Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat.In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling.
1. Continuous ReinforcementIn continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is usually switched to a partial reinforcement schedule.2. Partial ReinforcementIn partial reinforcement, the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly with partial reinforcement, but the response is more resistant to extinction.There are four schedules of partial reinforcement:Fixed-ratio schedules are those where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high, steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforce.Variable-ratio schedules occur when a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule.Fixed-interval schedules are those where the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slower responding immediately after the delivery of the reinforcer.Variable-interval schedules occur when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response.
Presentation On Learning Based On W.B.U.T Syllabus Presented ByArkabrata Bandyopadhyay
The Points To Be Understood As Follows• Definition of Learning. • Domains of Learning.• Features of Learning. • Reinforcement.• Process of Learning. • Types of Reinforcement.• Principles of Learning. • Schedules of• Theories of Learning. Reinforcement.• Types of Learning. • Self Learning. • Its Benefits
What is Learning?• Learning is a process of Mental, Physical and Spiritual development, and a lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes. Development is proof that learning has taken place.• Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.• (Input + Experience + Need) = (Thought process + Output).
features• It is not dependent upon classes and courses – though these can be very useful tools for learning• It does not require a degree, certificate, or grade to prove its worth – though clearly these have social value that most people would be unwise to ignore• It does require – in varying degrees, and in varying times and circumstances – activities like practice, reflection, interaction with the environment (in the broadest sense), and social interaction. The latter, in particular, can be greatly facilitated by the range of new technologies for communication and collaboration now available to us.• It does not always – probably not even most of the time – happen consciously – though I think that those who strive for a more conscious approach to learning throughout their lives – whether at work or otherwise – tend to be more successful in pretty much whatever way they define success.
General Process of Learning Identifying an issue (Consider school, personal, community and other issue) Developing knowledge and Insight(critical thinking) ( Develop the issue based on history, values, beliefs, benefits etc.) Developing a Vision(Creative Thinking) ( Develop a vision based on other alternatives, conditions, society, future) Understanding(Gathering, analyzing, & evaluating ideas from previous inputs & comes to a stable point ) Planning (Planning properly with your understanding, to get success) Practice (Give a power boost to your knowledge with practicing) Reflecting & Evaluating (This is the ultimate result that reflect what you has been learned)
Principles of Learning ................11 Basics principles of Learning ................1. The learning environment is supportive and productive.2. The learning environment promotes independence, interdependence and self-motivation.3. Students’ needs, backgrounds, perspectives and interests are reflected in the learning program.4. Students are challenged and supported to develop deep levels of thinking and application.5. Assessment & Practices an integral part of learning.6. The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. Conversely, the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding, the more difficult it is to remember.
Contd…..7. The law of requirement states that "we must have something to obtain or do something", it can be an ability, skill, instrument or anything that may help us to learn or gain something.8. Learning connects strongly with communities and practice beyond the classroom.9. The principle of freedom states that things freely learned are best learned. Since learning is an active process, students must have freedom: freedom of choice, freedom of action, freedom to bear the results of action.10. Reinforcement Principle helps a lot in learning effectively and achieving improvement in performance. Reinforcement & reward are always important aspects of the learning process . Rewarded behaviour is learnt & tends to be repeated under similar conditions in the future, where as non rewarded behaviour tends not to be learned.11. Lastly, there is principles of transfer of application of knowledge. Learning is easier when one can see its relevance or applicability to one’s own situation.
Edward Thorndike developed three “prinCiples of learning"• Readiness : Individuals learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. If students have a strong purpose, a clear objective, and a definite reason for learning something, they make more progress than if they lack motivation. Basic needs of students must be satisfied before they are ready or capable of learning.• Exercise : The principle of exercise states that those things most often repeated are best remembered. It is the basis of drill and practice. It has been proven that students learn best and retain information longer when they have meaningful practice and repetition. The key here is that the practice must be meaningful. It is clear that practice leads to improvement only when it is followed by positive feedback.• Effect : The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It has a direct relationship to motivation. The principle of effect is that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. The student will strive to continue doing what provides a pleasant effect to continue learning. Positive reinforcement is more apt to lead to success and motivate the learner, so the instructor should recognize and commend improvement.
Theories of LearningTheory #1-Behaviorism :Behaviorism as a theory was primarily developed by B. F. Skinner.There are three basic assumptions…….First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior.Second, the environment shapes behavior.Third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning process.Educational approaches such as applied behavior analysis, curriculum based measurement, and direct instruction have emerged from this model.
There are 2 types of possible conditioning in Behaviorism Model1) Classical conditioning-where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlovs Dogs. A stimulus is presented in order to get a response. S R2) Operant conditioning- where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word ‘operant’ refers to the way in which behavior ‘operates on the environment’. Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring.
Contd…… Theory #2-Cognitivism :• The earliest challenge to the behaviorists came in a publication in 1929 by Bode, a gestalt psychologist.• Two key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: (1) that the memory system is an active organized processor of information and (2) that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning.• Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain- based learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning. For example, the physiological processes of sorting and encoding information and events into short term memory and long term memory are important to educators working under the cognitive theory.• The major difference between gestaltists and behaviorists is the locus of control over the learning activity: the individual learner is more key to gestaltists than the environment that behaviorists emphasize.
Contd…… Theory #3-Constructivism :• The learning theories of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky and John Dewey serve as the foundation of constructivist learning theory.• Constructivism views learning as a process in which, "learning involves constructing ones own knowledge from ones own experiences.“• Constructivism itself has many variations, such as Active learning, discovery learning, and knowledge building. Regardless of the variety, constructivism promotes a students free exploration within a given framework or structure.• Aspects of constructivism can be found in self-directed learning, transformational learning, experiential learning, situated cognition, and reflective practice and religious practice.
Contd……Theory #4- Humanism Model :• Humanism is a paradigm/philosophy/pedagogical approach that believes learning is viewed as a personal act to fulfill one’s potential. Proposed by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Malcolm Knowles.• A central assumption of humanism, according to Huitt (2001), is that people act with intentionality and values.• This is in contrast to the behaviorist notion of operant conditioning (which argues that all behavior is the result of the application of consequences) and the cognitive psychologist belief that the discovering knowledge or constructing meaning is central to learning. Humanists also believe that it is necessary to study the person as a whole, especially as an individual grows and develops over the lifespan. It follows that the study of the self, motivation, and goals are areas of particular interest.
Contd…… Theory #5-Informal & Post modern Theories :• Informal theories of education breaks down the learning process, learning authentically and with practicality.• This theory states that new knowledge cannot be told to students, rather student’s current knowledge must be challenged. By challenging student’s current ideas, students can adjust their ideas to more closely resemble actual theories or concepts.• By using this method students gain the big idea taught and later are more willing to learn and keep the specifics of the concept or theory taught.
Contd…… Theory #6- Neuroeducation Model :• Neuroeducation is an emerging new learning theory.• Neuroeducation analyzed the biological change in the brain as new information is processed and looks at what environmental, emotional, social situations are best in order for the new information to be processed. It further analyzes under what conditions the brain stores information and links it to other neurons versus simply determining that the information is non-essential to store and hence reabsorbs the dendrite and dismisses the information.
Types of Learning Type #-1 : Simple non-associative learning :• 1.1 Habituation=> In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition stimulus. An animal first responds to a stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses. Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal, including the large protozoan.• 1.2 Sensitization=> Sensitization is an example of non- associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al., 1995). An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that will occur if a person rubs his arm continuously.
Contd…… Type #-2 : Associative learning :• Associative learning is the process by which an element is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. It is also referred to as classical conditioning. Honeybees display associative learning through the proboscis extension reflex paradigm.• 2.1 Classical conditioning=> classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus (which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response) with another previously neutral stimulus (which does not normally evoke the response). Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response. The classic example is Pavlov and his dogs.
Contd…… Type #-3 : Imprinting :• Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. Type #-4 : Observational learning :• The learning process most characteristic of humans is imitation; ones personal repetition of an observed behavior, such as a dance. Humans can copy three types of information simultaneously: the demonstrators goals, actions, and environmental outcomes. Type #-5 : Play :• Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself, but improves performance in similar situations in the future. This is seen in a wide variety of vertebrates besides humans, but is mostly limited to mammals and birds. Play involves a significant cost to animals, such as increased vulnerability to predators and the risk of injury and possibly infection.
Contd…… Type #-6 : Enculturation :• Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of their native culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviors that are appropriate or necessary in that culture. The influences which as part of this process limit, direct or shape the individual, whether deliberately or not, include parents, other adults, and peers. Type #-7 : Episodic learning :• Episodic learning is a change in behavior that occurs as a result of an event. For example, a fear of dogs that follows being bitten by a dog is episodic learning. Episodic learning is so named because events are recorded into episodic memory, which is one of the three forms of explicit learning and retrieval, along with perceptual memory and semantic memory.
Contd…… Type #-8 : Multimedia learning :• Multimedia learning is where a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information (Mayer 2001). This type of learning relies on dual-coding theory (Paivio 1971). Type #-9 : E-learning and augmented learning :• Electronic learning or e-learning is a general term used to refer to Internet-based networked computer-enhanced learning. A specific and always more diffused e-learning is mobile learning(m-learning), which uses different mobile telecommunication equipment, such as cellular phones.• When a learner interacts with the e-learning environment, its called augmented learning. By adapting to the needs of individuals, the context-driven instruction can be dynamically tailored to the learners natural environment. Augmented digital content may include text, images, video, audio (music and voice).
Contd…… Type #-10 : Rote learning :• Rote learning is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major practice involved in rote learning techniques is learning by repetition, based on the idea that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more it is repeated. Type #-11 : Meaningful learning :• Meaningful learning refers to the concept that the learned knowledge (for example, a fact) is fully understood by the individual and that the individual knows how that specific fact relates to other stored facts in the brain. For understanding this concept, it is good to contrast meaningful learning with the less complex rote learning.
Contd…… Type #-11 : Informal learning :• Informal learning occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations (for example, one would learn to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going). It is learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, play, exploring, etc. Type #- 12 : Formal learning :• Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship, such as in a school system. Type #-13 : Nonformal learning :• Nonformal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops.
Contd…… Type #-11 : Tangential learning :• Tangential learning is the process by which people will self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in a context that they already enjoy. For example, after playing a music-based video game, some people may be motivated to learn how to play a real instrument, or after watching a TV show that references Faust and Lovecraft, some people may be inspired to read the original work. Types #-12 : Dialogic learning :• Dialogic learning is a type of learning based on dialogue.
Domains of learning Benjamin Bloom has suggested three domains of learning:• Cognitive – To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve, etc.• Psychomotor – To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike, etc.• Affective – To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear, hate, worship, etc.These domains are not mutually exclusive. For example, in learning to play chess, the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain); but he also has to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard and also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor).
Reinforcement, an essential part of learning• Reinforcement is a term in operant conditioning and behavior analysis for the process of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior in the form of a "response" by the delivery or emergence of a stimulus immediately or shortly after performing the behavior. reinforcement is defined by the effect that it has on behavior - it increases the behavior.• A reinforcement is the stimulus, event, or situation that is presented or otherwise emerges when the response behavior is performed.• Reinforcement is the central concept and procedure in special education, applied behavior analysis, and the experimental analysis of behavior.
Types of Reinforcement• 1)Positive reinforcementPositive reinforcement is a reward or other desirable consequence that follows behavior. A compliment from the boss after completing a difficult job and a salary increase following a period of high performance are examples of positive reinforcement.• 2)Negative reinforcement/AvoidanceIt is another means of increasing the frequency of desirable behavior. Rather than receiving a reward following a desirable behavior, the person is given the opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence. For example, an employee’s boss may habitually criticize individuals who dress casually. To avoid criticism, the employee may formally dress to suit the supervisor’s taste. The employee is engaging in desirable behavior to avoid an unpleasant or aversive, consequence.
Contd……• 3)PunishmentPunishment attempts to decrease the probability of specific behaviors being exhibited. Punishment is the administration of an undesirable behavioral consequence in order to reduce the occurrence of the unwanted behavior. Punishment is one of the more commonly used reinforcement-theory strategies, but many learning experts suggest that it should be used only if positive and negative reinforcement cannot be used or have previously failed, because of the potentially negative side effects of punishment. An example of punishment might be demoting an employee who does not meet performance goals or suspending an employee without pay for violating work rules.• 4)ExtinctionExtinction is similar to punishment in that its purpose is to reduce unwanted behavior. The process of extinction begins when a valued behavioral consequence is withheld in order to decrease the probability that a learned behavior will continue. Over time, this is likely to result in the ceasing of that behavior. Extinction may alternately serve to reduce a wanted behavior, such as when a positive reinforcer is no longer offered when a desirable behavior occurs.
Schedules of Reinforcement• In operant conditioning, schedules of reinforcement are an important component of the learning process. When and how often we reinforce a behavior can have a dramatic impact on the strength and rate of the response. In some case, a behavior might be reinforced every time it occurs. Sometimes, a behavior might not be reinforced at all. Either positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement might be used, depending on the situation. In both cases, the goal of reinforcement is always to strengthen the behavior and increase the likelihood that it will occur again in the future.. There are 2 types of Reinforcement Schedules.1. Continuous Reinforcement & 2. Partial Reinforcement.There are also 4 Schedules of Partial Reinforcement.2.1. Fixed-ratio, 2.2. Variable-ratio, 2.3. Fixed-interval, 2.4. Variable-interval schedule.
Self-Learning• Self-learning is taking in information, processing it, and retaining it without the need for another individual to be teaching it in order for the understanding to occur.• Simply stated, self-teaching (or self-learning) requires the ability for a student to work independently. Self-taught students are motivated by the sense of a job well done. They are self-motivated because they have the confidence that if they don’t know an answer to a question, they know how to use the resources available to find out the answer.• Self-Learning, a term which is interchangeable with self- teaching, is a gift you give to your children. It is the gift that keeps on giving and even gives back to you!
Top 20 Benefits of Self-Learning1. Student becomes an independent thinker.2. Student learns to accept responsibility.3. Student gains the freedom to learn without restrictions.4. Student earns accountability.5. Intrinsic rewards become the focus, that good feeling inside that comesfrom a job well done.6. Student tests well because he is used to tackling problems on his own,which equals confidence.7. Students retain more naturally when they do the work versus parents spoonfeeding the information into them.8. Students learn where to go when help is needed. There is no need to worryabout gaps in their education because if they need to know something downthe road, they will just look it up on their own.9. Student has the courage to delve into an area of interest to study itwithout having to wait for a teacher to teach it.10. Students become more than prepared for college study, which will requiremotivation and planning ahead.
Contd….• 11. Self-learning gives the opportunity to develop a good work ethic. 12. Self-learning allows the learner to go as deeply into a subject and interact with the subject matter as deeply as he would like to go. 13. Self-learning enables the learner to limit the number of interests undertaken so as not to be spread too thinly. 14. Self-learning allows the family to function as a family without emulating an institution at home. 15. Self-learning eliminates all excuses for not reaching ones potential. It will never be anyone elses fault if the student doesnt learn. 16. Self-learning is more fun than being taught at. 17. Self-learning means that mom can read great books rather than teachers manuals and text books. 18. Self-learning trains one to go to the source for information which reduces the possibility of deception.
Contd…• 19. Self-learning is the wave of the future now that so much information is available at our fingertips. 20. Self-learning means that babies and toddlers get more attention from mom because she is not busy playing teacher.