Telecommunications, theInternet, and WirelessTechnology
Telecommunications and Networking inToday’s Business World• Networking and communication trends• Convergence:• Telephone n...
• What is a computer network?• Two or more connected computers• Major components in simple network• Client computer• Serve...
Components of a Simple Computer Network
• Networks in large companies• Components can include:• Hundreds of local area networks (LANs) linked to firmwide corporat...
Corporate Network Infrastructure
• Key digital networking technologies• Client/server computing• Distributed computing model• Clients linked through networ...
• Packet switching• Method of slicing digital messages into parcels(packets), sending packets along differentcommunication...
Packet-Switched Networks and Packet Communications
• TCP/IP and connectivity• Connectivity between computers enabled by protocols• Protocols: Rules that govern transmission ...
The Transmission Control Protocol/InternetProtocol (TCP/IP) Reference Model
• Signals: digital vs. analog• Modem: Translates digital signals into analog form• Types of networks• Local-area networks ...
Functions of the Modem
Network Topologies
• Physical transmission media• Twisted wire (modems)• Coaxial cable• Fiber optics and optical networks• Wireless transmiss...
Satellite Transmission System
The Domain Name SystemThe Global Internet
• Internet Architecture• Trunk lines (backbone networks)• Regional networks• ISPs• Internet Governance• No formal manageme...
• Internet services• E-mail• Chatting and instant messaging• Newsgroups• Telnet• File Transfer Protocol (FTP)• World Wide ...
Client/Server Computing on the Internet
How Voice over IP Works
A Virtual Private Network Using the Internet
• The World Wide Web• HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):• Formats documents for display on Web• Hypertext Transfer Protocol...
• Search engines• Started in early 1990s as relatively simple softwareprograms using keyword indexes• Today, major source ...
How Google Works
Major Web Search Engines
• Web 2.0• Second-generation interactive Internet-based servicesenabling people to collaborate, share information, andcrea...
• Web 3.0• Current efforts to make using Web more productive• Inefficiency of current search engines: Of 330 millionsearch...
• Intranets• Use existing network infrastructure with Internetconnectivity standards software developed for the Web• Creat...
• Wireless devices• PDAs, BlackBerry, smart phones• Cellular systems• Competing standards for cellular service• United Sta...
• Wireless computer networks and Internet access• Bluetooth (802.15)• Links up to 8 devices in 10-m area using low-power,r...
A Bluetooth Network (PAN)
An 802.11 Wireless LAN
• Wireless computer networks and Internet access• Wi-Fi (cont.)• Hotspots: One or more access points in public placeto pro...
• Radio frequency identification (RFID)• Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containingdata about an item and location,...
• Radio frequency identification (RFID)• Common uses:• Automated toll-collection• Tracking goods in a supply chain• Requir...
How RFID Works
• Wireless sensor networks• Networks of hundreds or thousands of interconnectedwireless devices embedded into physical env...
A Wireless Sensor Network
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Internet comm. all protocol - Unitedworld School of Business

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Internet comm. all protocol - Unitedworld School of Business

  1. 1. Telecommunications, theInternet, and WirelessTechnology
  2. 2. Telecommunications and Networking inToday’s Business World• Networking and communication trends• Convergence:• Telephone networks and computer networks converginginto single digital network using Internet standards• Cable companies providing voice service• Broadband:• More than 60% of U.S. Internet users have broadbandaccess• Broadband wireless:• Voice and data communication as well as Internet accessare increasingly taking place over broadband wirelessplatforms
  3. 3. • What is a computer network?• Two or more connected computers• Major components in simple network• Client computer• Server computer• Network interfaces (NICs)• Connection medium• Network operating system• Hub or switch• Router
  4. 4. Components of a Simple Computer Network
  5. 5. • Networks in large companies• Components can include:• Hundreds of local area networks (LANs) linked to firmwide corporate network• Various powerful servers• Web site• Corporate intranet, extranet• Backend systems• Mobile wireless LANs (Wi-Fi networks)• Videoconferencing system• Telephone network• Wireless cell phones
  6. 6. Corporate Network Infrastructure
  7. 7. • Key digital networking technologies• Client/server computing• Distributed computing model• Clients linked through network controlled by networkserver computer• Server sets rules of communication for network andprovides every client with an address so others canfind it on the network• Has largely replaced centralized mainframecomputing• The Internet: Largest implementation ofclient/server computing
  8. 8. • Packet switching• Method of slicing digital messages into parcels(packets), sending packets along differentcommunication paths as they become available, andthen reassembling packets at destination• Previous circuit-switched networks requiredassembly of complete point-to-point circuit• Packet switching more efficient use of network’scommunications capacity
  9. 9. Packet-Switched Networks and Packet Communications
  10. 10. • TCP/IP and connectivity• Connectivity between computers enabled by protocols• Protocols: Rules that govern transmission of informationbetween two points• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol(TCP/IP)• Common worldwide standard that is basis for Internet• Department of Defense reference model for TCP/IP• Four layers• Application layer• Transport layer• Internet layer• Network interface layer
  11. 11. The Transmission Control Protocol/InternetProtocol (TCP/IP) Reference Model
  12. 12. • Signals: digital vs. analog• Modem: Translates digital signals into analog form• Types of networks• Local-area networks (LANs)• Client/server or peer-to-peer• Ethernet – physical network standard• Topologies: star, bus, ring• Campus-area networks (CANs)• Wide-area networks (WANs)• Metropolitan-area networks (MANs)Communications Networks
  13. 13. Functions of the Modem
  14. 14. Network Topologies
  15. 15. • Physical transmission media• Twisted wire (modems)• Coaxial cable• Fiber optics and optical networks• Wireless transmission media and devices• Microwave• Satellites• Cellular telephones• Transmission speed• Hertz• Bandwidth
  16. 16. Satellite Transmission System
  17. 17. The Domain Name SystemThe Global Internet
  18. 18. • Internet Architecture• Trunk lines (backbone networks)• Regional networks• ISPs• Internet Governance• No formal management• Policies established by professional, governmentorganizations• IAB, ICANN, W3C• The Future Internet• IPv6• Internet2, NGI
  19. 19. • Internet services• E-mail• Chatting and instant messaging• Newsgroups• Telnet• File Transfer Protocol (FTP)• World Wide Web• Voice over IP (VoIP)• Unified communications• Virtual private networks (VPNs)
  20. 20. Client/Server Computing on the Internet
  21. 21. How Voice over IP Works
  22. 22. A Virtual Private Network Using the Internet
  23. 23. • The World Wide Web• HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):• Formats documents for display on Web• Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP):• Communications standard used for transferring Webpages• Uniform resource locators (URLs):• Addresses of Web pages• E.g.,http://www.megacorp.com/content/features/082602.html• Web servers• Software for locating and managing Web pages
  24. 24. • Search engines• Started in early 1990s as relatively simple softwareprograms using keyword indexes• Today, major source of Internet advertising revenue viasearch engine marketing, using complex algorithmsand page ranking techniques to locate results• Sponsored links vs. organic search results• Shopping bots• Use intelligent agent software for searching Internet forshopping information
  25. 25. How Google Works
  26. 26. Major Web Search Engines
  27. 27. • Web 2.0• Second-generation interactive Internet-based servicesenabling people to collaborate, share information, andcreate new services online• Cloud computing• Software mashups and widgets• Blogs: Chronological, informal Web sites created byindividuals using easy-to-use weblog publishing tools• RSS (Really Simple Syndication): Syndicates Webcontent so aggregator software can pull content for use inanother setting or viewing later• Wikis: Collaborative Web sites where visitors can add,delete, or modify content on the site
  28. 28. • Web 3.0• Current efforts to make using Web more productive• Inefficiency of current search engines: Of 330 millionsearch engine queries daily, how many are fruitful?• Semantic Web• Collaborative effort to add layer of meaning on topof Web, to reduce the amount of humaninvolvement in searching for and processing Webinformation• Other, more modest views of future Web• Increase in cloud computing, SaaS• Ubiquitous connectivity between mobile and otheraccess devices• Make Web a more seamless experience
  29. 29. • Intranets• Use existing network infrastructure with Internetconnectivity standards software developed for the Web• Create networked applications that can run on manytypes of computers• Protected by firewalls• Extranets• Allow authorized vendors and customers access to aninternal intranet• Used for collaboration• Also subject to firewall protection
  30. 30. • Wireless devices• PDAs, BlackBerry, smart phones• Cellular systems• Competing standards for cellular service• United States: CDMA• Most of rest of world: GSM• Third-generation (3G) networks• Higher transmission speeds suitable for broadbandInternet access
  31. 31. • Wireless computer networks and Internet access• Bluetooth (802.15)• Links up to 8 devices in 10-m area using low-power,radio-based communication• Useful for personal networking (PANs)• Wi-Fi (802.11)• Set of standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n• Used for wireless LAN and wireless Internet access• Use access points: Device with radioreceiver/transmitter for connecting wireless devices toa wired LANThe Wireless Revolution
  32. 32. A Bluetooth Network (PAN)
  33. 33. An 802.11 Wireless LAN
  34. 34. • Wireless computer networks and Internet access• Wi-Fi (cont.)• Hotspots: One or more access points in public placeto provide maximum wireless coverage for a specificarea• Weak security features• WiMax (802.16)• Wireless access range of 31 miles• Require WiMax antennas• Sprint Nextel building WiMax network
  35. 35. • Radio frequency identification (RFID)• Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containingdata about an item and location, and antenna• Tags transmit radio signals over short distances tospecial RFID readers, which send data over network tocomputer for processing• Active RFID: Tags have batteries, data can berewritten, range is hundreds of feet, more expensive• Passive RFID: Range is shorter, also smaller, lessexpensive, powered by radio frequency energy
  36. 36. • Radio frequency identification (RFID)• Common uses:• Automated toll-collection• Tracking goods in a supply chain• Requires companies to have special hardware andsoftware• Reduction in cost of tags making RFID viable for manyfirms
  37. 37. How RFID Works
  38. 38. • Wireless sensor networks• Networks of hundreds or thousands of interconnectedwireless devices embedded into physical environment toprovide measurements of many points over large spaces• Used to monitor building security, detect hazardoussubstances in air, monitor environmental changes, traffic,or military activity• Devices have built-in processing, storage, and radiofrequency sensors and antennas• Require low-power, long-lasting batteries and ability toendure in the field without maintenance
  39. 39. A Wireless Sensor Network

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