Vertebrate notes


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Vertebrate notes

  1. 1. Animal Kingdom Vertebrates Ar pit kamal Class –ix Roll no.23
  2. 2. What is a Chordate? All chor dat es have 4 basic f eat ur es t hat ar e pr esent at some point dur ing t heir lif e cycle  Hollow Ner ve Cor d – Ner ve cor d in which ner ves br anch out at r egular int er vals  Not ochor d – Long suppor t ing r od t hat r uns t hr oughout body  Phar yngeal Pouches – Pair ed st r uct ur es in t hr oat  Muscular Tail – Ext ends beyond anus Only 4-5% of animals ar e chor dat es Examples = Fish, Amphibians, Rept iles, Bir ds
  3. 3. Chordate CladogramSection 30-1 Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibians FishesNonvertebrate chordates Invertebrate ancestor
  4. 4. The Generalized Structure of a Chordate Section 30-1 Notochord Muscle segments Hollow nerve cord Anus Tail Mouth Pharyngeal pouches
  5. 5. Fish Basic Facts Fish live in near ly ever y single aquat ic habit at imaginable Fish ar e aquat ic ver t ebr at es char act er ized by f ins, scales, and gills Fish wer e t he f ir st ver t ebr at es t o evolve. Fish br ing in Oxygen r ich wat er t hr ough gills and r emove oxygen poor wat er t hr ough gill slit s Closed cir culat or y syst em Four chamber ed hear t Swim bladder cont r ols buoyancy Most ar e egg laying Most move by cont r act ing opposit e muscles (S Shaped)
  6. 6. Groups of Fish J awless Fish –  Have mout hs of sof t t issue wit h no t r ue t eet h.  Have no bones  Only ver t ebr at es wit h no ver t ebr al column as adult s  Lampr eys, Hagf ish Chondr icht hyes –  Skelet on built ent ir ely of car t ilage  Shar ks, sea r ays Ost eicht hyes –  Bony Fish  Maj or it y of f ish f all in t his or der  Car p, sea hor se, per ch, et c.
  7. 7. Lampr ey – J awless Fish Sea Ray - Chondr icht hyes Cat f ish - Ost eicht hyes Whale Shar k - Chondr icht hyes
  8. 8. Amphibians Basic Facts Amphibian = “double lif e” Live in bot h wat er and land Most lar vae ar e f ishlike; adult s ar e t er r est r ial car nivor es Lar vae r espir e t hr ough skin/ gills; Adult s use lungs Descendant s of ancest r al or ganisms t hat evolved some, not all, adapt at ions f or lif e on land Fir st appear ed 360 million year s ago Ext er nal f er t ilizat ion Closed cir culat or y syst em; t hr ee chamber ed hear t
  9. 9. The Life Cycle of a FrogSection 30-3 Adult Adults are typically ready to Frog breed in about one to two years. Young Frog eggs are laid in water and The eggs Frog undergo external fertilization. hatch into tadpoles a Fertilized Eggs few days to several weeks later. Tadpoles Tadpoles gradually grow limbs, lose their tails and gills, and become meat-eaters as they develop into terrestrial adults.
  10. 10. Section 30-3 Amphibians means “Double life” as larvæ they live in adults they live on Water Land and have special adaptations such as Bones Lungs are Ribs that allow for that allow that provide Efficient Breathing are Support and movement air protection
  11. 11. Groups of Amphibians Salamander s –  Long bodies and t ails  Adult s ar e car nivor ous  Usually live in moist woods Fr ogs and Toads –  Lack t ails  Fr ogs have long legs and ar e usually t ied t o wat er  Toads have shor t er legs and not as closely t ied t o wat er Caecilians –  Legless animals t hat bur r ow in moist soil  Have f ishlike scales
  12. 12. Spot t ed Salamander Poison Dar t Fr og Fir e Bellied Toad Caecilian
  13. 13. Reptiles Basic Facts All r ept iles have:  Dr y, scaly skin – helps pr event loss of body wat er in dr y envir onment s  Ter est r ial eggs – f ir st animals t o develop amniot ic eggs t hat didn’t need t o be deposit ed in wat er Respir e using lungs I nt er nal Fer t ilizat ion; Most ar e egg-laying Ect ot her ms – cannot int er nally r egulat e body t emper at ur e; cannot live in cold climat es Behavior cont r ols body t emp. (swimming, bur r owing, basking, et c.) Closed cir culat or y syst em; double loop; Hear t = t wo at r ia/ one or t wo vent r icles
  14. 14. Groups of Reptiles Lizar ds and Snakes  Have legs & clawed t oes (lizar ds) ext er nal ear s, moveable eyelids  Highly evolved specialized f or ms (venom) Cr ocodiles and Alligat or s  Long, t ypically br oad snout and squat appear ance  All ar e car nivor ous  Pr ot ect ive of young; car r y hat chlings in t heir mout h  Live in t r opics and subt r opics  Alligat or s live in f r eshwat er  Cr ocodiles live in f r esh or salt wat er
  15. 15. Groups of Reptiles (con.) Tur t les and Tor t oises –  All ar e shelled  Tur t les ar e aquat ic; t or t oises ar e t er r est r ial Tuat ar a –  Pr imit ive r ept iles f ound on small, r emot e islands
  16. 16. Cor al Snake Sea Tur t leGalapagos Tor t oise Tuat ar a
  17. 17. Nile Cr ocodile Nor t h Amer ican Alligat or
  18. 18. Birds Basic Facts Near ly 10,000 moder n bir d species Bir ds ar e closely r elat ed t o r ept iles (scales on legs) Have out er cover ing made of f eat her s, t wo legs used f or walking or per ching, and f or elimbs modif ied int o wings Feat her s separ at e bir ds f r om all ot her animal species Feat her s pr ovide insulat ion f or war mt h; can gener at e on body heat Beak/ Bills adapt ed t o t ype of f ood t hey eat Highly ef f icient r espir at or y syst em; lungs only exposed t o Oxygen r ich air I nt er nal f er t ilizat ion; amniot ic eggs; many mat e f or lif e
  19. 19. Section 31-2 Birds have the following adaptations to flight Efficient Efficient Strong chest Wings Feathers respiratory circulatory muscles system system which are that also that power that provide that ensure Homologous to Upward and One-way flow O2 distribution Providefront limbs in other downward wing of O2-rich air warmth to body tissues vertebrates strokes
  20. 20. Groups of Birds Mor e t han t hir t y or der s of bir ds Some of t he most common  Per ching Bir ds – lar gest or der ; many ar e songbir ds (spar r ows, cr ows, car dinals, et c.)  Bir ds of Pr ey – f ier ce pr edat or s wit h hooked bills; lar ge t alons (condor s, hawks, owls, eagles, et c.)  Her ons & Relat ives – Wade in aquat ic habit at s (st or ks, her ons, cr anes)  Ost r iches & Relat ives – f light less bir ds move by r unning or swimming (ost r iches, emus, et c.)
  21. 21. Pur ple Finch St or kRed-Tailed Hawk Emu
  22. 22. Mammals Basic Facts Fir st t r ue mammals appear ed 220 million year s ago Mammals f lour ished af t er dinosaur s became ext inct – 65 million year s ago Basic char act er ist ics  Hair  Mammar y glands – pr oduce milk t o nour ish young  Br eat he air  Four chamber ed hear t  Endot her ms – can gener at e own body heat  I nt er nal f er t ilizat ion; car e f or young
  23. 23. Section 32-2 Orders of Placental Mammals Characteristics ExamplesOrderInsectivores Long, narrow snouts, sharp Shrews, hedgehogs, moles clawsSirenians Water-dwelling, slow-moving Manatees, dugongsCetaceans Live and breed in ocean, come Whales, dolphins to surface to breatheChiropterans Winged, capable of true flight BatsRodents Single pair of long, curved incisor Mice, rats, voles, squirrels, beavers, teeth in upper and lower jaws porcupines, chinchillas
  24. 24. Section 32-2 Orders of Placental MammalsOrder Characteristics ExamplesPerissodactyls Hoofed, with an odd number of Horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses, toes on each foot zebrasCarnivores Sharp teeth and claws Tigers, hyenas, dogs, foxes, bears, raccoons, walrusesArtiodactyls Hoofed, with an even number of Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, ibex, toes on each foot giraffes, hippopotami, camelsProboscideans Trunks Asian and African elephants, mastodons and mammoths
  25. 25. Section 32-2 Orders of Placental MammalsOrder Characteristics ExamplesLagomorphs Two pairs of incisors in upper Snowshoe hares, rabbits jaw, hind legs allow leapingXenarthrans No teeth (or very small teeth in Sloths, anteaters, armadillos the back of the jaw)Primates Highly developed cerebrum and Lemurs, tarsiers, apes, gibbons, complex behaviors macaques, humans