The History of the PC

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The History of the PC

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The History of the PC

  1. 1. The History of the PC Arno Huetter
  2. 2. About the Author Arno Huetter Arno wrote his first lines of code on a Sinclair ZX80 in 1984. Over the years, he has been programming in C/C++, Java and C#, and also did quite some database development. Today he is Development Lead at Dynatrace (APM vendor).
  3. 3. First computer I ever used (1984): Sinclair ZX-80  Zilog Z80, 3,25MHz  1k RAM (expandable to 16k), 4k ROM  32x24 characters monochrome  Storage: Cassette Tape  Sinclair Basic
  4. 4. Also in 1984 (but I had no clue) It‘s Microsoft Basic
  5. 5. Hollerith Tabular Machine 1890 ENIAC (US Army) 1946 IBM Type 3-S Tabulator 1924 Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits MicroprocessorsMechanical Electro-mechanical UNIVAC 1951 IBM 701/702 1952 Whirlwind (MIT) 1951 DEC PDP-1 1961 IBM System/360 1964 IBM 350 Disk 1956 Intel 4004 1971 MITS Altair 8800 1975 Apple II 1977 IBM PC 1981 Xerox Alto 1974 Apple Mac 1984 SAGE 1958 DEC PDP-8 1965 DEC VAX-11 1977 IBM System/370 1970 Transistor 1947 Mark I (Harvard) 1944 DEC PDP-11 1970 19701960195019401890 1980 IBM 1401 1959 OS/360 Unix CP/M VMS DOS MacOS SUN-1 1982 Arpanet 1969
  6. 6. The 1960s  IBM and the seven dwarfs
  7. 7. The early 1970s - Revolution waiting to happen  Mainframes operated by white coat engineers  Valley electronic components industry (e.g. young Steve Jobs simply phones HP‘s Bill Hewlett for obtaining parts)  Technology enthusiasts want their own computer  Microprocessor innovation  Venture capital funding  Personal computer possibilities neglected by big players (e.g. Woz offered Apple I to HP initially)
  8. 8. Famous tech predictions  Ken Olson (DEC founder) as late as 1977: “There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home.”
  9. 9. Microsoft Founding / Altair Basic  1974/75: Gates and Allen develop Altair Basic on Harvard University‘s PDP-10 (4k mem footprint). Delivered on paper tape  Allen had to implement an Intel 8008 emulator first  Gates basically sells a non-existing product to MITS  On the flight to Albuquerque, Allen finds out bootstrapper is missing, and builds one on the plane  Microsoft founded April 4th, 1975 in Albuquerque  Basic ports for most 8bit microcomputers  Fortran, Cobol, Assembler, Xenix follow
  10. 10. Apple Founding / Apple II  1975/76: Wozniak develops Apple I. Inspired by Altair, IMSAI, based on MOS Technology 6502  Wozniak and Jobs show Apple I at Homebrew Computer Club. Jobs sells 50 fully assembled units to Byte Shop  Apple founded April 1st, 1976. Working out of Jobs‘ family garage. In 1977 Markulla steps in as investor  Wozniak morphs Apple I into Apple II. 1MHz, 4k-64k RAM, 280x192px, Integer Basic. Millions of units sold over the years. First killer app: VisiCalc
  11. 11. IBM PC  1980: IBM finally awakes due to Apple‘s success  PC design based on open standards (except BIOS). Intel 8088, 4,77MHz, 16-256k RAM, 5,25“ floppy disks  IBM approaches Microsoft for providing languages  Digital Research fumbles opportunity to sell CP/M  Microsoft steps in, purchases QDOS for 50k and transforms it into PC DOS. Non-exclusive license opens doors for clone- makers  1981: IBM 5150 introduced, sets standards for years to come. First killer app: Lotus 1-2-3 CP/M Inventor Gary Kildall (Digital Research)
  12. 12. Apple Macintosh  1979: Steve Jobs visits Xerox Parc, sees Alto GUI  Pirate project within Apple, highly dedicated team works in death-march mode for years  Motorola 68000, 8MHz, 128k RAM, 3,5“ floppy disk, 384×256px B+W, overlapping windows  Introduced in famous 1984 Super Bowl TV commercial  Sold at USD 2,490 initially, sales plummet until 512k version was introduced  First killer app: Aldus PageMaker (combined with LaserWriter)
  13. 13. What happened next (1)  1982: Sun Microsystems founded, C64 launches  1983: IBM introduces XT (5160). Compaq offers IBM-compatible Portable, Microsoft creates Word for DOS  1984: IBM announces AT (5170)  1985: Apple ousts Steve Jobs. Microsoft introduces Windows 1.0 as well as Word and Excel for Macintosh. Atari ST launches  1986: First 386-based PC comes from Compaq, not IBM
  14. 14. What happened next (2)  1987: IBM announces PS/2 platform (Microchannel architecture). Microsoft ships Windows 2.0  1988: IBM and Microsoft introduce OS/2. Compaq and Gang of Nine push EISA architecture  1989: Steve Job‘s NeXT becomes available. Microsoft offers Word for Windows  1990: Windows 3.0 hits the market  1991: Linus Torvalds creates initial Linux version  1993: Windows NT introduced. IBM in crisis  1994: Netscape founded, WWW takes off
  15. 15. What happened next (3)  1995: Windows 95 launches  1996: Sun introduces Java. Apple close to bankruptcy. Jobs sells NeXtStep to Apple (Mach kernel, foundation for OS X)  1997: Jobs becomes Apple interim CEO  1998: Apple introduces iMac  2000: OS X launches  2002: HP acquires Compaq
  16. 16. Bibliography  Canion, R.: „Open: How Compaq Ended IBM's PC Domination and Helped Invent Modern Computing “  Cringeley, R.: „Triumph of the Nerds“, http://www.pbs.org/nerds/  Cringeley, R.: „Accidental Empires“  Freiberger, P.: „Fire in the Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer”  Hiltzik, M.: „Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age “  Linzmayer, O.: „Apple Confidential“  Isaacson, W.: „Steve Jobs“  Wallace, J.: „Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire”
  17. 17. Thank you! Twitter: https://twitter.com/ArnoHu Blog: http://arnosoftwaredev.blogspot.com

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