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Forensic Pathology NotesForensic Pathology Notes
By- Dr. Armaan SinghBy- Dr. Armaan Singh
- postmortem investigation of
su...
Role of the Forensic PathologistRole of the Forensic Pathologist
4 broad determinations to be made:
A. Cause of Death – me...
Time of DeathTime of Death
Can estimate time of death from
• body temperature (algor mortis)
estimate: [98.6 o
F – rectal ...
Time of DeathTime of Death
Entomology
Time of DeathTime of Death
Can estimate time of death from
• body temperature (algor mortis)
estimate: [98.6 o
F – rectal ...
The Body FarmThe Body Farm
1 acre of land owned by the University of Tennessee
Normal Postmortem ChangesNormal Postmortem Changes
1. rigor mortis
2. livor mortis
3. desiccation
4. putrefaction
5. cell ...
Rigor MortisRigor Mortis
Body warm not stiff less than 3 hours
Body warm stiff 3-8 hours
Body cool stiff 8-36 hours
Body c...
Livor MortisLivor Mortis
DesiccationDesiccation
Normal Postmortem ChangesNormal Postmortem Changes
1. rigor mortis
2. livor mortis
3. desiccation
4. putrefaction (days 4-...
Trauma to the Human BodyTrauma to the Human Body
Role of the Pathologist
1. Determine type of wound
2. Measure the dimensi...
Types of Wounds (Trauma)Types of Wounds (Trauma)
1. Lacerations
2. Incised Wound
3. Puncture
4. Abrasion
5. Contusion
6. G...
LacerationsLacerations
Incised WoundsIncised Wounds
Slash Stab
Puncture – penetrating injury due to an object with no blade
AbrasionsAbrasions
ContusionsContusions
Color changes a bruise goes
through can give rough
estimate of time of injury
• Dark blue/purple (1-1...
Gunshot WoundsGunshot Wounds
Things for pathologist to learn:
• type of firearm
• distance of gun to victim
• entrance vs ...
Gunshot WoundsGunshot Wounds
Starring of a
contact wound –
barrel touching the
skin
Stippling – powder burns on
the skin w...
Who Am I? (Who was I?)
Autopsy Procedures
AutopsyAutopsy
Steps Involved:
1. External Examination
a. measurements - length, weight
b. inspection of external surface ...
““Cause of Death”Cause of Death”
Petechial hemorrhage as a result of strangulation
““Cause of Death”Cause of Death”
Discoloration or bruising is noted and often hints
at a “cause of death” diagnosis
AutopsyAutopsy
Steps Involved:
1. External Examination
a. measurements - length, weight
b. inspection of external surface
...
AutopsyAutopsy
Y incision
AutopsyAutopsy
2d. Remove Organs:
• must cut ligaments holding organs in the body cavity
and through the trachea and rectu...
““Cause of Death”Cause of Death”
AutopsyAutopsy
Steps Involved:
3. Remove brain
cut around cranium using “Stryker saw”
store for 2 weeks in 10% formaldehyd...
Forensic pathology notes by  dr. armaan singh
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Forensic pathology notes by dr. armaan singh

  1. 1. Forensic Pathology NotesForensic Pathology Notes By- Dr. Armaan SinghBy- Dr. Armaan Singh - postmortem investigation of sudden or unexpected death or trauma to the living
  2. 2. Role of the Forensic PathologistRole of the Forensic Pathologist 4 broad determinations to be made: A. Cause of Death – medical diagnosis denoting disease or injury B. Mechanism of Death – altered physiology by which disease/injury produces death (arrhythmia, exsanguination) C. Manner of Death 1. Homicide 2. Suicide 3. Accidental 4. Natural Causes 5. Unknown D. Time of Death
  3. 3. Time of DeathTime of Death Can estimate time of death from • body temperature (algor mortis) estimate: [98.6 o F – rectal temp]/1.5 • insect action (forensic entomology) • stomach contents (stage of digestion) • last known activity (last sighting, newspaper/mail) • normal postmortem changes
  4. 4. Time of DeathTime of Death Entomology
  5. 5. Time of DeathTime of Death Can estimate time of death from • body temperature (algor mortis) estimate: [98.6 o F – rectal temp]/1.5 • insect action (forensic entomology) • stomach contents (stage of digestion) • last known activity (last sighting, newspaper/mail) • normal postmortem changes
  6. 6. The Body FarmThe Body Farm 1 acre of land owned by the University of Tennessee
  7. 7. Normal Postmortem ChangesNormal Postmortem Changes 1. rigor mortis 2. livor mortis 3. desiccation 4. putrefaction 5. cell autolysis (also called butyric fermentation) 6. dry decay
  8. 8. Rigor MortisRigor Mortis Body warm not stiff less than 3 hours Body warm stiff 3-8 hours Body cool stiff 8-36 hours Body cool not stiff more than 36 hours
  9. 9. Livor MortisLivor Mortis
  10. 10. DesiccationDesiccation
  11. 11. Normal Postmortem ChangesNormal Postmortem Changes 1. rigor mortis 2. livor mortis 3. desiccation 4. putrefaction (days 4-10) 5. cell autolysis (days 10-20) 6. dry decay (days 20-50)
  12. 12. Trauma to the Human BodyTrauma to the Human Body Role of the Pathologist 1. Determine type of wound 2. Measure the dimensions (length, width, depth) 3. Position relative to anatomical landmarks 4. Determine initial location if wound involves cutting, slashing, etc. 5. Determine height from heel
  13. 13. Types of Wounds (Trauma)Types of Wounds (Trauma) 1. Lacerations 2. Incised Wound 3. Puncture 4. Abrasion 5. Contusion 6. Gunshot
  14. 14. LacerationsLacerations
  15. 15. Incised WoundsIncised Wounds Slash Stab Puncture – penetrating injury due to an object with no blade
  16. 16. AbrasionsAbrasions
  17. 17. ContusionsContusions Color changes a bruise goes through can give rough estimate of time of injury • Dark blue/purple (1-18 hours) •Blue/brown (~1 to 2days) •Green (~ 2 to 3 days) •Yellow (~3 to 7 days) Assumes person is healthy.
  18. 18. Gunshot WoundsGunshot Wounds Things for pathologist to learn: • type of firearm • distance of gun to victim • entrance vs exit wounds • track of projectile
  19. 19. Gunshot WoundsGunshot Wounds Starring of a contact wound – barrel touching the skin Stippling – powder burns on the skin when the gun is inches to a few feet from the victim
  20. 20. Who Am I? (Who was I?) Autopsy Procedures
  21. 21. AutopsyAutopsy Steps Involved: 1. External Examination a. measurements - length, weight b. inspection of external surface for injury, discoloration, “cause of death” signs 2. Opening of Trunk a. ‘Y’ incision b. Open rib cage c. Condition of heart d. Remove organs
  22. 22. ““Cause of Death”Cause of Death” Petechial hemorrhage as a result of strangulation
  23. 23. ““Cause of Death”Cause of Death” Discoloration or bruising is noted and often hints at a “cause of death” diagnosis
  24. 24. AutopsyAutopsy Steps Involved: 1. External Examination a. measurements - length, weight b. inspection of external surface 2. Opening of Trunk a. ‘Y’ incision b. Open rib cage c. Condition of heart d. Remove organs
  25. 25. AutopsyAutopsy Y incision
  26. 26. AutopsyAutopsy 2d. Remove Organs: • must cut ligaments holding organs in the body cavity and through the trachea and rectum • transfer organ block to a dissecting table • examine organs in proper order (weigh, physical exam in and out, take tissue samples, save other appropriate samples) heart  liver  spleen  kidneys pancreas  bladder  genitalia  complete G.I. tract - save postage stamp sized amount of tissue - examine tissue under a microscope for bacteria, disease
  27. 27. ““Cause of Death”Cause of Death”
  28. 28. AutopsyAutopsy Steps Involved: 3. Remove brain cut around cranium using “Stryker saw” store for 2 weeks in 10% formaldehyde 4. Closing
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Forensic pathology notes by dr. armaan singh

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