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Personality overview and theories.

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  1. 1. Arnab Mitra<br />
  2. 2. Origin …<br />PERSONAis a GREEK word that <br />means MASK.<br />PERSONALITY, literally means,<br /> a likeable MASK.<br />Origin of the word implies personality is the public self <br />(our presentation of the self to the outside world)<br />
  3. 3. Personality …<br />“Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting”<br />
  4. 4. WHY STUDY Personality ?<br />PERSONALITYis concerned a great deal with the following five <br />goals of PSYCHOLOGY which ultimately improves the quality of life:<br />
  5. 5. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSONALITY …<br /><ul><li>Personal / Cognitive factors
  6. 6. Genetic traits.
  7. 7. Environmental factors
  8. 8. Family background.
  9. 9. Social background.
  10. 10. Behavior
  11. 11. Response to a particular situation.</li></li></ul><li>What next …<br />PERSONALITY THEORIES-<br /><ul><li> Freud’s Theories.
  12. 12. The Big Five / Trait theory.
  13. 13. Jungian Theory.</li></ul>PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT-<br /><ul><li> Structured Tests.
  14. 14. Unstructured Tests.
  15. 15. Practical applications.</li></li></ul><li>FREUD’S CONTRIBUTIONS …<br />
  16. 16. Psychoanalytic theory …<br />“first comprehensive theory of personality”<br />Hypnosis<br />Unconscious<br />Free <br />Association<br />“Psychoanalysis”<br />
  17. 17. Psychoanalytic theory …<br />ID -Instinctual Drives present at birth<br /><ul><li> does not distinguish between reality and fantasy
  18. 18. operates according to the pleasure principle</li></ul>EGO - Develops out of the ID in infancy<br /><ul><li>understands reality and logic.
  19. 19. mediator between id and superego.</li></ul>SUPEREGO - <br /><ul><li> internalization of society’s moral standards
  20. 20. responsible for guilt.</li></li></ul><li>Freud & Personality Structure<br />“Personality arises from conflict twixt aggressive,<br />pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints”<br />Satisfaction<br />without the guilt?<br />PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY<br />
  21. 21. “the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden”<br />
  22. 22. Critique of freud’s theories …<br />
  23. 23. The ‘big five’ Personality Traits …<br />“Traits are consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings or actions that distinguish a person from others”<br />
  24. 24. Carl Jung’s theory …<br />“Individuals engage in constant adaptation and creative development, based on the environment”<br />“The ‘self’ came from a mix of the conscious and unconscious”<br />
  25. 25. Personality assessment …<br />
  26. 26. Objective tests …<br />“Structured Tests”<br />16 PERSONALITY FACTOR<br />Questionnaire created by CATTELL<br />Minnesota MultiphasicPersonality Inventory (MMPI) originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis.<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory …<br />MMPI –<br /><ul><li> most widely used personality inventory.
  29. 29. assess PSYCHOLOGICAL disorders.
  30. 30. Depression – “I often feel life is not worth living”
  31. 31. Paranoia – “Several people are following me everywhere”
  32. 32. Schizophrenia – “I seem to hear things that others don’t”
  33. 33. empirically derived – test items selected based upon how </li></ul> well the person discriminates twixt groups of traits.<br />
  34. 34. projective tests …<br />“Unstructured Tests”<br />RORSCHACH INKBLOT test consists <br />of presenting the individual with ambiguous <br />Stimuli and he is asked to “project” some kind <br />of structure which in turn reflects underlying<br />Psychological characteristics.<br />
  35. 35. projective tests …<br />THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST <br />consists of ambiguous pictures about which a <br />person is asked to write a complete story .<br />
  36. 36. Practical applications …<br />
  37. 37. COnCLUSION…<br />
  38. 38. COnCLUSION…<br />“Understanding the self is at the core of personality studies. It affects our ability to learn, the capacity to grow and change.” <br />“A strong, positive self-image is the best possible preparation for success in life”<br />
  39. 39. Thank You<br />