By Dr. Armaan SinghBy Dr. Armaan Singh
It means to see for oneself.It means to see for oneself.
(Auto(Auto== Self OpisSelf Opis==View)View)
-Clinical autopsy.-Clinical autopsy.
-Medico-legal autopsy.-Medico-legal autopsy.
Medico-legal autopsy or postMedico-legal autopsy or post
mortem examination is a specialmortem examination is a special
type of scientific examination oftype of scientific examination of
dead body carried out under thedead body carried out under the
laws of the state for thelaws of the state for the
protection of its citizens and toprotection of its citizens and to
assist the identification andassist the identification and
prosecution of the guilty.prosecution of the guilty.
OBJECTS AIMSOBJECTS AIMS
Cause of death.Cause of death.
Manner of death.Manner of death.
Time since death.Time since death.
To establish identity,To establish identity,
To retain relevant organs andTo retain relevant organs and
tissue as evidence.tissue as evidence.
Infants-Live birth and viability.Infants-Live birth and viability.
Rules for Medico-LegalRules for Medico-Legal
Visit of scene of crime.Visit of scene of crime.
History of the case.History of the case.
Verification of the injuries noted byVerification of the injuries noted by
the police.the police.
Preservation of viscera and otherPreservation of viscera and other
List of artifacts.List of artifacts.
Contents of the AutopsyContents of the Autopsy
The preambleThe preamble
-Time of arrival of body.-Time of arrival of body.
-Date and place of examination.-Date and place of examination.
-Name,Age and Sex.-Name,Age and Sex.
- Body identified by- Body identified by..
The body of the reportThe body of the report
-- External and internalExternal and internal
- WoundsInjuries-- WoundsInjuries-
and sizes.and sizes.
- Conclusions.- Conclusions.
Condition of the bodyCondition of the body
Marks of identification.Marks of identification.
State of naturalState of natural
urethra and vagina.urethra and vagina.
Injuries-nature,position andInjuries-nature,position and
State of limbs.State of limbs.
Genitals and breasts.Genitals and breasts.
Walls, ribs and cartilages.Walls, ribs and cartilages.
Pleura and diaphragmPleura and diaphragm
Larynx,trachea and bronchi.Larynx,trachea and bronchi.
Lungs with weight.pericardium.Lungs with weight.pericardium.
Heart,cavities,valves andHeart,cavities,valves and
coronary vessels.coronary vessels.
Large vessels(Aorta)Large vessels(Aorta)
Poisoning casesPoisoning cases
Smell of the body and viscera.Smell of the body and viscera.
Postmortem staining and itsPostmortem staining and its
If froth present,its nature.If froth present,its nature.
Colour of sclera, lips and nails.Colour of sclera, lips and nails.
Mouth and surroundings.Mouth and surroundings.
Details of G.I tract examination.Details of G.I tract examination.
Description of stomach andDescription of stomach and
Viscera to be collected forViscera to be collected for
Stomach with contents.Stomach with contents.
Upper part of small intestine.Upper part of small intestine.
- 30cms with contents.- 30cms with contents.
500gms of liver and half of500gms of liver and half of
each kidney.each kidney.
5-10ml of blood.30ml of urine.5-10ml of blood.30ml of urine.
strangulation casesstrangulation cases
Description of ligature material.Description of ligature material.
Description of the ligatures mark.Description of the ligatures mark.
Marks of salivary dribble.Marks of salivary dribble.
Condition of eyes and pupils.Condition of eyes and pupils.
Colour of lips and nails.position ofColour of lips and nails.position of
Distribution of postmortemDistribution of postmortem
Presence of injuries on the body.Presence of injuries on the body.
Examination of neck sutures.Examination of neck sutures.
Injury to cervical spine and cord.Injury to cervical spine and cord.
Examination of internal organs.Examination of internal organs.
Preservation of viscera in cases ofPreservation of viscera in cases of
suspicion of poisoning.suspicion of poisoning.
Burns casesBurns cases
Smell from the body,keroseneSmell from the body,kerosene
other inflammable agents.other inflammable agents.
Nature of burns.Nature of burns.
- Antemortem- Antemortem
- Postmortem.- Postmortem.
Extent and degree of burns.Extent and degree of burns.
Age of burns.Age of burns.
Injuries other than burns.Injuries other than burns.
Colour of postmortem staining.Colour of postmortem staining.
Examination of air passages forExamination of air passages for
the presence of soot particles.the presence of soot particles.
Evidence ofEvidence of
- Pregnancy,abortion,sexual- Pregnancy,abortion,sexual
Negative AutopsyNegative Autopsy
When gross and microscopicWhen gross and microscopic
examination and otherexamination and other
investigations fail to reveal ainvestigations fail to reveal a
cause of death,the autopsy iscause of death,the autopsy is
considered to be negative.considered to be negative.
- Men.- Men.
- Material.- Material.
Lack of experience.Lack of experience.
Lack of training.Lack of training.
Inadequate microscopicInadequate microscopic
Insufficient laboratoryInsufficient laboratory
Lack of toxicological analysis.Lack of toxicological analysis.
Inadequate history.Inadequate history.
Lapses in externalLapses in external
Inadequate or improperInadequate or improper
internal examination.internal examination.
Obscure AutopsyObscure Autopsy
Which do not reveal the cause forWhich do not reveal the cause for
death in which there aredeath in which there are
trivial,equivocal or obscuretrivial,equivocal or obscure
findings or no positive findings.findings or no positive findings.
Natural diseasesNatural diseases..
-Death by emotion or work stress.-Death by emotion or work stress.
-Death due to functional failure--Death due to functional failure-
Biochemical disturbancesBiochemical disturbances
Anoxic anaemia.Anoxic anaemia.
Endocrine dysfunctionEndocrine dysfunction
Adrenal insufficiency.Adrenal insufficiency.
Thyrotoxicosis or Myxoedema.Thyrotoxicosis or Myxoedema.
Concealed traumaConcealed trauma
Blunt injury to heart.Blunt injury to heart.
Reflex vagal inhibition.Reflex vagal inhibition.
Narcotic poisoning.Narcotic poisoning.
Anesthetic over dosage.Anesthetic over dosage.
Neurotoxic or Cytotoxic poisons.Neurotoxic or Cytotoxic poisons.
Plant poisoning.Plant poisoning.
Drug idiosyncrasy.Drug idiosyncrasy.
May be defined as a change inMay be defined as a change in
the natural state of the body thatthe natural state of the body that
is likely to be misinterpreted atis likely to be misinterpreted at
-Before death.-Before death.
-At the moment of death.-At the moment of death.
-After death.-After death.
-During autopsy.-During autopsy.
Before deathBefore death
Therapeutic artifacts.Therapeutic artifacts.
Surgical artifacts.Surgical artifacts.
At the moment ofAt the moment of
Agonal artifacts.Agonal artifacts.
Resuscitation artifactsResuscitation artifacts
After deathAfter death
Artifacts due to the handling ofArtifacts due to the handling of
the body.the body.
Artifacts related to rigor mortis.Artifacts related to rigor mortis.
Artifacts related to postmortemArtifacts related to postmortem
Artifacts due to animal bite.Artifacts due to animal bite.
Artifacts due to chemicals.Artifacts due to chemicals.
Artifacts due to refrigeration.Artifacts due to refrigeration.
Embalming artifacts.Embalming artifacts.
Artifacts duringArtifacts during
Air in blood vessels.Air in blood vessels.
Skull fractures.Skull fractures.
Visceral damage.Visceral damage.
Extravasation of blood.Extravasation of blood.
Fracture of hyoid bone.Fracture of hyoid bone.