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Iug ewg-dk february 2018 rethinking ecological sanitation for rural areas in developing countries - ab-2

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Linking Ecological Sanitation and Agroecology - Closing the loop on Water & Nutrients - A Metabolic Shift- Diverting Toilets

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Iug ewg-dk february 2018 rethinking ecological sanitation for rural areas in developing countries - ab-2

  1. 1. IUG/EWB-DK February 2018 Linking Ecological Sanitation & Food Sovereignty in IUG/EWB- DK Projects? In Bolivia? An Appetizer Arne Backlund Backlund ApS www.backlund.dk www.facebook.com/backlund.aps www.researchgate.net/profile/Arne_Backlund www.linkedin.com/in/arnebacklund
  2. 2. Arne Backlund (Independent Specialist with 30+ years experience in ecological sanitation in developing countries): Ecological sanitation – local solutions, separation, treatment, re-use – examples from rural communities in low-income countries Discussion with focus on Bolivia Coroico Project Ca. 10 + 20-30 min. Update on planned EWB-DK WASH project in Bolivia Developments since presentation 2017.10.31 (by project representative) Discussion: can some of the methods presented on ecological sanitation be applied in Bolivia ? in other EWB-DK projects ?
  3. 3. Main Objectives of Sustainable Sanitation •To Reduce Health Risks related to Sanitation,Contaminated Water and Waste •To Prevent Pollution of Surface and Ground Water •To Prevent Degradation of Soil Fertility •To Optimise Closing the Loop of Human Excreted Nutrients, Organic Material and The Water Cycle Considering Energy & CO2 Balances •Economically and Ecologically Sustainable and Culturally Acceptable Systems
  4. 4. Bolivia plane crash victim drank urine to stay alive Sole survivor tells of three-day ordeal eating insects while awaiting rescue Minor Vidal, the Bolivian plane crash survivor is led out of the jungle by army officers. Photograph: Reuters Agencies in La Paz Sunday 11 September 2011 17.50 The sole survivor of a plane crash in Bolivia stayed alive for nearly three days by eating insects, drinking his own urine and painting an arrow on the ground with his blood to show rescuers his location. "He said he'd been trapped in the plane for more than 15 hours and that when he finally escaped he began to walk and survived by drinking his own urine and water from a lagoon."
  5. 5. Another solution to areas in developing countries with a dry climate is to install dry toilets which separate the urine from the faeces. In this way the urine can be directly used as fertilizer and the faeces can be stored in a non-humid alkaline environment for a lengthy storage period before being used as fertilizer (or for biogas production which we saw an example of at the SOS – Aldea infantil). In that way the pathogens can be destroyed. For less attendance one can build two toilets to alter between where the excrement in the toilet not used can be left long time enough to be safe to use as fertilizer.
  6. 6. LANTBRUK 13 MARS 2014 Återvunnen urin framtidens gödningsmelodi Källsorterad urin är det återvunna gödningsmedel som bidrar med minst kadmium och miljöpåverkan. Det visar en doktorsavhandling vid SLU.
  7. 7. Flow or Stream of Material •Human urine contributes to about 80 % of the load of N and 50 % of the P load of conventional domestic wastewater •Human Urine treated conventional requires large amounts of energy producing large amounts of sludge
  8. 8. Flow or Stream of Materials •We Excrete most of the Nutrients we Consume •Human Urine contributes with only 1 % of the Volume of Household Wastewater but contains 80 % of N, 55 % of P and 60 % of K and less than 0.6 % of Cadmium and 0.06 % of Lead
  9. 9. Phosphorus •One Person Excrete 1 KG P/year. •0.7 KG in Urine and 0.3 KG in Faeces. •Human Phosphorus Returned to Soil Would Cover 80 % of P Demand •In Agriculture Short of Phosphorus Human Excreta could be a Golden Opportunity. •In 100 years Phosphorus Could Be Gone.
  10. 10. Svend Auken Miljø- og energiminister (27. sept. 1994 – 27. nov. 2001) • 1997 4-årig aftale om at afsætte midler til en ”Aktionsplan for fremme af økologisk byfornyelse og spildevandsrensning” • 2000 blev ordningen forlænget i 4 år. • Finanslov 2002 - Stop for bevilling af midler til gennemførelse af aktionsplanen. Tema 1: Økologisk håndtering af spildevand i det åbne land Tema 2: Økologiske byggematerialer og konstruktioner Tema 3: Næringsstoffer fra by til land Tema 4: Håndtering af sekundavand
  11. 11. Urine Containers & Composter
  12. 12. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2 003/87-7972-742-5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  13. 13. Diverting Toilet with Waterless Collection of Faeces •http://www2.mst.dk/Udgiv/publikationer/20 05/87-7614-811-4/pdf/87-7614-812-2.pdf
  14. 14. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/200 3/87-7972-742-5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  15. 15. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2003/87-7972- 732-8/pdf/87-7972-733-6.pdf
  16. 16. 6.pdfhttp://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2003/87- 7972-732-8/pdf/87-7972-733-6.pdf
  17. 17. Slum area Lima Peru
  18. 18. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvN0LLB1 7M0&feature=youtu.be
  19. 19. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FROM PISS TO PILSNER https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_j6oo1tq30
  20. 20. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_rAakt1tWo BeerCycling 54000 litres of Pee into 100000 litres of Pilsner 300000 botles
  21. 21. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FESTIVAL FROM PISS TO PILSNER
  22. 22. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FROM PISS TO PILSNER BeerCycling ROSKILDE FESTIVAL FROM PISS TO PILSNER
  23. 23. BeerCycling ROSKILDE FROM PISS TO PILSNER BeerCycling ROSKILDE FESTIVAL FROM PISS TO PILSNER
  24. 24. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= j_j6oo1tq30 https://www.google.dk/webhp?sourceid =chrome- instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF- 8#q=fra%20tis%20til%20pilsner%20un dervisningsmateriale Great secondary school educational materials separate for teachers and pupils
  25. 25. http://www.tv2lorry.dk/nyheder/26-08- 2016/1930/fra-tis-til-ol?autoplay=1#player BeerCycling Harvesting malt barley fertilized with human urine. Beer ready in 2017. http://www.tv2lorry.dk/nyheder/26-08-2016/1930/fra-tis-til-ol?autoplay=1#player
  26. 26. Willow Evapotranspiration System MARJATTA Tappernøje Denmark From the first known ”unknown” system in 1991/1992 to best known practice in 2018 Zero Discharge Sanitation https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/worlds-first-oldest-known-on-site-zero-discharge-willow- arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card Estimated 7000 – 8000 Households connected
  27. 27. Oasis & Cloth Hanger Effect
  28. 28. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/worlds-first-oldest-known-on-site- zero-discharge-willow-arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card
  29. 29. Plant 1: 184 m2 Plant 2: 912 m2 Plant 3: 528 m2 Plant 4: 720 m2 Plant 5: 320 m2 Plant 6: 720 m2 Plant 7: 784 m2 Plant 8: 1.632 m2 Plant 9: udgår Plant 10: 240 m2 Plant 11: 240 m2 Plant 12: 336 m2 Plant 13: 212 m2 Total 6.828 m2
  30. 30. Diverting WC at school in Visby Sweden
  31. 31. MULTIFUNCTIONAL
  32. 32. dk/udgiv/publications/200 pdf/87-7972-746-8.pdf https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/private- public-partnership-recycling-nutrients- clean-arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card
  33. 33. Willow bed ready for planting april 2004 Sept. 2004 Willow are appr. 3 m tall February 2005 June 2005 Willows August 2005 seco growing season 4 m*38 m Bassin, 1.5 m Deep Møn, Denmark
  34. 34. Afvanding Opbevaring Komposteringhttp://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publ ikationer/2003/87-7972-742- 5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  35. 35. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/20 03/87-7972-742-5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  36. 36. Opsamling 1 år i Kaggen 1 Efter 1 års kompostering i Kaggen 1 Efter 1 års kompostering i Kaggen 1 http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2 003/87-7972-742-5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  37. 37. Efter 8 måneder i havekomposten www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2003/87 42-5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  38. 38. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2003/8 7-7972-742-5/pdf/87-7972-743-3.pdf
  39. 39. PERMATOPIA 90 Rowhouses
  40. 40. Permatopia, Karise Denmark Agriculture - Diversed sustainable organic production of food based on permaculture principles. Professional farmers included Heating - Geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) Electricity - Wind turbines – later combined with solar cells Wastewater - Urine from 90 individual diverting EcoFlush toilets + further in commen house will be used on the fields after 6 month storage in collection containers. Greywater and brownwater go to a very large Zero Discharge Willow Wastewater Evapotranspiration System Composting - Organic residuals and harvested willow are composted Closing the loop - By taking human urine and compost back to agriculture based on permaculture principles.
  41. 41. Permatopia, Karise Denmark
  42. 42. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KHrMQ HNCYs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5KHrMQ HNCYs
  43. 43. Munksøgård, Roskilde, DK 100 apartments, 100 EcoFlush + in common houses 5 x 35 m3 WW containers
  44. 44. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/10-families- have-donated-160000-litres-high-quality-liquid- backlund?trk=mp-author-card Hyldespjældet, DK 10 EcoFlush + 5 x 3 m3 WW Containers Copenhagen Universi Testing Field Plots
  45. 45. ØsterGro RoofTop Farmfarm & Restaurant ”Stedsans” Copenhagen https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/sustainable-sanitation-top-high-up-rooftop- copenhagen-arne-backlund?trk=mp-author-card
  46. 46. Møn Farming Museum
  47. 47. 5 EcoFlush + 1 Waterless Urinal- Møns Museum Denmark http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2 002/87-7972-355-1/pdf/87-7972-357-8.pdf
  48. 48. Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3• Mg/kg DM • Mg/kg DM http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikatio ner/2002/87-7972-355-1/pdf/87-
  49. 49. • Mg/kg P • Mg/kg N http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikati oner/2002/87-7972-355-1/pdf/87- 7972-357-8.pdf
  50. 50. • Mg/kg P • Mg/kg N
  51. 51. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2 002/87-7972-355-1/pdf/87-7972-357-8.pdf
  52. 52. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2002/87- 7972-355-1/pdf/87-7972-357-8.pdf
  53. 53. http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publikationer/2002/87- 7972-355-1/pdf/87-7972-357-8.pdf

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