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AAC602 APPLIED BEHAVIOUR CHANGE
Learning
Dr. Arpita Sharma Kandpal
Assistant Professor, Dept of Agril Comm, College of Ag, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar
Learning
 Learning is “a process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience
and increases the potential for improved performance and future learning”.
 Learning is the process of acquiring understanding, knowledge, behavior, skill,
values, attitude and preferences.
 The term "active learning" is often used to describe an interactive process, such as
doing a hands-on experiment to learn a concept rather than reading about it. But
"passive learning" (reading a text, listening to a lecture, watching a movie) is still
learning, and can be effective.
VARK Model
 Fleming and Mills
 Visual - Visual learners are better able to retain information when it’s presented to
them in a graphic depiction, such as arrows, charts, diagrams, symbols, and more.
 Auditory - Sometimes referred to as “aural” learners, auditory learners prefer
listening to information that is presented to them vocally. These learners work well
in group settings where vocal collaboration is present and may enjoy reading aloud
to themselves, too.
 Reading & Writing - Focusing on the written word, reading and writing learners
succeed with written information on worksheets, presentations, and other text-
heavy resources. These learners are note-takers and perform strongly when they
can reference written text.
 Kinesthetic - Taking a physically active role, kinesthetic learners are hands-on and
thrive when engaging all of their senses during course work. These learners tend to
work well in scientific studies due to the hands-on lab component of the course.
Factors affecting learning
 Intellectual factor:
 The term refers to the individual mental level.
 Success in school is generally closely related to level of the intellect.
 Pupils with low intelligence often encounter serious difficulty in mastering
schoolwork. Sometimes pupils do not learn because of special intellectual
disabilities.
 Knowledge of the nature of the pupil’s intellect is of considerable value in the
guidance and the diagnosis of disability.
Learning factors:
 Factors owing to lack of mastery of what has been taught, faulty methods of work
or study, and narrowness of experimental background may affect the learning
process of any pupil.
 If the school proceeds too rapidly and does not constantly check up on the extent
to which the pupil is mastering what is being taught,
 the pupil accumulates a number of deficiencies that interfere with successful
progress.
Physical factors:
 Under this group are included such factors as health, physical development,
nutrition, visual and physical defects, and glandular abnormality.
 It is generally recognized that ill health retards physical and motor development,
and malnutrition interferes with learning and physical growth.
 Children suffering from visual, auditory, and other physical defects are seriously
handicapped in developing skills such as reading and spelling.
 It has been demonstrated that various glands of internal secretion, such as the
thyroid and pituitary glands, affect behavior.
 The health of the learner will likely affect his ability to learn and his power to
concentrate.
Mental factors:
 Attitude falls under mental factors attitudes are made up of organic and kinesthetic elements.
 They are not to be confused with emotions that are characterized by internal visceral disturbances.
 Attitudes are more or less of definite sort.
 They play a large part in the mental organization and general behavior of the individual.
 Attitudes are also important in the development of personality.
 Interest, cheerfulness, affection, prejudice, open mindedness, and loyalty.
 Attitudes exercise a stimulating effect upon the rate of learning and teaching and upon the progress in
school.
 The efficiency of the work from day to day and the rapidity with which it is achieved are influenced by the
attitude of the learner.
 A favorable mental attitude facilitates learning.
 The factor of interest is very closely related in nature to that of symbolic drive and reward.
Emotional and social factors:
 Personal factors, such as instincts and emotions, and social factors, such as
cooperation and rivalry, are directly related to a complex psychology of motivation.
 It is a recognized fact that the various responses of the individual to various kinds
of stimuli are determined by a wide variety of tendencies.
 For some reason a pupil may have developed a dislike for some subject because he
may fail to see its value, or may lack foundation. This dislike results in a bad
emotional state.
 Some pupils are in a continuing state of unhappiness because of their fear of being
victims of the disapproval of their teachers and classmates.
 This is an unwholesome attitude and affects the learning process to a considerable
degree. This is oftentimes the result of bad training.
Environmental factor:
 Physical conditions needed for learning is under environmental factor.
 One of the factors that affect the efficiency of learning is the condition in which
learning takes place.
 This includes the classrooms, textbooks, equipment, school supplies, and other
instructional materials.
Learning Through Classical Conditioning
 Learning through association is one of the most fundamental way that people learn new things.
 Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered one method of learning during his experiments on the
digestive systems of dogs.
 He noted that the dogs would naturally salivate at the sight of food, but that eventually the dogs
also began to salivate whenever they spotted the experimenter’s white lab coat.
 Later experiments involve pairing the sight of food with the sound of a bell tone.
 After multiple pairings, the dogs eventually began to salivate to the sound of the bell alone.
 Classical conditioning is a type of learning that takes place through the formation of associations.
 An unconditioned stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response is paired with an
neutral stimulus.
 An association forms and the previously neutral stimulus becomes known as a conditioned stimulus
that then triggers a conditioned response.
Learning Through Operant Conditioning
 The consequences of your actions can also play a role in determining how and what you
learn.
 Behaviorist B.F. Skinner noted that while classical conditioning could be used to explain
some types of learning, it could not account for everything.
 Reinforcements and punishments were responsible for some types of learning.
 When something immediately follows a behavior, it can either increase or decrease the
likelihood that the behavior will occur again in the future.
 This process is referred to as operant conditioning.
 For example, imagine that you just got a new puppy, and you would like to begin
training it to behave in specific ways. Whenever the puppy does what you want it to do,
you reward it with a small treat or a gentle pat. When the puppy misbehaves, you scold
him and do not offer affection. Eventually, the reinforcement leads to an increase in the
desired behaviors and a decrease in the unwanted behaviors.
Learning Through Observation
 While classical conditioning and operant conditioning can help explain many instances of learning,
you can probably immediately think of situations where you have learned something without being
conditioned, reinforced, or punished.
 Psychologist Albert Bandura noted that many types of learning do not involve any conditioning
and, in fact, evidence that learning has occurred might not even be immediately apparent.
 Observational learning occurs by observing the actions and consequences of other people’s
behavior (such as with latent learning).
 In a series of famous experiments, Bandura was able to demonstrate the power of this
observational learning.
 Children watched video clips of adults interacting with a large, inflatable Bobo doll.
 Adults simply ignored the doll, while in other clips the adults would hit, kick and yell at the doll.
 When kids were later given the chance to play within a room with a Bobo doll present, those who
had observed the adults abusing the doll were more likely to engage in similar actions.
Thinking
 Thinking, also known as 'cognition', refers to the ability to process information,
hold attention, store and retrieve memories and select appropriate responses and
actions.
 The ability to understand other people, and express oneself to others can also be
categorised under thinking.
 Gilmer:
 “Thinking is a problem-solving process in which we use ideas or symbols in place
of overt activity”.
 Mohsin:
 “Thinking is an implicit problem-solving behaviour”.
 1. Perceptual or Concrete Thinking:
 This is the simplest form of thinking the basis of this type is perception, i.e. interpretation of
sensation according to one’s experience.
 It is also called concrete thinking as it is carried out on the perception of actual or concrete objects
and events.
 2. Conceptual or Abstract Thinking:Here one makes use of concepts, the generalized objects and
languages, it is regarded as being superior to perceptual thinking as it economizes efforts in
understanding and problem-solving.
 3. Reflective Thinking:
 This type of thinking aims in solving complex problems, thus it requires reorganization of all the
relevant experiences to a situation or removing obstacles instead of relating with that experiences
or ideas.
 This is an insightful cognitive approach in reflective thinking as the mental activity here does not
involve the mechanical trial and error type of efforts.
 4. Creative Thinking:
 This type of thinking is associated with one’s ability to create or construct
something new, novel or unusual.
 It looks for new relationships and associations to describe and interpret the nature
of things, events and situations.
 Here the individual himself usually formulates the evidences and tools for its
solution. For example; scientists, artists or inventors.
 Skinner, the famous psychologist says creative thinking means that the prediction
and inferences for the individual are new, original, ingenious and unusual.
 The creative thinker is one who expresses new ideas and makes new observations,
new predictions and new inferences.
Problem solving
 Problem solving is the act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying,
prioritizing, and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution.
 1. Define the problem
 Diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, not just its symptoms.
 Helpful problem-solving techniques include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a
process and cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze root causes.
 The sections below help explain key problem-solving steps.
 These steps support the involvement of interested parties, the use of factual information, comparison
of expectations to reality, and a focus on root causes of a problem.
 You should begin by:
 Reviewing and documenting how processes currently work (i.e., who does what, with what
information, using what tools, communicating with what organizations and individuals, in what time
frame, using what format).
 Evaluating the possible impact of new tools and revised policies in the development of your "what
should be" model.
2. Generate alternative solutions
 Postpone the selection of one solution until several problem-solving alternatives have been
proposed.
 Considering multiple alternatives can significantly enhance the value of your ideal solution.
 Once you have decided on the "what should be" model, this target standard becomes the basis for
developing a road map for investigating alternatives.
 Brainstorming and team problem-solving techniques are both useful tools in this stage of problem
solving.
 Many alternative solutions to the problem should be generated before final evaluation.
 A common mistake in problem solving is that alternatives are evaluated as they are proposed, so
the first acceptable solution is chosen, even if it’s not the best fit.
 If we focus on trying to get the results we want, we miss the potential for learning something new
that will allow for real improvement in the problem-solving process.
3. Evaluate and select an alternative
 Skilled problem solvers use a series of considerations when selecting the best
alternative. They consider the extent to which:
 A particular alternative will solve the problem without causing other unanticipated
problems.
 All the individuals involved will accept the alternative.
 Implementation of the alternative is likely.
 The alternative fits within the organizational constraints.
4. Implement and follow up on the solution
 Leaders may be called upon to direct others to implement the solution, "sell" the
solution, or facilitate the implementation with the help of others.
 Involving others in the implementation is an effective way to gain buy-in and
support and minimize resistance to subsequent changes.
 Regardless of how the solution is rolled out, feedback channels should be built into
the implementation.
 This allows for continuous monitoring and testing of actual events against
expectations.
 Problem solving, and the techniques used to gain clarity, are most effective if the
solution remains in place and is updated to respond to future changes.
Concept Formation
 The process by which we discover the feature or features which are ‘common’ to a
large number of objects and associate these with a symbol which thereafter may be
applied to other similar objects is called ‘Concept formation’.
The process of formation of concepts involves four elements: Experience (exploration), abstraction, generalization and
analysis.
[1] Experience is the process of direct participation in an action.
[2] Abstraction is the process of discovering the common elements in a large number of situations after experiencing
them. One observes that two or more objects are alike or similar in some respects and different in other respects. For
example, in acquiring the concept ‘dog’, a child may hear the word ‘dog’ over and over in different situations and learns to
apply the word to any object that has the same general characteristics as a dog. Thus in the early stages of the
development of the concept, the child may apply the word to cats or four-legged animals, because upto that time he has
observed only one ‘common’ element in his experience, namely, four-leggedness. Additional observations and finer
discrimination will ‘define’ the concept to the point where the word will be applied ‘only’ to dogs.
[3] Generalization is the process of extending the concept to include objects which possess a quality in common with other
objects but which have not been experienced as any of the objects in the abstracting process. Quite obviously, a concept is
learned through trial and error reaction to objects, situations or events. This refinement and enrichment of a concept
depends upon the number and variety of trial and error reactions of experiences involved in the development of the
concept.
[4] Analysis is the systematic procedure applying techniques for analysis of academic content which are similar in intent to
those employed by task analysis in designing sequences for a job.
 Bruner’s Cognitive Development Theory
 According to Jerome S. Bruner, “A theory of instruction, in short, is concerned with how, what one wishes to teach,
can best be learned, with improving rather than describing learning”.
 Bruner in his book ‘The process of Education’ explained the theories of instruction. According to him it is
prescriptive since it prescribe rules for achieving knowledge or skills and guiding techniques for measuring or
evaluating the outcomes. It will be of normal type since it aims at goals to be achieved and deals with conditions to
to meet them.
 Bruner has also suggested four important features of the theory of instruction. They are:
 Predisposition to Learn : Predispose means, “liable before the event”. This theory is concerned with the experiences
and contexts which will tend to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters the school.
 Structure of Knowledge: It must prescribe the ways in which a body of knowledge is to be structured so that it will
be easily learnt by the learner.
 Sequence : A theory of instruction would specify the most effective sequence in which the learning materials are to
be presented to the students effectively.
 Reinforcement : A theory of instruction must specify the nature of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards to
intrinsic rewards.
 Concept Map
 It is a great use having the concept map in explaining the general principles formed out of many
related ideas.
 Concept map is also used to explain the mutual relationships existing between the various general
principles. The relationship between various ideas putforth in a lesson and the way they lead to the
general principles are understood with the help of concept map.
 As already told, concept map helps to understand how the different general principles are themselves
related.
 It is very useful in preparing a classified summary of the ideas learnt in a lesson. Here, in the concept map,
starting from a general principle, every idea has to be put in a hierarchical order. ‘Linkage’ and Cross
Linkage’ between the different general principles are to be indicated.
 In preparing the lesson for his class, the teacher is helped to a large extent by this concept map.
 The students can be given concept map as a follow-up activity. So that it forms stimulated home
assignment.
 The analytical thinking is students in promoted by it and their learning become comprehensive and
meaningful. Thus, concept map is a helpful tool in the learning process.
Thanks

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AAC602 APPLIED BEHAVIOUR CHANGE Learning

  • 1. AAC602 APPLIED BEHAVIOUR CHANGE Learning Dr. Arpita Sharma Kandpal Assistant Professor, Dept of Agril Comm, College of Ag, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar
  • 2. Learning  Learning is “a process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience and increases the potential for improved performance and future learning”.  Learning is the process of acquiring understanding, knowledge, behavior, skill, values, attitude and preferences.  The term "active learning" is often used to describe an interactive process, such as doing a hands-on experiment to learn a concept rather than reading about it. But "passive learning" (reading a text, listening to a lecture, watching a movie) is still learning, and can be effective.
  • 3. VARK Model  Fleming and Mills  Visual - Visual learners are better able to retain information when it’s presented to them in a graphic depiction, such as arrows, charts, diagrams, symbols, and more.  Auditory - Sometimes referred to as “aural” learners, auditory learners prefer listening to information that is presented to them vocally. These learners work well in group settings where vocal collaboration is present and may enjoy reading aloud to themselves, too.  Reading & Writing - Focusing on the written word, reading and writing learners succeed with written information on worksheets, presentations, and other text- heavy resources. These learners are note-takers and perform strongly when they can reference written text.  Kinesthetic - Taking a physically active role, kinesthetic learners are hands-on and thrive when engaging all of their senses during course work. These learners tend to work well in scientific studies due to the hands-on lab component of the course.
  • 4. Factors affecting learning  Intellectual factor:  The term refers to the individual mental level.  Success in school is generally closely related to level of the intellect.  Pupils with low intelligence often encounter serious difficulty in mastering schoolwork. Sometimes pupils do not learn because of special intellectual disabilities.  Knowledge of the nature of the pupil’s intellect is of considerable value in the guidance and the diagnosis of disability.
  • 5. Learning factors:  Factors owing to lack of mastery of what has been taught, faulty methods of work or study, and narrowness of experimental background may affect the learning process of any pupil.  If the school proceeds too rapidly and does not constantly check up on the extent to which the pupil is mastering what is being taught,  the pupil accumulates a number of deficiencies that interfere with successful progress.
  • 6. Physical factors:  Under this group are included such factors as health, physical development, nutrition, visual and physical defects, and glandular abnormality.  It is generally recognized that ill health retards physical and motor development, and malnutrition interferes with learning and physical growth.  Children suffering from visual, auditory, and other physical defects are seriously handicapped in developing skills such as reading and spelling.  It has been demonstrated that various glands of internal secretion, such as the thyroid and pituitary glands, affect behavior.  The health of the learner will likely affect his ability to learn and his power to concentrate.
  • 7. Mental factors:  Attitude falls under mental factors attitudes are made up of organic and kinesthetic elements.  They are not to be confused with emotions that are characterized by internal visceral disturbances.  Attitudes are more or less of definite sort.  They play a large part in the mental organization and general behavior of the individual.  Attitudes are also important in the development of personality.  Interest, cheerfulness, affection, prejudice, open mindedness, and loyalty.  Attitudes exercise a stimulating effect upon the rate of learning and teaching and upon the progress in school.  The efficiency of the work from day to day and the rapidity with which it is achieved are influenced by the attitude of the learner.  A favorable mental attitude facilitates learning.  The factor of interest is very closely related in nature to that of symbolic drive and reward.
  • 8. Emotional and social factors:  Personal factors, such as instincts and emotions, and social factors, such as cooperation and rivalry, are directly related to a complex psychology of motivation.  It is a recognized fact that the various responses of the individual to various kinds of stimuli are determined by a wide variety of tendencies.  For some reason a pupil may have developed a dislike for some subject because he may fail to see its value, or may lack foundation. This dislike results in a bad emotional state.  Some pupils are in a continuing state of unhappiness because of their fear of being victims of the disapproval of their teachers and classmates.  This is an unwholesome attitude and affects the learning process to a considerable degree. This is oftentimes the result of bad training.
  • 9. Environmental factor:  Physical conditions needed for learning is under environmental factor.  One of the factors that affect the efficiency of learning is the condition in which learning takes place.  This includes the classrooms, textbooks, equipment, school supplies, and other instructional materials.
  • 10. Learning Through Classical Conditioning  Learning through association is one of the most fundamental way that people learn new things.  Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered one method of learning during his experiments on the digestive systems of dogs.  He noted that the dogs would naturally salivate at the sight of food, but that eventually the dogs also began to salivate whenever they spotted the experimenter’s white lab coat.  Later experiments involve pairing the sight of food with the sound of a bell tone.  After multiple pairings, the dogs eventually began to salivate to the sound of the bell alone.  Classical conditioning is a type of learning that takes place through the formation of associations.  An unconditioned stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response is paired with an neutral stimulus.  An association forms and the previously neutral stimulus becomes known as a conditioned stimulus that then triggers a conditioned response.
  • 11. Learning Through Operant Conditioning  The consequences of your actions can also play a role in determining how and what you learn.  Behaviorist B.F. Skinner noted that while classical conditioning could be used to explain some types of learning, it could not account for everything.  Reinforcements and punishments were responsible for some types of learning.  When something immediately follows a behavior, it can either increase or decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again in the future.  This process is referred to as operant conditioning.  For example, imagine that you just got a new puppy, and you would like to begin training it to behave in specific ways. Whenever the puppy does what you want it to do, you reward it with a small treat or a gentle pat. When the puppy misbehaves, you scold him and do not offer affection. Eventually, the reinforcement leads to an increase in the desired behaviors and a decrease in the unwanted behaviors.
  • 12. Learning Through Observation  While classical conditioning and operant conditioning can help explain many instances of learning, you can probably immediately think of situations where you have learned something without being conditioned, reinforced, or punished.  Psychologist Albert Bandura noted that many types of learning do not involve any conditioning and, in fact, evidence that learning has occurred might not even be immediately apparent.  Observational learning occurs by observing the actions and consequences of other people’s behavior (such as with latent learning).  In a series of famous experiments, Bandura was able to demonstrate the power of this observational learning.  Children watched video clips of adults interacting with a large, inflatable Bobo doll.  Adults simply ignored the doll, while in other clips the adults would hit, kick and yell at the doll.  When kids were later given the chance to play within a room with a Bobo doll present, those who had observed the adults abusing the doll were more likely to engage in similar actions.
  • 13. Thinking  Thinking, also known as 'cognition', refers to the ability to process information, hold attention, store and retrieve memories and select appropriate responses and actions.  The ability to understand other people, and express oneself to others can also be categorised under thinking.  Gilmer:  “Thinking is a problem-solving process in which we use ideas or symbols in place of overt activity”.  Mohsin:  “Thinking is an implicit problem-solving behaviour”.
  • 14.  1. Perceptual or Concrete Thinking:  This is the simplest form of thinking the basis of this type is perception, i.e. interpretation of sensation according to one’s experience.  It is also called concrete thinking as it is carried out on the perception of actual or concrete objects and events.  2. Conceptual or Abstract Thinking:Here one makes use of concepts, the generalized objects and languages, it is regarded as being superior to perceptual thinking as it economizes efforts in understanding and problem-solving.  3. Reflective Thinking:  This type of thinking aims in solving complex problems, thus it requires reorganization of all the relevant experiences to a situation or removing obstacles instead of relating with that experiences or ideas.  This is an insightful cognitive approach in reflective thinking as the mental activity here does not involve the mechanical trial and error type of efforts.
  • 15.  4. Creative Thinking:  This type of thinking is associated with one’s ability to create or construct something new, novel or unusual.  It looks for new relationships and associations to describe and interpret the nature of things, events and situations.  Here the individual himself usually formulates the evidences and tools for its solution. For example; scientists, artists or inventors.  Skinner, the famous psychologist says creative thinking means that the prediction and inferences for the individual are new, original, ingenious and unusual.  The creative thinker is one who expresses new ideas and makes new observations, new predictions and new inferences.
  • 16. Problem solving  Problem solving is the act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying, prioritizing, and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution.  1. Define the problem  Diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, not just its symptoms.  Helpful problem-solving techniques include using flowcharts to identify the expected steps of a process and cause-and-effect diagrams to define and analyze root causes.  The sections below help explain key problem-solving steps.  These steps support the involvement of interested parties, the use of factual information, comparison of expectations to reality, and a focus on root causes of a problem.  You should begin by:  Reviewing and documenting how processes currently work (i.e., who does what, with what information, using what tools, communicating with what organizations and individuals, in what time frame, using what format).  Evaluating the possible impact of new tools and revised policies in the development of your "what should be" model.
  • 17. 2. Generate alternative solutions  Postpone the selection of one solution until several problem-solving alternatives have been proposed.  Considering multiple alternatives can significantly enhance the value of your ideal solution.  Once you have decided on the "what should be" model, this target standard becomes the basis for developing a road map for investigating alternatives.  Brainstorming and team problem-solving techniques are both useful tools in this stage of problem solving.  Many alternative solutions to the problem should be generated before final evaluation.  A common mistake in problem solving is that alternatives are evaluated as they are proposed, so the first acceptable solution is chosen, even if it’s not the best fit.  If we focus on trying to get the results we want, we miss the potential for learning something new that will allow for real improvement in the problem-solving process.
  • 18. 3. Evaluate and select an alternative  Skilled problem solvers use a series of considerations when selecting the best alternative. They consider the extent to which:  A particular alternative will solve the problem without causing other unanticipated problems.  All the individuals involved will accept the alternative.  Implementation of the alternative is likely.  The alternative fits within the organizational constraints.
  • 19. 4. Implement and follow up on the solution  Leaders may be called upon to direct others to implement the solution, "sell" the solution, or facilitate the implementation with the help of others.  Involving others in the implementation is an effective way to gain buy-in and support and minimize resistance to subsequent changes.  Regardless of how the solution is rolled out, feedback channels should be built into the implementation.  This allows for continuous monitoring and testing of actual events against expectations.  Problem solving, and the techniques used to gain clarity, are most effective if the solution remains in place and is updated to respond to future changes.
  • 20. Concept Formation  The process by which we discover the feature or features which are ‘common’ to a large number of objects and associate these with a symbol which thereafter may be applied to other similar objects is called ‘Concept formation’.
  • 21. The process of formation of concepts involves four elements: Experience (exploration), abstraction, generalization and analysis. [1] Experience is the process of direct participation in an action. [2] Abstraction is the process of discovering the common elements in a large number of situations after experiencing them. One observes that two or more objects are alike or similar in some respects and different in other respects. For example, in acquiring the concept ‘dog’, a child may hear the word ‘dog’ over and over in different situations and learns to apply the word to any object that has the same general characteristics as a dog. Thus in the early stages of the development of the concept, the child may apply the word to cats or four-legged animals, because upto that time he has observed only one ‘common’ element in his experience, namely, four-leggedness. Additional observations and finer discrimination will ‘define’ the concept to the point where the word will be applied ‘only’ to dogs. [3] Generalization is the process of extending the concept to include objects which possess a quality in common with other objects but which have not been experienced as any of the objects in the abstracting process. Quite obviously, a concept is learned through trial and error reaction to objects, situations or events. This refinement and enrichment of a concept depends upon the number and variety of trial and error reactions of experiences involved in the development of the concept. [4] Analysis is the systematic procedure applying techniques for analysis of academic content which are similar in intent to those employed by task analysis in designing sequences for a job.
  • 22.  Bruner’s Cognitive Development Theory  According to Jerome S. Bruner, “A theory of instruction, in short, is concerned with how, what one wishes to teach, can best be learned, with improving rather than describing learning”.  Bruner in his book ‘The process of Education’ explained the theories of instruction. According to him it is prescriptive since it prescribe rules for achieving knowledge or skills and guiding techniques for measuring or evaluating the outcomes. It will be of normal type since it aims at goals to be achieved and deals with conditions to to meet them.  Bruner has also suggested four important features of the theory of instruction. They are:  Predisposition to Learn : Predispose means, “liable before the event”. This theory is concerned with the experiences and contexts which will tend to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters the school.  Structure of Knowledge: It must prescribe the ways in which a body of knowledge is to be structured so that it will be easily learnt by the learner.  Sequence : A theory of instruction would specify the most effective sequence in which the learning materials are to be presented to the students effectively.  Reinforcement : A theory of instruction must specify the nature of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards to intrinsic rewards.
  • 23.  Concept Map  It is a great use having the concept map in explaining the general principles formed out of many related ideas.  Concept map is also used to explain the mutual relationships existing between the various general principles. The relationship between various ideas putforth in a lesson and the way they lead to the general principles are understood with the help of concept map.  As already told, concept map helps to understand how the different general principles are themselves related.  It is very useful in preparing a classified summary of the ideas learnt in a lesson. Here, in the concept map, starting from a general principle, every idea has to be put in a hierarchical order. ‘Linkage’ and Cross Linkage’ between the different general principles are to be indicated.  In preparing the lesson for his class, the teacher is helped to a large extent by this concept map.  The students can be given concept map as a follow-up activity. So that it forms stimulated home assignment.  The analytical thinking is students in promoted by it and their learning become comprehensive and meaningful. Thus, concept map is a helpful tool in the learning process.