF CURL OF CHILLI (LCD) Disease is caused by Begomovirus (ChiLCuV) The disease is transmitted by insect vectors such as whitefly and thrips • Curling of upper leaves with shortened internodes • Severely infected plants produce clusters of reduced sized leaves with fewer flowers and fruits • Small sized fruits are produced with deformed seedsSmall sized fruits
  37. 37. GOLDEN YELLOW BEAN MOSAIC OF MOTHBEAN (Vigna aconitifolia ) There are two types of infections: localized and systemic. In localized infections (as shown here), the upper leaves are affected; in systemic infections, the whole plant becomes chlorotic and stunted. The virus is transmitted by whiteflies
  38. 38. 3. Transmission Through Vectors (i). Insects: Some insect species are the vector of plant viruses which can carry/ transmit viruses from infected plants to the healthy plants e.g. • aphid (potato virus Y) • white flies (tobacco/chilli leaf curl) • beetles (cowpea mosaic virus) • mealy bugs (cacao mottle leaf) • thrips (tomato spotted wilt) • lace bugs (sugar beet viruses) • mites (sterility mosaic of arhar) • leaf hoppers (beet curly top, rice tungro) • plant-hoppers (maize mosaic) • tree hopper (tomato pseudo curly top)
  39. 39. (ii) Nematodes Five genera of nematodes viz., Xiphinema, Longidorus, Paralongidorus, Trichodorus and Paratrichodorus can transmit plant viruses (iii) Fungi Some species of fungi can also transmit viruses e.g. Olpiduim brassicae (tobacco necrosis), O. cucurbitacearum (cucumber necrosis), Polymyxa graminis (oat mosaic, wheat mosaic), P. betae (beet necrotic yellow vein) and Spongospora subterranea (potato mop top) etc.
  40. 40. 4. Dodder transmission Many viruses can be transmitted through dodder (Cuscuta spp.). Dodder transmission is used in the laboratory to transfer viruses from the hosts 5. Transmission through seeds and pollens Seed coat (testa), embryo, and also pollens of some plants can transmit viruses. e.g. alfalfa mosaic, barley stripe mosaic, bean common mosaic and lettuce mosaic are transmitted by both seeds and pollens of Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Phaseolus vulgaris and Lactuca sativa, respectively.
  41. 41. • The multicolor effects of intricate lines and flame- like streaks on the petals were vivid and spectacular and made them even more exotic-looking, highly sought-after plants • Tulip breaking virus is a member of the potato virus Y group Variegated tulips was a complete mystery till 1927 when it was known that this is due to the infection of a VIRUS (Tulip break virus, Tulip mosaic virus or TBV )
  42. 42. PLANT PATHOGENSPLANT PATHOGENS MYCOPLASMA (MLO)MYCOPLASMA (MLO) SUBJECT EXPERT Dr. ARUN KUMARDr. ARUN KUMAR PART-IVPART-IV
  43. 43. • Several hundred important food, vegetable, and fruit crops; ornamental plants; and timber and shade trees are affected • Aster yellows phytoplasma causes major economic losses of vegetable crops (lettuce, carrot, and celery), ornamental plants (gladiolus, hydrangea, China aster, and purple coneflower) • Peanut and Sweet potato witches’ broom, sesame and soybean phyllody cause considerable losses of these crops in Asia MYCOPLASMA DISEASES
  44. 44. • Proliferation of axillary buds/shoots changing in “witches’ broom” symptoms • Sterility of flowers • Abnormal internode elongation • Generalized stunting with yellowing or reddening of leaves, decline and death of plant • Phytoplasmas are transmitted by insects belonging to the families- Cicadellidae, Cixidae, Psyllidae, Delphacidae and Derbidae SYMPTOMS AND TRANSMISSION Profound disturbance in the normal balance of growth regulators, leading to virescence or phyllody (green leaf- like structures instead of flowers) results in:
  45. 45. Empoasca fabae INSECT VECTORS OF MLOs Nephotettix cincticeps
  46. 46. SESAMUM PHYLLODY 2nd & 4th from left healthy
  47. 47. Sesamum Phyllody in severity
  48. 48. Little leaf disease of Eggplant or Brinjal First reported from India by Thomas and Krishnaswami in 1939
  49. 49. MYCOPLASMA LIKE ORGANISMS Electron micrographs of cross sections of sieve tubes showing variations in the size and shape of phytoplasmas infecting plants
  50. 50. PLANT PATHOGENSPLANT PATHOGENS Phanerogamic Parasites SUBJECT EXPERT Dr. ARUN KUMARDr. ARUN KUMAR PART- IVPART- IV LORANTHUS
  51. 51.  It is non chlorophyllous, leaf less parasitic seed plant  It is yellow, pink or orange in colour and attached to the host  They do not bear leaves but have minute functionless scale leaves CUSCUTA or DODDER (Amarbel)
  52. 52. CUSCUTA / DODDER
  53. 53. CUCUTA FLOWERS
  54. 54. FRUITS OF CUSCUTA
  55. 55. SEVERE INFESTATION OF DODDER
  56. 56. OROBANCHE Lauki-Mula
  57. 57. Striga hermonthica parasitising sorghum crop
  58. 58. THANKS

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