Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Trinity college dublin 2016 rethinking sanitation ecological sanitation

458 views

Published on

Lecture Ecological Sanitation

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Trinity college dublin 2016 rethinking sanitation ecological sanitation

  1. 1. Trinity College Dublin 2016 Rethinking Sanitation Ecological Sanitation Sustainable Sanitation From a Metabolic Rift Towards a Metabolic Shift An Appetizer Arne Backlund Backlund ApS www.backlund.dk www.facebook.com/backlund.aps
  2. 2. Present Human Organized Metabolism - Open-Flow System - Premised on Nature as Indefinite - Exhausting its Sources of Nourishment - Without Paying its Bills Could Human Beings in Politics Reorganize Humanity in Nature & Nature in Humanity?
  3. 3. Ancient Rome versus Ancient China & Japan
  4. 4. Arne Backlund
  5. 5. Main Objectives of Sustainable Sanitation •To Reduce Health Risks related to Sanitation,Contaminated Water and Waste •To Prevent Pollution of Surface and Ground Water •To Prevent Degradation of Soil Fertility •To Optimise Closing the Loop of Human Excreted Nutrients, Organic Material and The Water Cycle Considering Energy & CO2 Balances •Economically and Ecologically Sustainable and Culturally Acceptable Systems
  6. 6. Experienced Problems From Rural Area Work In Eastern Germany 1989 - 1993 •High Subsidies Building CWWTP •Very High Subsidies Establishing Sewers - Up To 95 % •Costs - Up to Euro 50000 to Connect one House •”HOAI” 10 % of Total Cost •Mastering the Art of Tendering •PPP ”Betreibermodelle” & ”Kooperationsmodelle” •Not Supporting Innovation & Visions about Ecological & Economical Sustainable Sanitation
  7. 7. My Way - Innovative Production and Waste Reducing Handling Systems in Garnment Industri
  8. 8. •Karl Marx stated in Capital in 1867 on England's Ecological Imperialism toward Ireland: "For a century and a half England has indirectly exported the soil of Ireland, without even allowing its cultivators the means for replacing the constituents of the exhausted soil.“ •Describing the Ecological Contradiction between Nature and Capitalist society as "an Irreparable Rift in the Interdependent Process of Social Metabolism." A Rift in the Metabolic Relation between Humanity and Nature
  9. 9. •A Sustainable Solution to the Global Environmental Rift requires, a Society of “Associated Producers" who can “Govern the Human Metabolism with Nature in a Rational Way, bringing it under their Collective Control instead of being dominated by it as a Blind Power”. •Solutions requires Rational Regulation of the Metabolic Relation of Human Beings to Nature in line with the Needs of Future Generations. "Even an entire society, a nation, or all simultaneously existing societies taken together," Marx stated, "are not owners of the earth. They are simply its possessors, its beneficiaries, and have to bequeath it in an improved state to succeeding generations as boni patres familias [good heads of the household].
  10. 10. Tentative Holistic Reflection •We Can´t Solve Problems by Using More of the Same Kind of Thinking (Paradigm) we Used Creating Them! •Conventional Waste Water Solution – with Mixing & Dilution – Best Solution to Polution? •Why do Human Beings with Two Outlets Design and Use Toilets with Only One Inlet? •When the Solution is Simple, God is Answering!
  11. 11. Flow or Stream of Material •Human urine contributes to about 80 % of the load of N and 50 % of the P load of conventional domestic wastewater •Human Urine treated conventional requires large amounts of energy producing problematic sludge
  12. 12. Flow or Stream of Materials •We Excrete most of the Nutrients we Consume •Human Urine contributes with only 1 % of the Volume of Household Wastewater but contains 80 % of N, 55 % of P and 60 % of K and less than 0.6 % of Cadmium and 0.06 % of Lead
  13. 13. Phosphorus •One Person Excrete 1 KG P/year. •0.7 KG in Urine and 0.3 KG in Faeces. •Human Phosphorus Returned to Soil Would Cover 80 % of P Demand •In Agriculture Short of Phosphorus Human Excreta could be a Golden Opportunity. •In 100 years Phosphorus Could Be Gone.
  14. 14. To Make Gold out of Human Urine
  15. 15. Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3• Mg/kg DM • Mg/kg DM
  16. 16. • Mg/kg P • Mg/kg N
  17. 17. Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
  18. 18. Cadmium in Irish & Swedish Soils Ireland Median values 0.33 mg/kg DM 5 % > 1.65 mg/kg DM 25% > 0.64 mg/kg DM 15% > EU Treshold limit = 0.8 mg/kg DM Sludge Prohibited on soil > 1 mg/kg DM Sweden Median values 0.19 mg/kg DM 5 % > 0.45 mg/kg DM Soil Quality Limit Value 0.5 mg/kg DM Sludge Prohibited on soil > 0.45 mg/kg DM
  19. 19. Cd in Human Bodies, Soil & Willow WTI based on Kidney tollerance 2.5 microgram Cd/kg BW/W Average Cd intake in Sweden 1 - 1.45 microgram Cd/kg BW/W Swedish average agricultural soil 600 g Cd/ha Cd in Willow steams 0.9 – 2.4 mg/kg DM Cd removal 7.2 - 20 g/ha/year
  20. 20. Self-Experienced
  21. 21. A Way Out
  22. 22. http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2003/87-7972-734-4/pdf/87-7972- 735-2.pdf Manure and sludge allowed in Danish Gardens
  23. 23. http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2003/87-7972-734-4/pdf/87- 7972-735-2.pdf Human Urine from Diverting ToiletsNot Allowed As Fertilizer in Danish Gardens A Way Out
  24. 24. New Paradigm of Closing The Loop With Alternative Sanitation •Alternative Questions and Answers •Different Streams and Flows •Source Control •Nutrients, Organic Material, Water etc. •Diversion and Concentrated Collection •Reuse of Resources to Plant Growth •Re-Defining •Re-Designing
  25. 25. Alternative Approach and Design •Human Urine (Yellow Water or Golden High Quality Anthropogenic Nutrient Solution) and Human Faeces •Diverted and Concentrated Collection •Waterless or Reduced Water Flush •Alternative Sanitary Components •Alternative Sanitary Systems
  26. 26. Alternatives in Recycling Nutrients and Water •Nutrients Directly From Toilet •Direct Local Use or After Transport •Household Wastewater Directly into Willow Evapotranspiration System •Transported Septic Sludge •Wastewater and Sludge from CWWTP
  27. 27. Selected Components •Waterless Urinals •No-Mix/Diverting Toilet Stools •Vacuum Toilet Systems •Separator •Collection and Composting Units •Willow Evapotranspiration Systems •Short-Rotation Energy Willow Plantations
  28. 28. Flow or Stream of Material •Urine •Faeces •Toilet Paper •Flush Water •Grey Water
  29. 29. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FROM PISS TO PILSNER https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_j6oo1tq30
  30. 30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_rAakt1tWo BeerCycling 54000 litres of Pee into 100000 litres of Pilsner 300000 botles
  31. 31. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FESTIVAL FROM PISS TO PILSNER
  32. 32. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FROM PISS TO PILSNER BeerCycling ROSKILDE FESTIVAL FROM PISS TO PILSNER
  33. 33. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FROM PISS TO PILSNER BeerCycling ROSKILDE FESTIVAL FROM PISS TO PILSNER
  34. 34. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= j_j6oo1tq30 https://www.google.dk/webhp?sourceid =chrome- instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF- 8#q=fra%20tis%20til%20pilsner%20un dervisningsmateriale Great secondary school educational materials separate for teachers and pupils
  35. 35. http://www.tv2lorry.dk/nyheder/26-08- 2016/1930/fra-tis-til-ol?autoplay=1#player BeerCycling Harvesting malt barley fertilized with human urine. Beer ready in 2017. http://www.tv2lorry.dk/nyheder/26-08-2016/1930/fra-tis-til-ol?autoplay=1#player
  36. 36. Please sit down and pee
  37. 37. Flow or Stream of Material •We Excrete most of the Nutrients we Consume •Human Urine contributes with only 1 % of the Volume of Household Wastewater but contains 80 % of N, 55 % of P and 60 % of K and less than 0.6 % of Cadmium and 0.06 % of Lead
  38. 38. Phosphorus •One Person Excrete 1 KG P/year. •0.7 KG in Urine and 0.3 KG in Faeces. •Human Phosphorus Returned to Soil Would Cover 80 % of P Demand •In Agriculture Short of Phosphorus Human Excreta could be a Golden Opportunity. •In 100 years Phosphorus Could Be Gone.
  39. 39. 76 m² 2Rooms 86 m² 3Rooms 98 m² 4 Rooms 112 m² 5 Rooms 126 m² 6 Rooms 90 Rowhouses Permatopia, Karise Denmark
  40. 40. Permatopia, Karise Denmark Agriculture - Diversed sustainable organic production of food based on permaculture principles. Professional farmers included Heating - Geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) Electricity - Wind turbines – later combined with solar cells Wastewater - Urine from 90 individual diverting EcoFlush toilets + further in commen house will be used on the fields after 6 month storage in collection containers. Greywater and brownwater go to a very large Zero Discharge Willow Wastewater Evapotranspiration System Composting - Organic residuals and harvested willow are composted Closing the loop - By taking human urine and compost back to agriculture based on permaculture principles.
  41. 41. Permatopia, Karise Denmark
  42. 42. Permatopia, Karise Denmark
  43. 43. Permatopia, Karise Denmark
  44. 44. PERMATOPIA 90 Rowhouses
  45. 45. Permatopia, Karise Denmark
  46. 46. 5 EcoFlush + 1 Waterless Urinal- Møns Museum Denmark http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2 002/87-7972-355-1/pdf/87-7972-357-8.pdf
  47. 47. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/10-families- have-donated-160000-litres-high-quality-liquid- backlund?trk=mp-author-card Hyldespjældet, DK 10 EcoFlush + 5 x 3 m3 WW Containers Copenhagen Universi Testing Field Plots
  48. 48. Munksøgård, Roskilde, DK 100 apartments, 100 EcoFlush + in common houses 5 x 35 m3 WW containers
  49. 49. Copenhagen University Testing Field Plots
  50. 50. Copenhagen University Testing Field Plots
  51. 51. Copenhagen University Testing Field Plots
  52. 52. Copenhagen University Testing Field Plots
  53. 53. 5 EcoFlush + 1 Waterless Urinal- Møns Museum Denmark http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2 002/87-7972-355-1/pdf/87-7972-357-8.pdf
  54. 54. Møn Farming Museum
  55. 55. ØsterGro RoofTop Farmfarm & Restaurant ”Stedsans” Copenhagen https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/sustainable-sanitation-top-high-up-rooftop- copenhagen-arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card
  56. 56. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/m%C3%B8d-et-par-der-skifter-stort- og-dyrt-parcelhus-med-toilet-backlund?trk=mp-author-card A danish “Tiny House” with a Diverting Closet without water flush “Separett Villa 9010”
  57. 57. Urine Containers & Composter
  58. 58. Diverting Toilet with Waterless Collection of Faeces •www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/2005/87-7614-811-4/pdf/87-7614-812-2.pdf EcoDry Diverting Closet without water flush c ombined with batch or continuous composting units
  59. 59. Diverting Waterless Toilet •Estimated Values Regarding Urine •100 % Urine Collection for Most Men •80 – 100 % for Most Women •0 – 50 % for Very Few Women •60 – 100 % Concentration •Very Small Amounts of Nutrients Lost During Proper Storage.
  60. 60. Waterless Urinals
  61. 61. Waterless Urinal •100 % Collection used by Men •100 % Concentration •Low Storage Volume •Concentrated Fertilizer •No Accepted Solution for Women
  62. 62. Double Flushing Diverting/ No- Mix Toilet Stool ESTIMATED VALUES FOR URINE •Average Collection - 80 % •Concentration 25 % - 100 % •Very Small Amounts of Nutrients Lost During Proper Storage.
  63. 63. One Year of Collection in Kaggen After One Year Composting in Kaggen After One Year Composting in Kaggen
  64. 64. After Eight Months in a Garden Composter
  65. 65. Storage - Composting •Total Reduction in Volume - 88 % •Big Losses of Nutrients •High Humidity – 81.8 – 77.0 % •Low Temperature 3 – 21.4 Degrees C. •Large Reduction in Indicator Bacterias •Nice Looking and Smelling Final Product
  66. 66. Ekoporten Norrköping Sweden •Modernized 1995-96. •Diverting Double Flushing Toilets •Aquatron Separators •Composting Units
  67. 67. Separator Estimated Values for Particle Outlet •4.0 – 8.8 % DM and 2.7 – 5.8 % VS •Ideal 10 % DM •Ideal 80 % of DM and VS •Ideal 70 % of N, P and K •Worst Case 0.22 % DM and 0.16 % VS
  68. 68. Separator Estimated Values for Particle Outlet •4.0 – 8.8 % DM and 2.7 – 5.8 % VS •Ideal 10 % DM •Ideal 80 % of DM and VS •Ideal 70 % of N, P and K •Worst Case 0.22 % DM and 0.16 % VS
  69. 69. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/vacuum-demand-sustainable-sanitary- system-greek-islands-arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card
  70. 70. VOD 230V Diverting Toilet ESTIMATED VALUES •Household Power Consumption 4 kWh •Concentration of DM 1.9 – 5.1 % •Concentration of VS 1.7 – 4.8 %
  71. 71. Willow Evapotranspiration System MARJATTA Tappernøje Denmark From the first known ”unknown” system in 1991/1992 to best known practice in 2016 Recommended by Authorities in Denmark for Highest Demands Zero Discharge Sanitation https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/worlds-first-oldest-known-on-site-zero-discharge-willow- arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card Estimated 7000 – 8000 Households connected
  72. 72. Willow bed ready for planting april 2004 Sept. 2004 Willow are appr. 3 m tall February 2005 June 2005 Willows August 2005 seco growing season 4 m*38 m Bassin, 1.5 m Deep Møn, Denmark
  73. 73. Premises – Dimensioning Model •8 m WIDE – with a DEPTH of 1.5m and 45° GRADIENT on sides and ends •Useable PORE VOLUME expected to be 40 % •EVAPOTRANSPIRATION expected to be 2.5 TIMES calculated Potential Evaporation • 30-years average MONTHLY RECIPITATION and POTENTIAL EVAPORATION •SURFACE AREA dim. to avoid water storing on the surface in a year with normal precipitation and with a max. of 10 cm of surface water with a precipitation which statisticly occurs in one out of 10 years •Same LOAD of wastewater every month
  74. 74. Plant 1: 184 m2 Plant 2: 912 m2 Plant 3: 528 m2 Plant 4: 720 m2 Plant 5: 320 m2 Plant 6: 720 m2 Plant 7: 784 m2 Plant 8: 1.632 m2 Plant 9: udgår Plant 10: 240 m2 Plant 11: 240 m2 Plant 12: 336 m2 Plant 13: 212 m2 Total 6.828 m2
  75. 75. Precipitation 541 mm/year Exp. Evapotransp. 1550 mm Calculated 1406 mm 50 persons 17 houses 2.9 persons/house 1643 m3 WW/year 97 m3 WW/house/year 33 m3 WW/person/year 90 l WW/person/day Dimensioning value 1.680 m3 Willow System area 1760 m2 95 m3 WW/house 104 m2 area/house 105 m2 area/100 m3 WW Needed area in Guidelines single house up to 30 PE 137 m2 area/100 m3 WW/year 1760 m2 area - 1.285 m3 WW 1680 m3 WW - 2302 m2 area
  76. 76. Diverting WC at school in Visby Sweden
  77. 77. MULTIFUNCTIONAL
  78. 78. Reduced costs using WW & Sludge application to EWSRP •Reduces Demand for Chemical Fertilizers •By far Most Important Public or Private Cost Reduction - Allocating Nutrient Removal to EWSRP •Cost kg N Conventional N-Removal Often 10 Times Higher than kg N price of Chemical Fertilizer •Primary Cost Reduction Potential related to Establishment •Multifunctional Potential related to Cd uptake
  79. 79. Municipality Task Set Up (Question/Demand) 50 % Reduction in N-Outlet to Enköping Stream Using Alternatives To Conventional N-removal on CWWTP. Consultant Answer/Solution •30 t N/y Removed by Fertilizing 80 ha Energy Willow Plantation at Local Farm •20 t N/y Removed by use of Stored & Hyginized Sludge from Septic & Black Water Tanks + Small WWTP on Local Energy Willow Plantations •10 t/N/y Internal Reductions on CWWTP.
  80. 80. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/worlds-first-oldest-known-on-site- zero-discharge-willow-arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card
  81. 81. Small steps towards a Metabolic Shift reducing Metabolic Rift Human Urine - Golden High Quality Anthropogenic Nutrient Solution from Stream Diverting Sustainable Sanitation & Multifunctional Willow - Plant – Soil - Systems Reducing among Other Metabolic Disturbances caused by Cadmium In Soil – Plant – Food & Human Body

×